2 JÄSENTIEDOTE 1 3/2008: SISÄLTÖ Suomen InSEAn kohokohta vuonna 2008 Martina Paatela-Nieminen, s. 3-4 Looking Back at the InSEA World Congress Kinichi Fukumoto Chair, 32nd InSEA World Congress, s. 5-6 ABSTRAKTIT JA/TAI ESITYKSET Ervasti Marja & Tenhu Tapio The student admission Procedure in Arts and Crafts Oriented Primary Teacher Education, s. 7 Hannula Leena The Third Representation as a Challenge for Museum Education, s Hiltunen Mirja Perspectives From Northern Horizon: Promoting community based art educa-tion through practice led- research Concepts and Principles, s. 16 Jokela Timo ArctiChildren: The Northern Schoolyard as a Forum for Community-Based Art Education and Psychosocial Well-Being, s Kairavuori Seija; Rusanen Sinikka & Collanus Miia Positioning Teacher Identities in Arts and Crafts Education In Finland, s. 27 Kallio Mira & Koivurova Anniina Relational sites, s. 28 Kangas Ollipekka, Kuohukoski Timo & Lokka Antti You Tube: Teaching Project in Three Finnish Universities, s. 29 Keifer-Boyd Karen & Paatela-Nieminen Martina InterculturalCollaborations: Palimpsest Traces & Spaces In-between Times & Places, s Koivurova Anniina Glorious Myths meet Every Day Art Lesson. How do ideals turn into practical solutions in picture making during art lesson? s. 31 Paatela-Nieminen Martina Intercultural art education towards understanding local, glocal and global cultural differences, s. 32 Pohjakallio Pirkko Researching history of art education in Finland: Different approaches, s. 33 Pullinen Jouko Johdattelua taiteelliseen tutkimiseen, s Rautkorpi Tiina The Cultural Laboratory Method as a new tool for Art, s. 35 Räsänen Marjo Visual multiliteracy as part of integrative art education, s. 36 Trygg Tarja Solargraphy Global Pinhole Photography Project, s, 36 Ulkuniemi Seija Visual listening from telling one s own photobased story to visual interpretation of another s story, s. 37 MATKARAPORTIT Taito taiteessa: InSEAn konferenssissa Osakassa, Miia Collanus, s Maailman taidekasvattajat kuvien äärellä Osakassa, Leena Hannula, s TUNNETKO? Taidekasvatusmatkailijan Japani Seija Kairavuori, s INSEA hyvin käyttäytyvien miesten ja naisten maassa, Timo Kuohukoski, s
3 3 AURINKO NOUSEE - MATKALLA JAPANISSA Raportti InSEAn kongressista, Osaka , Antti Lokka, s Keisarin salaiset puutarhat, Martina Paatela- Niemenen, s INSEA WORLD CONGRESS OSAKA JAPANI Matkaraportti, Pirkko Pohjakallio, s 55 MUINAINEN MERKKI PIIRTYI MIELEENI Osakan InSEA-kongressin jättämän jäljen hahmottelua, Seija Ulkuniemi, s Kuvakooste muutamista kongressin työpajoista, s TIEDOTTEET Muutoksia Suomen InSEAn hallituksessa vuoden 2008 aikana, s. 67 Tulevat kongressit, s. 68 Uusi nettisivumme, s. 68 Kansainvälinen kirjauutuus, s. 68
4 Suomen InSEAn kohokohta vuonna 2008 Suomen InSEAn vuosi 2008 painottui hyvin pitkälle InSEAn Japanin maailmankongressiin osallistumiseen. Tässä pdf-julkaisussa kerrotaan Osakan maailmankongressista Professori Kinichi Fukumoto, Osakan maailmankongressin puheenjohtaja, kirjoitti koosteen konferenssista. Siitä saa hyvän käsityksen konferenssin mittasuhteista ja sisällöstä. Hänen kirjoituksensa lopussa on mainittu nettisivuston osoite, jossa on valokuvia kongressin osallistujista ja tapahtumista japanilaisten kuvaajien silmin. Suomalaisia puhujia oli mukana 19. Mukana on kaikkien suomalaisten puhujien abstraktit, Timo Jokelan ja Leena Hannulan esitelmätekstit kokonaisuudessaan. Jouko Pullinen on lisäksi kääntänyt ja laajentanut abstraktiaan huomioiden erityisesti suomalaiset lukijat. 4 yliopiston kongressi pidetään vuonna Lopussa on myös ohjeet siitä miten liittyä Suomen InSE- An jäseneksi ja kannattaa kotimaista kongressiamme. Kiitokset Suomen InSEAn jäsenille vuodesta 2008 ja hyvää alkanutta Uutta Vuotta Toivottaa Suomen InSEAn hallitus ja puheenjohtaja Martina Paatela-Nieminen Abstraktien lisäksi mukana on vapaamuotoisia kertomuksia konferenssi- ja matkakokemuksista. Näiden kautta huomaa miten erilaisia, jännittäviä ja tähdellisiä asioita kukin konferenssista kertoo. Miia Collanus kirjoittaa kriittisiä huomioita kongressin taito- ja taideaineista käsityökasvattajan näkökulmasta ja punoo yhteyksiä käsityön ja kuvataiteen välille. Leena Hannula vierailee japanilaisissa taidemuseoissa, joista löytää yhteyksiä Sinebrychoffin taidemuseoon. Seija Kairavuori on koonnut madventuresmaisen taidekasvattajien taskumatkaoppaan, joka kaikkien kesällä Osakaan lähtevien kuvataiteenopettajien tulisi ehdottomasti lukea selvitäkseen paikan päällä. Timo Kuohukoski, Antti Lokka, ja Seija Ulkuniemi kertovat matkaraporteissaan kokemuksiaan päiväkirjamaisesti. Kuvaukset antavat realistisen käsityksen erilaisista kokemuksista japanilaisesta kulttuurista. Japani koetaan yhtäältä eksoottiseksi maaksi, mutta toisaalta siinä huomataan paljon tuttujakin asioita. Timo Kuohukoski peilaa japanilaista kulttuuria länsimaisten elokuvien kautta. Pirkko Pohjakallio kirjoittaa InSEAn kansainvälisyyden annista. Martina Paatela-Nieminen kirjoittaa japanilaisista keisarillisista puutarhoista. Lopussa on eri kuvaajien kuvakooste kongressin työpajoista. Tiedotteen kansikuva, Leena Hannula Tiedotteen kokoaminen ja taitto Martina Paatela-Nieminen Helsingissä Pdf-tiedotteen lopussa on ilmoitukset kolmesta seuraavasta tulevasta kongressista, joista Lapin
