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1 Finnish Style Guide

2 Contents What's New?... 4 New Topics... 4 Updated Topics... 4 Introduction... 5 About This Style Guide... 5 Scope of This Document... 5 Style Guide Conventions... 5 Sample Text... 6 Recommended Reference Material... 8 Normative References... 8 Informative References... 8 Language Specific Conventions... 9 Country/Region Standards... 9 Characters... 9 Date Time Numbers Sorting Grammar, Syntax & Orthographic Conventions Adjectives Articles Capitalization Compounds Gender Genitive Modifiers Nouns Prepositions Pronouns Punctuation Singular & Plural Split Infinitive Subjunctive Symbols Syntax Verbs Word Order Personification Cases Tense... 39

3 Style and Tone Considerations Audience, Style, and Tone Voice Localization Guidelines General Considerations Abbreviations Accessibility Acronyms Applications, Products, and Features Frequent Errors Glossaries Fictitious Information Recurring Patterns Standardized Translations Unlocalized Items Using the Word Microsoft Software Considerations User Interface Messages Menus Keys Document Translation Considerations Titles Copyright... 55

4 What's New? Last Updated: March 2011 The entire Style Guide has been reworked and modifications have been made to all sections. The purpose of this update is to create a uniform structure for the Style Guides of all languages. As a part of this update, the entire structure of the Finnish Style Guide was updated. Some new content was also added: The major change in this Finnish Style Guide is that the information from the Finnish Language Kit has been integrated into this Style Guide. This information is located in the Language Specific Conventions section. Please find below a list of New and Updated Topics. Note that changes in these sections also apply to all of their sub-sections. All topics which were included in the previous Style Guide contain some updates: some topics contain only minor updates, whereas others may include major updates. Therefore, all localizers should review this new Style Guide in its entirety as this Style Guide is actually a completely new Style Guide rather than an update. New Topics The following topics were added: Language Specific Conventions Geopolitical Concerns Style and Tone Considerations Updated Topics The following topics were updated: Introduction Grammar, Syntax & Orthographic Conventions Localization Guidelines 4

5 Introduction This Style Guide went through major revision in February 2011 in order to remove outdated and unnecessary content. About This Style Guide The purpose of this Style Guide is to provide everybody involved in the localization of Finnish Microsoft products with Microsoft-specific linguistic guidelines and standard conventions that differ from or are more prescriptive than those found in language reference materials. These conventions have been adopted after considering context based on various needs, but above all, they are easy to follow and applicable for all types of software to be localized. The Style Guide covers the areas of formatting, grammatical conventions. It also presents the reader with a general idea of the reasoning behind the conventions. The present Style Guide is a revision of our previous Style Guide version with the intention of making it more standardized, more structured, and easier to use as a reference. The guidelines and conventions presented in this Style Guide are intended to help you localize Microsoft products and materials. We welcome your feedback, questions and concerns regarding the Style Guide. You can send us your feedback via the Microsoft Language Portal feedback page. Scope of This Document This Style Guide is intended for the localization professional working on Microsoft products. It is not intended to be a comprehensive coverage of all localization practices, but to highlight areas where Microsoft has preference or deviates from standard practices for Finnish localization. Style Guide Conventions In this document, a plus sign (+) before a translation example means that this is the recommended correct translation. A minus sign ( ) is used for incorrect translation examples. There are also a lot of tables with examples. The recommended translation examples and incorrect translation examples are clearly marked with their own column headings. All translation examples in this document are only intended to illustrate the point in question and are not a source of approved terminology. Please check for approved translations in the Microsoft glossaries. You can search for approved translations of terms in the Microsoft Language Portal. In Microsoft localization context, the word term is used in a slightly untraditional sense, meaning the same as e.g. a segment in Trados. The distinguishing feature of a term here is that it is translated as one unit; it may be a traditional term (as used in terminology), a phrase, a sentence, or a paragraph. References to interface elements really only refer to translatable texts associated with those interface elements. Example translations in this document are only intended to illustrate the point in question. They are not a source of approved terminology. 5