5 5 Looking Back at the InSEA World Congress Kinichi Fukumoto Chair, 32nd InSEA World Congress and recreation of heritage/culture is the key to the development of genuine academic ability and the renaissance of healthy education. Based on such belief, I hoped that the InSEA World Congress in Osaka would attract many presentations. While being a world congress, it also provided the opportunity to appeal the richness of art education in Asia, including art education in Japan. Under the theme of Mind + Media + Heritage, there were some 450 research presentations, more than 40 workshops and many lectures by guest speakers. Valokuvassa: Kinichi Fukumoto kongressin avajaisissa The 32nd InSEA World Congress had several themes as expressed in the keynote addresses for the UNESCO World Conference on Art Education in which the InSEA participated. These were appealing of the power of art in social education and communication, creation of bridges for a better understanding of various traditions and cultures in the pursuit of ways to contribute to world peace through the international exchanges between researchers and practitioners of art education, search for the possibility of collaboration between art and industries, reconsideration of the relationship between the cognitive aspect and sensitivity/imagination in the process of forming basic academic ability and, finally, examination of the possibility of a revival of education. There have been increasing activities in Japan for educational reform, including the revision of the Basic Law on Education and revision of the curriculum guidelines. There is a tendency for rather excessive emphasis on the advancement of basic academic ability. I believe that enhancement of the education of the mind through the cultivation of aesthetic sensitivity and the inheritance Many of the participants from Europe and the US delivered research reports based on the viewpoint of visual culture of which there has been a rising trend in art education in recent years. These reports made it possible to compare art education in Asia with art education in the West. One of the international contributions made by the InSEA is to offer continual collaboration with the art education movement of the UNESCO and the speeches designed to appeal the necessity to consolidate such collaboration attracted a positive response. The 32nd InSEA World Congress 2008 in Osaka attracted 1,054 officially registered participants, some 60 guests and some 400 participants from related academic societies from 44 countries. Including the committee members, staff of the secretariat and volunteers, more than 1,700 people were directly involved in the event, illustrating the enthusiasm of people involved in art education throughout the world. I would like to express my gratitude to all these people for their contribution. The post-congress interviews with overseas participants found such positive assessment as good schedule control, resulting in the much smoother progress of the planned activities compared to earlier congresses. Other positive points were the many opportunities for the presentation of the findings of academic research, excellent arrangements for cultural exchanges with the existence of cultural events and many interesting speeches by the guest speakers. Some suggestions were made for
6 6 improvement, including the use of English as the single Please visit the following website for photographs of the official language. InSEA World Congress 2008 in Osaka. I believe that the general achievements of the 32nd In- SEA Congress can be condensed into the following four points. photoinsea/photogallery.html (1) The power of art for social education and communication was reassessed and appealed to the world. Kinichi Fukumoto (2) Exchanges on art education became feasible at a practical level through the relevant activities in addition to exchanges at the academic level. (3) The power of imagination and creativity was re-examined through lectures and other activities. (4) The possibility of facilitating the development of art education to promote international understanding and world peace was examined based on dialogues on diverse traditions and cultures. The initial motivation to attract the InSEA World Congress to Japan was to ask the founders of post-war art education in Japan to sum up art education in Japan. The organizational emphasis of the congress was placed on symposia rather than lectures to facilitate international joint research, sharing of the problems faced by art education today and international exchanges at the front line of education. One symposium, of which the panelists were regional representatives of the InSEA whose term would end after the World Congress in Osaka, was organized to enhance the sense of collaboration and commitment to common issues. Although it is believed that the planned course of the World Congress in Osaka was right, it is uncertain whether or not such efforts did link Japan to the rest of the world in terms of art education. The linguistic hurdle was much higher than expected and the use of simultaneous interpreters at some events did not appear to be sufficient to develop a strong sense of effective interchange. However, the attractiveness of the opportunities arranged for the overseas participants to visit kindergartens through junior high schools in Japan cannot be denied. It is hoped that the reconstruction of art education in a broader international framework will be sought at the next World Congress in 2011 in Budapest.
7 7 The student admission Procedure in Arts and Crafts Oriented Primary Teacher Education Marja Ervasti & Tapio Tenhu Marja Ervasti Lecturer in Music The Department of Educational Sciences and Teacher Education Faculty of education University of Oulu Tapio Tenhu Lecturer in Art Education The Department of Educational Sciences and Teacher Education Faculty of education University of Oulu The aim of this presentation is to focus to the student admission procedure in the new programme (started in 2007) of Arts and Crafts Oriented Primary Teacher Education in The Department of Educational Sciences and Teacher Education in Oulu University. The students selected to the programme share an interest in different types of arts and crafts. The students participating in the programme form a community of learning in which different areas of arts and crafts interact with each other. During the student selection process students write an short essay concerning one meaningful experience within the arts field in his or her past. This essay is one important student selection criteria. In this presentation we try to study the essays from the students that were selected to the programme in 2007 from the phenomenological frame which we concern to be an appropriate philosophic-theoretical base of the arts education.
8 8 The Third Representation as a Challenge for Museum Education Leena Hannula Leena Hannula Educational curator Sinebrychoff Art Museum Abstract My presentation is based on research on museum visitors, and is called the Third Representation. A museum visitor or audience is a subject that has become more and more important due to changes and demands in society and visitors. The first research study of the young visitors at Sinebrychoff Art Museum was made together with Dr. Martina Paatela-Nieminen and has been presented in Istanbul (see more: International journal of education through art ). The main approach to the subject was intertextual method developed to art education of which Dr Paatela-Nieminen has researched with high quality. It gave me a new way to approach our museum audience. The research has gone further to the adults. The discussions of fairy-tales and princesses have changed sometimes to the common life of adults, very often to food, drinking of coffee or enjoying chocolate, but sometimes to discussions of essential problems in life. How all this is related to museums or museum education and how can it be connected to the museum audience? The research study is compiled for teachers, museum professionals and people who are interested in developing a more critical and multidisciplinary practice in relation to museum audiences. My presentation starts with some experimental examples to approach the subject and will continue by focusing the visitor research on the Finnish National Gallery. The most important method will be a narrative analysis which is used a lot in literature in storytelling, memories and identity constructions. I shall give you one short example of this in use via a photo project made in Nivala. The Finnish National Gallery The Finnish National Gallery is a combination of three museums the Ateneum, the Sinebrychoff Art Museum and Kiasma. This makes it the largest art museum organisation in Finland and has the largest art collections in the country. It operates under the Ministry of Education. In this way there s a lot of positive pressure for educational programs but before going into detail I would like to mention some more general demands which affect art education in all sectors. The guest star in these programs is again the museum visitor. On the map, the three museums the Ateneum, Kiasma and the Sinebrychoff Art Museum are all situated in Helsinki but actually in many ways the Sinebrychoff Art Museum, where I m working, is far away both geographically and mentally. Three representations I m doing my doctoral thesis with the title Visitors and Experiences the Third Representation, Collections and Museum Pedagogy at Sinebrychoff Art Museum at Jyväskylä University. The first representation refers to authentic cultural heritage places nothing has been moved from the original location, for example the Egyptian pyramids or Schwetzinger garden. The second representation refers to objects brought to museums, for example Italian altar paintings or Dutch family portraits that are displayed in a foreign museum. These pieces sometimes lose the whole meaning of their original context and this is an essential problem in museology. The subject has lost its historical memory. The third representation refers to a visitor who comes to the museum with their own different expectations. If there isn t a historical memory, only objects, how can a visitor feel anything? The only thing that is left is the otherness. My methods will be quantitative, qualitative and especially a narrative analysis of museum visitors. We have
9 9 already tested a Friendly Stranger method at Kiasma The agency of museums and at Sinebrychoff Art Museum. This method goes back to Anne-Marie Émond who created it for museum research. As part of the Friendly stranger method there is a working for or with? What has it to do with art educati- What does a museum look like today? Whom are we tool that we call thinking aloud creeping after where we on and museum pedagogy? I was at an InSEA meeting silently observe the museum visitor from behind. I will in Portugal a few years ago when I heard a sceptical give you an example of this later on. attitude towards art education in museums; there was a fear that it would take the place of art education in schools. I don t think so. The museums operational strategy is very focused on collections and exhibitions. Art The third representation and the otherness and museum education is considered very important but has been treated harshly during recent years. Last This summer I visited a completely new library building winter we were instructed by the superintendent of the in an old historical Finnish town called Turku, that will Finnish National Gallery to save 33% in the middle of become a European city of culture in The fascinating, open building with large windows was like an enor- departments believed that people would react strongly financial year because the administration and marketing mous theatre scene whilst working in the library you against this policy and that the museum could perhaps could easily sit and look out of the window and follow the get more financial support for museum education. Nobody reacted and we just lost the money. street life and the weather and people could easily see you studying at your desk. You could get professional help and in just 15 minutes I, a stranger from Helsinki, The educational program in museums reaches a limited had become a part of Turku s cultural life by having a amount of pupils and relies on other channels in order library card with volunteer extra culture bonus. to be accessible. The main questions are: who needs, who wants and who doesn t want to be educated at a In the library s cafeteria the daily lunch hours were different. It was a small and intimate place, owned by an do people visit museums and why do some people never museum and is all education there art education? Why Italian man who constantly came out of the kitchen to want to put their foot inside a museum perhaps like the speak with his customers. On the last day in the library I Italian cafeteria owner? How can a library reach a very thanked him and he asked which museum I was working wide audience