6 Sample Text This Finnish sample text (which is an excerpt from the previous Finnish Style Guide) was added on January 26 th 2010 in Finnish. Nämä ohjeet on laadittu, jotta Microsoft-tuotteiden paikallistaminen Suomen markkinoille olisi helpompaa. Paikallistamistyössä on kaksi päätavoitetta: helppolukuinen ja helposti ymmärrettävä suomen kieli sekä tuotteiden yhtenäinen kieliasu. Eri tuotteiden eri osissa ohjelmassa, oppaissa ja pakkauksessa toistuvat englanninkieliset termit on käännettävä aina samalla tavalla ja tyylin on oltava johdonmukaista. Tässä esitetyt ohjeet perustuvat Kielitoimiston suosituksiin sekä yleisesti hyväksyttyihin ja käytössä oleviin kielenoppaisiin. Joissakin tapauksissa kielen yleissuosituksia joudutaan mukauttamaan Microsoftin tuotteiden erityisvaatimusten vuoksi. Kielenkäyttö ja ilmaisun tarpeet muuttuvat, joten myös ohjeita tullaan ajoittain muuttamaan. Tämä on suomenkielisen tyylioppaan kolmas versio. Tähän versioon on lisätty joitakin aiheita ja esimerkkejä. Esitetyt ohjeet eivät pyri täydellisyyteen. Otamme mielellämme vastaan tyyliohjeita koskevia huomautuksia ja ehdotuksia. Kansainvälisen tuotteen paikallistaminen on enemmän kuin kääntämistä. Tärkeintä on, että asiasisältö välittyy lukijalle oikein. Esimerkit ja esitystapa pitää sovittaa suomalaisiin oloihin sekä kulttuurisesti että sosiaalisesti. Englanninkielisen opaskirjan esimerkit ovat yleensä amerikkalaisia, eikä kaikkia niistä voi suoraan kääntää. Niille on löydettävä suomalaiset (tai eurooppalaiset) vastineet. Esimerkiksi urheilulajeja voi muuttaa niiden suomalaisen suosittuuden perusteella. Paikallistettaessa on käytettävä neutraaleja ja tavallisia nimiä ja käsitteitä. Lisäksi on muistettava, että kaikilla lukijoilla ei ole samanlainen huumorintaju. Kiistanalaisia tai tunneperäisiä aiheita ei suomalaisissa esimerkeissä saa käyttää. Niissä ei saa viitata vähemmistöryhmiin, rotuun tai sukupuoleen. Käytetyt nimet, osoitteet ja puhelinnumerot eivät saa viitata todellisiin henkilöihin, eivät eläviin eivätkä kuolleisiin. Niitä keksittäessä pitää välttää nokkelia tai huvittavia nimiä. Hauskatkin esimerkit lakkaavat naurattamasta, kun ne toistuvat. Epätavalliset nimet kiinnittävät turhaa huomiota ja saattavat ärsyttää lukijaa. Postinumeroissa ei käytetä tuhaterotinta. Postinumeron ja postitoimipaikan nimen väliin tulee yksi välilyönti. Termien johdonmukainen käyttö on tärkeää tekstissä, joka käsittelee tekniikkaa. Microsoftilla on suomenkieliset vakiokäännökset tuhansille englanninkielisille termeille. Näitä käännöksiä on aina käytettävä. Myös tekstin tyylin on oltava johdonmukaista. Microsoft käännättää suuria tekstimääriä, esimerkiksi saman opaskirjatekstin parissa saattaa työskennellä useita kääntäjiä. Tyyliä koskevia ohjeita pitää noudattaa, jotta laajojenkin käännöstöiden kielellinen yhtenäisyys voidaan taata. Lyhyitä virkkeitä on suosittava. Tekstin on oltava lauserakenteeltaan helppolukuista. Joskus alkutekstin mukainen virke on jaettava useiksi lyhyiksi virkkeiksi. Useita peräkkäisiä sivulauseita on vältettävä. Kaksi peräkkäistä sivulausetta on hyväksyttävissä vain, jos ne ovat lyhyitä. Lisäksi peräkkäisiä relatiivilauseita on vältettävä. 6

7 Tietokonetta tai ohjelmaa ei rinnasteta ihmiseen. Vältä personointia kuvatessasi ohjelman toimintoja tai sen käyttäjälle esittämiä kysymyksiä. Esimerkiksi näyttöön tulevat sanomat ovat passiivissa. Kun englanninkielisessä lauseessa mainitaan ohjelman nimi ja ohjelman toiminta on aktiivista, myös suomeksi käännetyn lauseen tekijänä voi olla ohjelma. Tällaisissa tapauksissa ohjelman nimi on lauseen tekijä. Lisätietoja antaa: Matti Meikäläinen Esimerkkiyritys Oy Mainososasto Päätie Kaupunki Puh Luotu klo