while museums have to use all their efforts to arouse interest for their collections? at. He said that when he dies he would like to be put in a glass case and people could pay to see him for one euro. I started to think about his story what made him Collections which derive from the objects are often selfevident for the museums and are considered as media. say this? Was it a joke against the existing concept of contemporary art or an innocent thought about an interesting art work? Did he know the Gunther von Hagens zing or understanding the message because the collec- The audience however has great difficulties in recogni- BODY WORLDS: The Original Exhibition of Real Human tion does not bear a continuous one-to-one relationship Bodies, the most highly attended touring exhibition in the with the source-material. Besides, the museum audience today has changed the role of the museums towards world? This Italian man WAS a piece of art; he had made a wonderful cafeteria atmosphere why did he want to more social equality in many ways. We have to consider be placed in a museum after his death? Are museums the social agency of the museum, how the museums engage with social concerns and the idea of the character that boring that he doesn t want to go there otherwise? Or was there an appreciation of making it into a museum of inclusive museums which could be more relevant, effective and useful to society in the future. The audience the appreciation of his life s work? For him the museum perhaps meant a place where you can wonder about with its diverse richness can find a new approach for the and stare at something and from the museum s point of collections if we let it happen. view he represented the visitor or non-visitor that we call the third representation. One side of the coin is the otherness that we all find in new social circumstances.
10 10 The experimental audience research our relatives still existed there. The place had such a lot of emotional importance for us but actually we didn t A qualitative research know very much about it the best known place was the graveyard. In the past I have done two smaller pieces of research with school children. The most recent was done in 1994 I had an old photograph of my mother and we wanted with their parents both in Ateneum and the Contemporary Art Museum, which later, with the new building, also to get dressed as she and her friends did. A special as friends to go to places were my mother had been and changed its name to Kiasma. At that time I tested Pierre feature in Nivala is that there is a religious sect called Bourdieus s thesis about taste and its influence for children but I think the results today would be different. I had and are dressed in black. They love music, especially körtti : These people are humble, generous to guests, 92 families, and only one family didn t answer. I had four psalms which have beautiful and exceptional melodies. schools, children were between 7-14 years old. It was a They have had an opera about Nivala s history in which qualitative research and I had forty hours of tape and video material, ten hours for each group. The astonishing focus of the story or designing the clothes so we borro- our relatives were involved either by singing, being in result was how little parents attitudes determined children s taste. Parents also assumed that children were like körtti-women as they were in 30 s. Then we went to wed the clothes used in the opera and were both dressed not very keen on art though in practise they showed a meet our relatives and followed the traces of my mother, lot of fantasy and enthusiasm for the collections. The father and my elder sisters. My relatives didn t pay any children improved their vocabulary during their museum negative attention to our körtti-clothes. On the contrary, visits. Contemporary art aroused a lot of energy and especially the ten-year-old children in both classes were a show how the original looked. Of course the first meeting one of my relatives had put on her own körtti-dress to little irritated at not being able to understand the meanings directly. was in the graveyard. The otherness changed through drama to similarity. It A narrative storytelling was a narrative approach to understanding the history. The path from milking machines which milk 183 cows One example of how to use the narrative method is to every day to the past was made through drama and stories. Sitting at the table, drinking coffee and letting peop- let people speak freely without interruption. You must have confidence and be able to ask relevant questions. le tell their memories it was living history which was With my art educator friend Riitta Pajala, we carried out created from our interest, clothes and presence in an an experimental photo course of The Otherness in a authentic place. I improved my vocabulary of every day historical place called Nivala by using partly the narrative method. Nivala has presidential connections: Prece had become a true story. Could this be transferred to words that were unfamiliar to me earlier. Our performansident Kyösti Kallio lived there and his wife Kaisa was museum education and could this be a method to build my mother s great aunt. There s a Kyösti Kallio museum a bridge between the second and the third representation? and we were asked to go and experience the museum and give our thoughts how could the museum reach its audience? Tolerance and historical perspective through the interpretation I have done a lot of experimental co-operation with Riitta including the Garderobi-project with her school and many drama projects at the museum. Both Riitta s and To build a bridge between the past and today we had my roots are in Nivala because her father and my mother an international school project last autumn called Along were born there and both my parents are buried there. the street. There were fourschools and three museums It was important for us to visit the place because all we (the Hallwyll Museum in Stockholm, the Helsinki City know has come through stories that we have been told. Museum and the Sinebrychoff Art Museum). I was the We wanted to learn to know the people and places while coordinator but we did the plan first with educational cu-
11 11 rators and then with teachers. Students were studying Is museum a temple or an amusement park? the history of Helsinki from archives, old photos, interviewing educational curators and finally we had an exhibition and plays. We used the fascinating history of the ported that museums have been happy because of the Finnish newspapers and other media have recently re- Sinebrychoff family which came from Russia in the 18th cold and rainy weather; people want to get inside. On the century and became a powerful brewery family in this other hand they have organised a lot of drama tours and area in the Russian period in the early 19th century and extra programs where people can experience the museum in various ways. So people do no longer just come started to live their dream. The Hallwyll family in Sweden had an industrial background too, and they came from to watch but they want an experience. Or do they? I took Pommer. I think the otherness is a good word to describe the early beginning of the Russian and German spea- in practising Narrative Analysis on January the 31st this part in a pre-conference course in Jyväskylä University king families and the whole period of new immigrants year and there was a man who recounted his horrific that moved to Helsinki and Stockholm. The