8 Recommended Reference Material This Style Guide does not present instructions or recommendations on basic Finnish grammar. You can refer to following reference materials in this regard: 1. Osmo Ikola 1991: Nykysuomen käsikirja. 3., uudistettu laitos. Weilin + Göös. 2. Terho Itkonen Sari Maamies 2007: Uusi kieliopas. 3., tarkistettu painos. Tammi. 3. Katariina Iisa Hannu Oittinen Aino Piehl, 2006: Kielenhuollon käsikirja. Laajennetun ja päivitetyn laitoksen 6. painos. Yrityskirjat. 4. Kielitoimiston sanakirja (available both as a printed publication and as an online publication). 5. Kielitoimiston oikeinkirjoitusopas. Kotimaisten kielten tutkimuskeskuksen julkaisuja 147. Helsinki The Research Institute for the Languages of Finland (www.kotus.fi) also provided instructions and recommendations related to language use and grammar. Normative References These normative sources must be adhered to. Any deviation from them automatically fails a string in most cases. When more than one solution is allowed in these sources, look for the recommended one in other parts of the Style Guide. 1. Osmo Ikola 1991: Nykysuomen käsikirja. 3., uudistettu laitos. Weilin + Göös. 2. Terho Itkonen Sari Maamies 2007: Uusi kieliopas. 3., tarkistettu painos. Tammi. 3. Katariina Iisa Hannu Oittinen Aino Piehl, 2006: Kielenhuollon käsikirja. Laajennetun ja päivitetyn laitoksen 6. painos. Yrityskirjat. 4. Kielitoimiston sanakirja (available both as a printed publication and as an online publication). 5. Kielitoimiston oikeinkirjoitusopas. Kotimaisten kielten tutkimuskeskuksen julkaisuja 147. Helsinki Informative References These sources are meant to provide supplementary information, background, comparison, etc. 1. This Style Guide 2. Microsoft Language Portal 8

9 Language Specific Conventions This part of the style guide contains information about standards specific to Finnish. Country/Region Standards Characters Country Lower-case characters Upper-case characters Characters in caseless scripts Extended Latin characters Note on alphabetical order Total number of characters Unicode codes Finland a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, (š), t, u, v, w, x, y, z, (ţ), å, ä, ö A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, (Š), T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, (Ţ), Å, Ä, Ö n/a (š), (ţ), å, ä, ö, (Š), (Ţ), Å, Ä, Ö Alphabetical order is not necessarily indicative of sorting order. 29 (the two letters in parentheses aren t considered to be a part of official Finnish alphabet, but they are used in foreign words) A 0041 a 0061 B 0042 b 0062 C 0043 c 0063 D 0044 d 0064 E 0045 e 0065 F 0046 f 0066 G 0047 g 0067 H

10 Country Finland h 0068 I 0049 i 0069 J 004A j 006A K 004B k 006B L 004C l 006C M 004D m 006D N 004E n 006E O 004F o 006F P 0050 p 0070 Q 0051 q 0071 R 0052 r 0072 Š 0160 š 0161 S 0053 s 0073 T 0054 t 0074 U 0055 u 0075 V 0056 v 0076 W 0057 w 0077 X

11 Country Notes Finland x 0078 Y 0059 y 0079 Z 005A z 007A Ţ 017D ţ 017E Å 00C5 å 00E5 Ä 00C4 ä 00E4 Ö 00D6 ö 00F6 n/a Date Country Calendar/Era First Day of the Week First Week of the Year Separator Default Short Date Format Finland Gregorian Calendar Monday First week that contains at least 4 days in January Full stop d.m.yyyy Example Default Long Date Format d. mmmmta yyyy (The partitive case ending 'ta' is added to the end of the month name without a space.) Example 17. maaliskuuta 2011 Additional Short Date Format 1 Short date format can sometimes also be (d.m.yy) Example

12 Country Additional Short Date Format 2 Example Additional Long Date Format 1 Example Additional Long Date Format 2 Example Leading Zero in Day Field for Short Date Format Leading Zero in Month Field for Short Date Format No. of digits for year for Short Day Format Leading Zero in Day Field for Long Date Format Leading Zero in Month Field for Long Date Format Number of digits for year for Long Day Format Date Format for Correspondence Finland n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a no no 4 no no 4 d.m.yyyy Example Notes The month name does NOT have an initial capital. In the long date format, the partitive case ending 'ta' is added to the end of the month name without a space. A space is needed after full stop in long date format Either the long or short date format can be used in correspondence. 12