same thing experience in one museum in Tampere (Art Museum), kept happening all over the world like in New New York. which is famous for its child orientated program. He tried From across the seas came waves of new immigrants to look at the paintings but from behind each corner kept Irish, Germans, Scandinavians, and Jews from Europe. Today The Tenement Museum in New York has a him to participate in some event. He got upset and es- appearing some actor playing a role or a guide asking mission to promote tolerance and historical perspective caped from the museum because he couldn t find any through the presentation and interpretation of the variety peace. So the positive effort to arouse the interest of of immigrant and migrant experiences on Manhattan s children may cause an opposite effect among other Lower East Side, a gateway to America. They have drama tours in tenement buildings. I have a good experien- Nivala-project and a super active museum visit, can we kinds of audience. If we compare the quiet library, the ce of the tour and it has influenced on my approach to find any balance considering the visitor and a positive museum education. museum experience? A letter from Sweden (Hallwyll) told that they co-operated with a Swedish-Finnish school and some of the girls on the 9th grade sewed crinolines and turnyyri dresses in textile lessons. Some of the students wrote about the fashion from a historical point of view in Swedish lessons. It was very successful and they had the opening in the palace garden. All the famous names we know today like Paulig, Fazer, Stockmann and Huber came from abroad during the same period and like Sinebrychoff, are household names in Finland. Unlike the Sinebrychoff brewery itself, the museum s art collections and exhibitions are still strange and unfamiliar to the Finnish audience, even after 120 years so there are a lot of challenges to attract visitors and make a museum visit understandable. The students wanted to understand the life of these families and through historical research and artistic methods we structured a tour that lasted over an hour where the museum audience could meet the ghosts of the past discussing and arguing with contemporary people. What are the museums for? Most museums are publicly funded. As Mark O Neill has written in his article The good enough visitor: What is the relationship between aesthetic standards applied to works of art and traditions of display, and the ethical standards that shape the public services provided by art museums, which receive public subsidy either directly or through the tax system? I have tried to find a clue to a modern idea of the purpose of museums. According to Carol Duncan, in her book, Civilizing Rituals: Inside Public Art Museums (1995), there are three main views about what art museums are for. All three theories claim that art in the art museums has the power to affect or transform people, but in very different ways. The aesthetic view claims that the serious pleasure of aesthetic contemplation of works of art has an inspirational value, which needs no other justification. I call a person with this approach in my research a visitor.
12 12 The educational view, often seen as in opposition to the clan, Kuroda Kiyokane, and his wife Yaeko. At birth, the aesthetic, claims that art museums should be part of the boy was named Shintar; this was changed to Kiyoteru in process of educating people, aesthetically, visually, socially and historically. So the visitors have either before been chosen by his paternal uncle, Kuroda Kiyotsuna, 1877, when he was 11.Even before his birth, Kuroda had their visit or subsequent to the visit the willingness to as heir; formally, he was adopted in 1871, after travelling learn. to Tokyo with both his birth mother and adoptive mother to live at his uncle s estate.) The political view sees art museums as social institutions, carrying out an ideological function, reinforcing the Kiyotsuna was also a Shimazu retainer, whose services to Emperor Meiji in the Bakumatsu period and at power structure of society, transforming visitors into willing acceptors of the status quo. Consensus people. the Battle of Toba-Fushimi led to his appointment to high posts in the new imperial government; in 1887 he was named a viscount. Because of his position, the elder Kuroda was exposed to many of the modernizing trends The third representation in a focus of museum education history and ideas coming into Japan during the early Meiji period; as his heir, young Kiyoteru also learned from them The idea of learning and pedagogy has changed fundamentally over the last two decades. Today when we and took his lessons to heart. speak about lifelong learning and education, it means In his early teens, Kuroda began to learn the English pedagogy for all ages and groups. The exclusive hobby language in preparation for his university studies; within two years, however, he had chosen to switch to of collecting art finished at the end of the 18th century and in the beginning of the 19th century changed to become an organized art field. Before this, since the 16th ses in French, as preparation for his planned legal stu- French instead. At 17, he enrolled in pre-college cour- century, the collections were efforts to try to understand dies in college. Consequently, when in 1884 Kuroda s the world. It was a question of kinds of encyclopaedism brother-in-law Hashiguchi Naouemon was appointed to or universalism, collections of curiosities. In Europe, the French Legation, it was decided that Kuroda would especially in Germany and Great Britain, the audience accompany him and his wife to Paris to begin his real was considered the guest star, and a rich museum and studies of law. He arrived in Paris on 18 March 1884, art association life started to spread in a way not seen and was to remain there for the next decade. before. The Finnish Art Society differed very much from the European examples because it had to start from the Flowering Field beginning and be responsible also for art education. It , oil on canvas, by 181.2cm started both the Art Academy and University of Art and The 13th Hakuba-kai Exhibition Design which have had a very strong influence on Finnish Art and museum education. This is the only large scale work Kuroda executed in the latter part of his career. Having begun making sketches Here are two Finnish and one Japanese artists who during the Meiji era, he resumed working on it in 1915, have been working at the same time in Paris. They all but it was never completed. It is considered to be based had a good support from their home countries and great expectations of the audience, especially those who ties in the Field (Maeda Ikutoku-Kai), and is closest in on a painting by his teacher Raphael Collin, Three Beau- gave them financial support or wrote art critics. (Despite Schjerfbeck s eminence in the Nordic countries, around this period that Kuroda got involved in various style among Kuroda s entire Ïuvre to Collin. It was from she remains virtually unknown to the rest of the world. social activities and became very busy.) This void is, however, now about to change, as the current year will see a largescale exhibition touring three The Contemporary Art Museum, Kumamoto -CAMKprominent European museums.), (Kuroda was born in has made it a point to present the idea of a museum of Takamibaba, Satsuma domain, (present day Kagoshima Prefecture), as the son of a samurai of the Shimazu contemporary art as a vessel of everlasting change and growth.