13 Country Finland d is for day, number of d's indicates the format (d = digits without leading zero, dd = digits with leading zero, ddd = the abbreviated day name, dddd = full day name) Abbreviations in Format Codes m is for month, number of m's gives number of digits. (m = digits without leading zero, mm = digits with leading zero, mmm = the abbreviated name, mmmm = full name) y is for year, number of y's gives number of digits (yy = two digits, yyyy = four digits) Time Country/region Finland 24 hour format yes Standard time format Standard time format example H.mm.ss ; ; Time separator full stop (.) Time separator examples ; Hours leading zero no Hours leading zero example ; String for AM designator String for PM designator See notes See notes Notes AM and PM can be used if absolutely necessary, but this is not common or recommended in Finland. There is no leading zero in hours, but the leading zero is present in minutes and seconds. Days Country/region: Finland Day Normal Form Abbreviation Monday maanantai ma Tuesday tiistai ti Wednesday keskiviikko ke 13

14 Day Normal Form Abbreviation Thursday torstai to Friday perjantai pe Saturday lauantai la Sunday sunnuntai su First Day of Week: Monday Is first letter capitalized? No Notes: All entries in the two-letter abbreviated list above can also be used as all uppercase, i.e. MA, TI, KE, TO, PE, LA, SU. One-letter abbreviations of day names should be avoided. Months Country/region: Finland Month Full Form Abbreviated Form Long Date Form January tammikuu tammi tammikuuta February helmikuu helmi helmikuuta March maaliskuu maalis maaliskuuta April huhtikuu huhti huhtikuuta May toukokuu touko toukokuuta June kesäkuu kesä kesäkuuta July heinäkuu heinä heinäkuuta August elokuu elo elokuuta September syyskuu syys syyskuuta October lokakuu loka lokakuuta November marraskuu marras marraskuuta December joulukuu joulu joulukuuta Is first letter capitalized? No Notes: Alternative abbreviated forms that can also be used: tammik.; helmik.; maalisk.; huhtik.; toukok.; kesäk.; heinäk.; elok.; syysk.; lokak.; marrask.; jouluk. 14

15 Numbers This section contains some information and instructions regarding numbers. Phone Numbers Country/ region International Dialing Code Area Codes Used? Number of Digits Area Codes Separator Number of Digits Domestic Digit Groupings Domestic Finland +358 yes 2 or 3 space Usually 9 or 10, might be less on local calls on land lines (area code 019, the rest is for a local number); (area code 08) Country/ region Number of Digits Local Digit Groupings Local Number of Digits Mobile Digit Groupings Mobile Number of Digits International Digit Groupings International Finland Usually 7 if no area code is required Usually 10 () ; Usually 11 (depending on the International code) (International code 358 and area code 09, where the leading zero is omitted) Notes: Normally, phone numbers in Finland are grouped into groups of 3 or 4 digits, but the rule is not strict. The separator is a space. Example: (domestic; area code 09); (international; area code 9). Numbers for mobile phones are grouped into groups of three or four digits, but the rule is not strict. The separator is a space. Example: (domestic) (international). You can find more info on recommendations (in Finnish) for the usage of phone numbers in Finnish at the following web address: (Select Suomen kielen huolto ohjeita ja suosituksia Puhelinnumerot). Addresses Country/region: Finland Disclaimer: Please note that the information in this entry should under no circumstances be used in examples as fictitious information. 15

16 Address Format: 1. [Title/Honorific] 2. FirstName [SecondName] LastName 3. [CompanyName] 4. [DepartmentName] 5. StreetAddress 6. [CountryCode-]PostalCode CITY 7. [COUNTRY] Example Address: Mainospäällikkö Liisa Virtanen Oy Yritys Ab Mainososasto Puistotie 2 A 30 FI KAUPUNKI FINLAND Local Postal Code Format: XXXXX Notes: Address is always left aligned. There should be one space between postal code and city. City is written in capital letters. If mail is sent to Finland from abroad, FI- can be added in front of the postal code. State and province are not used in addresses. Blank lines are omitted. Maximum line length is normally 30 characters. Company name and Department name lines can appear before the lines with the recipient's title and name. Abbreviations should be avoided in addresses. Street Address usually consists of: a) Street name, building number (when the address is for a house) b) Street name, apartment complex number, letter for stairway in an apartment complex, number of the apartment (when the address is for an apartment or an office). Currency Country/region Currency Name Finland euro Currency Symbol 16

17 Currency Symbol Position The digits first, followed by a space and the sign or e (or EUR in international banking). Positive Currency Format 1,10 Negative Sign Symbol without a space between it and the digits Negative Currency Format 1,10 Decimal Symbol, (comma) Number of Digits after Decimal 2 Digit Grouping Symbol Number of Digits in Digit Grouping space 3 Positive Currency Example ,00 Negative Currency Example ,00 ISO Currency Code Currency Subunit Name Currency Subunit Symbol EUR sentti snt or c, but normally decimals of the Euro are used instead Currency Subunit Example 5,55 Digit Groups Country/region: Finland Decimal Separator:, Decimal Separator Description: comma Decimal Separator Example: 123,45 ; 125,75 Mt Thousand Separator: Thousand Separator Description: space Thousand Separator Example: Notes: n/a Measurement Units Metric System Commonly Used? Yes Temperature: Celsius 17

18 Category English Translation Abbreviation Linear Measure Kilometer kilometri km Meter metri m Decimeter desimetri dm Centimeter senttimetri cm Millimeter millimetri mm Capacity Hectoliter hehtolitra hl Liter litra l Deciliter desilitra dl Centiliter senttilitra cl Milliliter millilitra ml Mass Ton tonni t Kilogram kilogramma kg Pound naula; pauna lb Gram gramma g Decigram desigramma dg Centigram senttigramma cg Milligram milligramma mg English Units of Measurement Inch tuuma n/a Feet jalka n/a Mile maili n/a Gallon gallona n/a Notes: English measurement units, the pound and even some of the metric units are not commonly used in Finland. Especially all non-metric units should be converted to metric units, as otherwise the meaning will be unclear. Abbreviations of non-metric units are especially difficult for a Finnish audience. Percentages In Finnish, there s a space between the digits and the percentage sign. The decimal separator is a comma. Example: (+) 9,45 %; (+) 99 %; (Example error: ( ) 9.95%) 18

19 Sorting In Finnish, the following sorting rules are applied. Please note that this is not an exhaustive list. For all the exceptions and extra rules, please refer to the publications listen in the Reference Material section. Sorting rules Character sorting order 1. Capital letters and lowercase letters are equal. No distinction is made between them. 2. In alphabetical sorting, v and w are treated as the same letter, so for example Valta and Waltari would both be before Virta. 3. Numbers are placed in the alphabetical order before the letters. Other special characters are usually ignored, but they can be alphabetized according to their Unicode values. 4. Other accented characters are equal with non-accented characters; so é and e are equal. Naturally this does not apply to å, ä, and ö. 5. Prefixes of some last names (for example dos Santos in Spanish) are considered as a part of the name, whereas others are not. You can get more info from the Reference Material listed in the beginning of this Style Guide. 6. Articles of foreign words (like the in English) are ignored in the alphabetical order, unless the article is a fixed part of the word. 7. People are primarily alphabetized according to last name. 8. Non-Latin characters (Arabic, Cyrillic) are placed after the Latin characters in an alphabetical order in a commonly approved order. 9. The following Latin alphabet characters are treated in the alphabetical order in the following manner: õ and ő = ö, not o ü and ű = y, not u ø = ö æ = ae œ = oe ß =n ss đ and ð = d þ = th ŋ = n. A 65 a 97 B 66 b 98 C 67 c 99 D 68 19

20 d 100 E 69 e 101 F 70 f 102 G 71 g 103 H 72 h 104 I 73 i 105 J 74 j 106 K 75 k 107 L 76 l 108 M 77 m 109 N 78 n 110 O 79 o 111 P 80 p 112 Q 81 q 113 R 82 r 114 Š 352 š 353 S 83 s 115 T 84 t

21 U 85 u 117 V 86 v 118 W 87 w 119 X 88 x 120 Y 89 y 121 Z 90 z 122 Ţ 381 ţ 382 Å 197 å 229 Ä 196 ä 228 Ö 214 ö 246 Examples of sorted (This would usually be omitted from the alphabetical order in Finnish, if possible) 1 Aaron andere chaque chemin cote coté côte côté čučēt Czech hiša irdisch lie 21

22 lire llama lòza luč luck Lübeck lye lävi lõug Löwen màšta mîr myndig Männer möchten piña pint pylon šàran savoir Šerbūra Sietla ślub subtle symbol sämtlich waffle verkehrt wood vox väga yen yuan yucca ţal 22