13 13 of riches and abundance. Farming fell within the sphere Miran Fukuda attempts to unsettle the seeing - recognition relation, she is an artist whose work contrasts the which was celebrated immediately before the feast of of Saturn so he was worshipped at the Opalia festival, Japanese Painting. Saturnalia (the Winter Solstice). Gian Jacopo Caraglio, who lived in the 1500s, portrayed Ops surrounded by wild animals that were the symbols of Magna Mater, Advancement of educational services the Great Mother. A temple on the Capitolium in Rome was dedicated to Ops and she was often compared with Back to Mark O Neill: while many art museums now Rhea, the wife of Cronos. have education and even outreach staff, this represents essentially a welfare model of provision, with a mainstream that is well provided for alongside some cultural ass is used to depict humility, ignorance, gentleness The lion alludes to courage, justice and power. The benefits for the less well off. A socially inclusive art museum would transcend this model and treat all visitors, tive characteristics such as stupidity and laziness. The and protection but it can also be associated with nega- existing and potential, with equal respect, and provide mountain deer is a noble animal, a symbol of the moon access appropriate to their background, level of education, ability and life experience. the animal is compared with a goat, this infers laziness and the god of the moon which are positive symbols. If or greed. The bear did not commonly feature in older pictures; it brought good fortune in hunting in Roman myths KEHYS, The remit of the Community Relations and Development (KEHYS) includes the development of art and it was a companion of the goddess Artemis. The pig museums, legal affairs, marketing, and public communications. Together with KEHYS we view our educatio- the wolf generated fear. was a respected animal and a symbol of fertility whereas nal work as a type of interactive communication through which art museums can promote lifelong learning in various forms. We address the diverse needs of different Culture for All target groups and offer varied opportunities for the public to enjoy, gain insights from and learn from their museum Culture for All this service was initiated by KEHYS and visit. With Kehys we also take part in drafting the vision has grown to become an international source of help and strategy of the Finnish National Gallery, ensuring with accessibility questions. that educational goals are aligned with other museum activities. We promise to meet the needs and expectations of our audiences and clients What is accessibility? We educational curators do a lot of co-operation and benchmarking concerning the audience both in the Finnish National Gallery and with other museums too. Collections in Web is our playground; it is for the teachers and children and we really enjoy making different themes and routes. We have already made routes about the forest and animals. I was responsible for the animal route and it was not very easy to make it understandable for the audience. Try The Finnish National Gallery, The Routes Feed back: One example to explain the context to the audience: Opis saturni coniux materque deorum is Latin. The name of the female character in the picture, the wife of the god Saturn and the mother of the gods, was Ops (Wealth); Opis is the genitive form of her name. She was the Roman goddess Attitudes Do we make new visitor groups welcome? Are staff members openminded about diversi ty? Physical accessibility Is our building physically accessible? Sensory access Have the various ways that people use their senses been taken into account in our exhibiti ons, events and other services Intellectual access Can people gain new experiences and informa
14 14 tion from our offerings, even if they have no pre vious knowledge of the subject? Have varied ty pes of learning been considered? ter. In April there were so called Think aloud interviews. Petra was given help from me and from Eija Lukkonen from Kehys in her preparations. This is how it happened: clients were interviewed briefly immediately after they Accessible communication Does our information reach new visitor groups effectively? Do we provide information in several alternative ways? arrived at the museum. At the same time they were asked for permission to shadow their museum visit. At the end of the visit there was an interview with a cup of coffee in the so called Yellow Salon. The research was connected to the project in Kehys: A Process Description of a museum visitor. Social and cultural access Do our exhibitions, performances and other events reflect the interests and life experiences of our various target groups? There were all together five shadowed persons of which only one came alone, while the other four were in couples. They were all women. The distribution in age was between years. Three respondents were willing to Financial access Are entrance fees reasonable? Are there free events? Do our shop and café sell products that, say, a family can afford? tell about their expectations of the visit /exhibition. Three visitors lived abroad, two in Oulu in the northern part of Finland. Four out of five visited Sinebrychoff Art Museum for the first time. The duration of visits varied from 25 minutes to 1 hour Policies and action plans Do our policies and action plans reflect our wil lingness to work to improve accessibility? 15 minutes. Those who came in groups spent twice as much time as those who came alone. Three out of five used the leaflet of the exhibition. Two out of five felt the shadowing a little disruptive but none of the others paid An average of 93 percent of those who answered were any attention to it. satisfied with the Finnish National Gallery. Here are some examples of our main developing projects. All the respondents visited museums at least 5-10 times a year, and also when they travelled abroad. Some people said they didn t do anything else there. One of The experiment of the Think Aloud method the visitors worked with international tourism and often searched suitable travelling targets for tourists. A common Kehys carried out an experiment of the Think Aloud method. The research was connected to Mia Muurimäki s feature of the respondents was that they also visi- ted The Finnish National Museum on the same day. diploma work in the Department of Sociology in Political sciences. The results of the method were condensed in three articles written by Mia Muurimäki: Observations of other museum visitors 1) How to be a Friendly Stranger? 