23 ţena Ţenēva zoo Zviedrija Zürich zysk zzlj zzlz zznj zznz ändere 23

24 Grammar, Syntax & Orthographic Conventions This section includes information on how to apply the general rules of the Finnish language to Microsoft products and documentation. Adjectives In Finnish, adjectives should be handled according to normal Finnish grammar rules. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation This magnificent application is currently only available to our European users. ( ) Tämä hieno sovellus on toistaiseksi vain Eurooppalaisten käyttäjiemme käytettävissä. (+) Tämä hieno sovellus on toistaiseksi vain eurooppalaisten käyttäjiemme käytettävissä. Basic grammar rules should be adhered to in translating adjectives. This incredible application is available for free for our most valued customers. ( ) Tämä uskomaton sovellus on kaikkein arvostetuimpien asiakkaidemme saatavilla ilmaiseksi. (+) Tämä upea sovellus on arvostetuimpien asiakkaidemme saatavilla ilmaiseksi. In English, adjectives are often quite superlative, and sometimes it might be a could idea to downplay them a little bit, since a direct translation might make the translation sound a bit un-finnish. However, always bear in mind the target audience and handle adjectives accordingly. Possessive adjectives The frequent use of possessives is a feature of English language. In Finnish, possessive adjectives are handled according to normal grammar rules. However, if a sentence contains a lot of possessive adjectives, it is not necessary to translate them all as possessive adjectives, since this may make the translation seem odd or funny in Finnish. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation You can sign into your application with your credentials, which you receive in your Welcome e- mail. ( ) Voit kirjautua sovellukseesi tunnistetiedoillasi, jotka saat tervetuloviestissäsi. (+) Voit kirjautua sovellukseen tunnistetiedoilla, jotka saat tervetuloviestissä. Translating all possessive adjective of the English source as possessive adjectives in Finnish makes the translation sound unnatural. Often you can do without them, but you should not, however, treat this as an instruction not to use them at all. Use common sense. 24

25 Articles General considerations Articles are not used in Finnish. Unlocalized Feature Names Microsoft product names and non-translated feature names are used without definite or indefinite articles in the English language. We obviously treat them in the same way in Finnish, since we do not use articles. Unlocalized feature names may be inflected in a sentence context, since always adding a modifier (for example - toiminto, -palvelu, etc.) might make the sentence structure heavier and sentences longer. However, inflecting feature and product names must be done with care, so the actual unlocalized name is still clear to the use. The use of modifiers is not however discouraged; sometimes it might be a better option. Always use you best judgment and aim to create translation which are fluent and natural in the target language but also clearly indicate the unlocalized feature names. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation With Windows Update you can keep your computer up to date. ( ) Windows Update - toiminnolla voit pitää tietokoneesi ajan tasalla. (+) Windows Updatella voit pitää tietokoneesi ajan tasalla. In this context, the unlocalized feature name can be inflected when used in a sentence since it makes the translation more fluent. However, this is not an error! You can install the application with Microsoft Windows Installer. ( ) Voit asentaa sovelluksen Microsoft Windowsin Installertoiminnolla. (+) Voit asentaa sovelluksen Microsoft Windows Installerilla / Voit asentaa sovelluksen Microsoft Windows Installer -toiminnolla Unlocalized feature name is inflected incorrectly. 25

26 Localized Feature Names Translated feature names are handled according to normal Finnish grammar rules. They can be inflected in a sentence context or they can be used with modifies; whatever suits the specific context best. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation The Directory Synchronization tool was installed successfully. ( ) Hakemistosynkronointity ökalu asennettiin onnistuneesti. (+) Hakemistosynkronointit yökalun asennus onnistui. When the feature has a localized name, it can be inflected normally. No need to try to keep it in its basic form unnecessarily. The Directory Synchronization tool was installed successfully ( ) Hakemistosynkronointityökalun asennus onnistui. (+) Hakemistosynkronointit yökalun asennus onnistui Localized feature name is used incorrectly. Capitalization Capitalization follows normal Finnish grammar rules and recommendations (first word of the sentence and proper nouns are capitalized). The English Style of capitalization must not be imitated! The English language tends to overuse capitals, but in Finnish we should try to avoid the modern common trend of overusing capitals. Normal rules for capitalization must be followed, regardless of the source capitalization. You can find more info on capitalization in the Nykysuomen käsikirja. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation You can usually find useful info in the User Manuals and Help content. ( ) Löydät yleensä hyödyllisiä tietoja Käyttöoppaista ja Ohjesisällöstä. (+) Saat yleensä hyödyllisiä tietoja käyttöoppaista ja ohjesisällöstä. Capitalization is copied from English unnecessarily; User Guides and Help content are referred to generically, so there s no need to copy their capitalization. To install the application: Click on setup.exe. ( ) Sovelluksen asentaminen: Napsauta setup.exe-tiedostoa. (+) Sovelluksen asentaminen: napsauta setup.exe-tiedostoa. Basic grammar error, so this is a Sev 2 error. When there s only one sentence after a colon, it should not start with a capital letter in Finnish. Compounds Generally, compounds should be understandable and clear to the user. Overly long or complex compounds should be avoided. Keep in mind that unintuitive compounds are ultimately an intelligibility and usability issue. 26