2) Creeping after as a method of collecting research material 3) Notices of the process of a museum visit, learned by the method of a Friendly Stranger The Think aloud method was carried out in two parts at Sinebrychoff Art Museum during the Peruvian silver exhibition by research assistant Petra Korhonen. The first part happened in March and it was a kind of creeping af- There were many groups visiting the Sinebrychoff Art Museum on the same day. The observed persons sometimes had to give way to the groups but on the other hand they also might stay listening to guides. It seemed that the majority of the visitors were elderly women and they seemed to be very friendly to younger clients who were day care children enjoying hand doll performances. It seemed that children s groups didn t annoy visitors because they were concentrating on their own program and didn t disturb the others. The questionnaire did not
15 We shall do our best to give accurate information about this fine, old culture without using stereotypes. Our au- 15 fulfill its purpose as regards visitors expectation, which dience as you have seen - is in an interactive process was the only open question on the questionnaire. All the with us by helping to show the way for better information other questions were multiple choice. A better way to collect information is perhaps to let the visitors talk freely and demanding good exhibitions. Thanks for that. and then researcher could write the expectations down. In later observations it was noticed that the more space there was to look at the art, the more independence there was in choosing the routes and art work. The interviews of the visitors Some of the observed persons were interviewed (10-20 min) The main intention was to deepen the information of the museum visit by the questionnaire and the plan Observation of all stages in the process: 1. before the visit activity at the museum, decisions, information 2. during the museum visit observation of the visit 3. after the museum visit reminiscence, coming again? Summary A study undertaken at the Powerhouse Museum in Sydney revealed that museums continue to be associated with learning and education. Museums were defined as places where one could have an educational, intellectual and absorbing experience (Boomerang! 1998). The fact, that learning acquired in museums can be recalled long after the museum visit has been documented by Falk and Dierking (1995) and many others. Museum experience is unique, authentic and long term. A museum visit is a personal experience which has to be well prepared by the museum authority. Next January we are going to have an exhibition called A Japanese Woman. Kitagawa Utamaro ( ), Two geisha and Utagawa Kuniyoshi ( ), The prince Genji with two courtesans on a veranda with a painted screen, watching people who pick up shells and seaweeds at seaside. Certainly an illustration of the Rustic Genji , From The Tale of Genji. Written by Murasaki Shikibu: Genji monogatar
16 16 Perspectives From Northern Horizon: Promoting community based art education through practice led research concepts and principles Mirja Hiltunen Mirja Hiltunen Lecturer in Art Education Department of Art Education Faculty of Art and Design University of Lapland The purpose of the research, done in the context of Art teacher education, is to find ways on how the special characteristics of the arctic socio-cultural environment could be transformed through art into a resource for the individual and the community. The focus is to reflect on whether community-based art education can generate genuine dialogue and how we might be able to develop new strategies through art, with the objective of non-exclusive participation as well as encountering and respecting others. The presentation concentrates to the main principles beyond the practices, principles such as that art is perceived as action. Art is performative, it emphasizes dialogue and interaction. What is essential is the extent to which an artist/art educator has succeeded through dialogue to activate and initiate emancipatory points of view. This calls for a critical understanding of the many ways in which such points of view can be limited and threatened. Key words: Community-based art education, dialogue, performativity
17 17 ArctiChildren: The Northern Schoolyard as a Forum for Community-Based Art Education and Psychosocial Well-Being Timo Jokela Timo Jokela Professor of Art Education Department of Art Education Faculty of Art and Design University of Lapland Abstract The central forum in my article is a schoolyard. I examine the schoolyard as a learning environment, approaching it from the perspectives of art education. In the article I describe theoretical backgrounds of participatory artistic action research activities implemented in the school communities of tree multiethnic villages, namely in Sevettijärvi (Finland), Jokkmokk (Sweden) and Lovozero (Russia). The aim was to strengthen the cultural identity of the village school pupils through environmental and community art. Artistic work was used to provide the pupils with tools for creating social constructions of their own lifework. Action research was the realization of section Culture and Identity which belongs to consortium ArctiChildren II Cross-border Training Program for Promoting Psychosocial Wellbeing through School Education in the Barents region coordinated by University of Lapland in Finland. Art as Part of School Culture Mikkola (2006) demand the school system opens up to the society. The opening up starts from the school culture, or the school community s internal collaboration, and continues with the school s external relations. In the final report of OPEPRO, a project by the Finnish National Board of Education, Luukkainen (2000) declares: The key developmental needs as to the content of teacher training are community spirit, leadership, facing diver- sity, co-operative skills, opening and changing learning environments and societal awareness. While examining the internationally high scores of Finnish students in the PISA results, Välijärvi (2004, 187) sees the important pedagogic message of these results as being that a high performance level and equality of the