27 In Finnish, the meaning of a compound word may be different from the meaning of a phrase consisting of the same components. Take this difference into account and use the correct form. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation Identity Federation Management tool ( ) Tunnistetietoyhdistämishallintatyökalu (+) Tunnistetietojen yhdistämisen hallintatyökalu A very long compound, which is difficult to understand. You must install the Windows Server 2008 R2 operating system. ( ) Sinun on asennettava Windows Server 2008 R2 - käyttöjärjestelmä. (+) Sinun on asennettava Windows Server 2008 R2 - käyttöjärjestelmä. Basic grammar error. When the compound has several words, there has to be a space after the compound and before the hyphen. User Name ( ) Käyttäjän nimi (+) Käyttäjänimi Accuracy error; the meaning of a compound word may be different from the meaning of a phrase consisting of the same components. Gender This section does not apply to Finnish. Genitive This section does not apply to Finnish. Modifiers In texts localized into Finnish, you often need to add modifiers before names of objects, menus, commands, dialog box elements, icons, features, product names etc. (descriptions of the object the name refers to). In general, English text doesn't have these modifiers. You can also inflect these names though in some cases. The right option depends on the context. If you feel that inflection is clear enough, you can use it. But if you feel that a modifier is needed, please use a modifier. Modifiers are especially necessary when the whole phrase needs to be declined then decline only the modifier and leave the name in the form that is used in the user interface. This also applies for strings with placeholders, where the object finally replacing the placeholder will understandably not be declined. Modifiers always have to be used with unknown placeholders though (both in software and in UA), where inflection cannot be used due to the fact that you do not know what the placeholder is or if the placeholder has several possible entries. 27

28 Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation In the Task Bar click Show hidden icons and then select Safely remove hardware ( ) Napsauta ensin tehtäväpalkin piilotettujen kuvakkeiden näyttämiskuvaketta ja sitten laitteen turvallisen poistamisen painiketta. (+) Napsauta ensin tehtäväpalkin Näytä piilotetut kuvakkeet - painiketta ja napsauta sitten Poista laite turvallisesti -kuvaketta. Tehtäväpalkki can be inflected, since it is a very common UI component the users are expected to know. Using a modifier with it would make the sentence seem unnatural. However, the button names should not be inflected, because they should appear exactly as in the UI, so that the user knows what to do. When a user account is deleted, all data for that user is deleted from <token>mo_share PointOnline_2nd</t oken>. ( ) Kun poistat käyttäjätilin, kaikki kyseisen käyttäjän tiedot poistetaan <token>mo_sharepoint Online_2nd</token> - sovelluksesta. (+) Kun poistat käyttäjätilin, kaikki kyseisen käyttäjän tiedot poistetaan <token>mo_sharepoin tonline_2nd</token>st a. In this case - which is very rare - it was known, that the placeholder will only be SharePoint Online (and the text formatting will be the same as in the other parts), so the placeholder can be inflected to improve fluency. However, this can only be done in situations like this. {0} cannot be translated to a security identifier. ( ) {0}:aa ei voi kääntää suojaustunnukseksi. (+) Kohdetta {0} ei voi kääntää suojaustunnukseksi. Placeholder is unknown, so a modifier is required. Nouns General considerations Please adhere to normal Finnish grammar rules. Rules and recommendations are not listed here, as localizers are expected to know these general grammar rules. You can get more information from the publications listed in the Reference Material sections. Inflection Please adhere to normal Finnish grammar rules. Rules and recommendations are not listed here, as localizers are expected to know these general grammar rules. You can get more information from the publications listed in the Reference Material sections. 28

29 Plural Formation and plural forms Please adhere to normal Finnish grammar rules. Rules and recommendations are not listed here, as localizers are expected to know these general grammar rules. You can get more information from the publications listed in the Reference Material sections. Translation of English phrases, that allow both singular and plural forms at the same time, should generally be changed into the plural form. This way there is no danger of confusing noun/verb endings in the statement. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation There are errors on the page(s) ( ) Sivu(i)lla on virheitä. (+) Sivuilla on virheitä. The plural form can be used in structures like this. The singular(plural) form should be avoided. Prepositions Pay attention to the correct use of the preposition in translations. Influenced by the English language, many translators omit them or change the word order. However, in Finnish, this not really a problem as long as you translate the source accurately. US Expression Finnish Expression Comment You must install DirectX before using this application. (+) Sinun on asennettava DirectX ennen tämän sovelluksen käyttämistä. Translation of prepositions into Finnish should not pose problems in most instances. Just follow grammar rules and stay true to the intended meaning. Pronouns Please adhere to normal Finnish grammar rules. Grammar rules and recommendations are not listed here, as localizers are expected to know these general grammar rules. You can get more information from the publications listed in the Reference Material sections. In Finnish, the reader is referred to directly ( sinuttelu in Finnish) by the second person singular form. The reader is not referred to by the second person plural form ( teitittely in Finnish). Personal pronouns sinä and te should be used sparingly. Pronouns you or your can often be left untranslated. Person can often be indicated instead with a personal suffix. 29