results are not mutually exclusive objectives. At the same time, he demands a strengthening of community-based operational culture in schools to increase school satisfaction and commitment. Launonen and Pulkkinen (2004, 15) examine school as a growth community, breaking the developmental needs down to the school s collaborative relationships and the growth s community-based development factors. They also highlight art education as one of the objectives: more space should be arranged in school work for those experiences where children and adults have a chance to face the basic questions of life through art. It seems there is a widespread trust in the power and possibilities of art, but those working in the field of art understand that art is not a uniform phenomenon. Within art, there are conflicting and competing perspectives based on different values. The Contextuality Contemporary Art: the Bond between Environment and Community In Finland contemporary art has been seen as the central starting point for art education, and demands for introducing more of the methods of modern art into art education practice have been voiced (Jokela 2006; Sederholm 2006; Varto 2006). The relationship of art to indigenous cultures and the colonialist nature of art also became a target for critical examination (Thomas 1999). Lippard (1997, 7 20) especially has paid attention to the encounter between locality, indigenous cultures and contemporary art in observing them, and has emphasised the psychosocial dimensions of being bound to a certain locale. Trends in contemporary art especial-
18 18 ly community art and environmental art underline the ry to first consider what an environment actually is. Ingold (2003) examines the concept of environment from links of art to man s daily activities, events and places. This is thus a matter of man s situationality, or the interlocking of culture and our whole existence to a time and is seen as an entity located outside the human being three perspectives. In the first approach, environment place highlighted by phenomenology (Rauhala 2005). and examined from a distance with the aim of achieving objectivity. This view of environment that some In contemporary art, this ever-changing situation is also a fruitful starting point for performative art activities, consider scientific has largely developed around the emphasises Hiltunen (2008) who has studied community-based art education in northern local communities. also too often the basis for the environmental educati- natural sciences. According to Neperud (1995), this is on taught in schools. As a pair for natural environment, The first requirement for community-based and environmental art activity is that this activity focuses on the en- idea of man being outside the system, and it descri- there is the term built environment, based on the same vironment of those who make and experience it (that is, bes the various man-made constructs like architecture, cityscape or design. Neperud sees these views that the participating audience) and materialises as activities within it. This is thus also a break from the art work-, artist- and exhibition-centred idea of art, emphasising art as problem, as they have institutionalised the separation are considered objective as part of the environmental a performative event with action. Creators of art and the of man and nature through language. Environment is audience are not seen as separate; they are often simultaneously both creators and recipients (Lacy 1995). This something out there, which people have control over. brings artistic activity close to the principles of sociocultural animation (Kurki 2000), combining it with the aware livedin environment, by which is meant the milieu tied The second approach defined by Ingold is related to the and active citizenship demanded by critical pedagogy to a specific time and place, defined by various matters (Giroux & McLaren 2001) as well as with the purposes and phenomena perceived as significant. According to participatory environmental planning (Bäcklund, Häkli & this mindset, each person has their own environment, Schulman 2002). Modern art interested in people s everyday lives has been successfully applied to regional deriences and activities. This phenomenological view of which gains meanings through the individual s expevelopment work (e.g. Hiltunen 2007), to dealing with social problems among young people and to finding tools gy, environmental aesthetics and environmental ethics. the environment is prevalent in environmental psycholo- for promoting psychosocial well-being (Hyyppä 2007). The phenomenological view emphasising the experience of place marks cultural geography (e.g. Haarni et Taking the background and contextual nature of contemporary art into account as the starting point for teaching kela 2005) as well. It is also strongly present in parti- al. 1997) and environmental art (Johansson 2004, Jo- thus leads to the same challenges as the critical examination of school and education. As the central underlying and in architecture (Bachelard 2003). This perspeccipatory environmental planning (Horelli & Vepsä 1995) influence in art education, contemporary art has challenged the traditional teaching of art to find new modes of centred and overemphasising individual experiences. tive has often been blamed for being too individually work outside the classroom and to pay attention to the community and environment instead of the individual. Environmental psychology has, however, brought up the concept of social environment, which refers to people, communities and their interrelationships. People act The Many Meanings of Environment and experience their environment in groups, which means the construction of common meanings becomes The school is the environment and community of a central. Aura, Horelli and Korpela (1997, 15) state: child s and young person s activity. Schoolyards function Both physical and social environment include cultural symbols, language, meanings, customs and writ- as places for activities, but also as showcases for the school s work and as places of encounter for the school, ten or unwritten rules, which can be collectively called the parents and the village community. When exploring the symbolic environment. Tuovila (1992) has studied the starting points for environmental art it is necessa- the symbolism of the built environment, aptly analy-