30 When personal pronouns are used, they are not capitalized, An exception to this can be made End User License Agreements, where User or Client can be capitalized, but this is not mandatory. Consistency in the whole document should be maintained though. The first person singular is to be used only when addressing the reader. In other instances, the English You structure should be translated as a passive form as a generic third person singular form. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation If you want configure the settings individually, you must choose Custom Installation. ( ) Jos haluatte määrittää asetukset yksitellen, teidän on valittava Mukautettu asennus. (+) Jos haluat määrittää asetukset yksitellen, sinun on valittava Mukautettu asennus. Incorrect way of addressing the user, the second person singular should be used. If you want configure the settings individually, you must choose Custom Installation. ( ) Jos asetukset halutaan määrittää yksitellen, on valittava Mukautettu asennus. (+) Jos haluat määrittää asetukset yksitellen, sinun on valittava Mukautettu asennus. The passive form should not be used when addressing the user. If you want configure the settings individually, you must choose Custom Installation. ( ) Jos sinä haluat määrittää asetukset yksitellen, sinun on valittava Mukautettu asennus. (+) Jos haluat määrittää asetukset yksitellen, sinun on valittava Mukautettu asennus. Unnecessary use of the word sinä. A personal suffix will do. Punctuation Please adhere to normal Finnish grammar rules in all punctuation. All grammar rules and recommendations are not listed here in the sections below, as localizers are expected to know these general grammar rules. You can get more information from the publications listed in the Reference Material sections. However, there are some additional instructions and exampled provided for the following punctuation issues. Comma Please adhere to normal Finnish grammar rules in the usage of comma. All grammar rules and recommendations are not listed here in the sections below, as localizers are expected to know these general grammar rules. You can get more information from the publications listed in the Reference Material sections. Non-finite clauses are naturally not separated by a comma. 30

31 Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation If you want configure the settings individually, you must choose Custom Installation. ( ) Jos haluat määrittää asetukset yksitellen sinun on valittava Mukautettu asennus. (+) Jos haluat määrittää asetukset yksitellen, sinun on valittava Mukautettu asennus. Basic grammar error, comma missing. To create a new file, select New. ( ) Luo uusi tiedosto, valitsemalla Uusi. (+) Luo uusi tiedosto valitsemalla Uusi. Commas should not be used to separate non-finite clauses. Colon Use colons according to normal Finnish grammar rules. Also please note the following examples, which often lead to mistakes. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation To install the software: Click on setup.exe. Complete Wizard. ( ) Ohjelmiston asennus: napsauta setup.exe-tiedostoa. Suorita ohjattu toiminto. (+) Ohjelmiston asennus: Napsauta setup.exe-tiedostoa. Suorita ohjattu toiminto. If there s more than one sentence after the colon, all sentences should start with a capital letter. To install the software: Click on setup.exe. ( ) Ohjelmiston asennus: Napsauta setup.exe-tiedostoa.. (+) Ohjelmiston asennus: napsauta setup.exe-tiedostoa. If there s just one sentence after the colon, it should not start with a capital letter. Dashes and Hyphens Three different dash characters are used in English: Hyphen The hyphen is used in English to divide words between syllables, to link parts of a compound word, and to connect the parts of an inverted or imperative verb form. In Finnish, the hyphen is used in a similar manner. Always follow applicable grammar rules when using a hyphen in Finnish. En Dash The en dash is used in English as a minus sign, usually with spaces before and after. In Finnish, the en dash is used in a similar manner. In English, the en dash is also used in number ranges, such as those specifying page numbers. No spaces are used around the en dash in this case. 31

32 In Finnish, the en dash is used as ajatusviiva. The em dash must not be used for this purpose! Always follow all Finnish grammar rules when using the en dash in Finnish. In Finnish, there should be a space on both sides of the en dash, when used as an ajatusviiva in a sentence. When the en dash is used in number ranges, there should not be spaces around it. Em Dash In English, the em dash should only be used to emphasize an isolated element or introduce an element that is not essential to the meaning conveyed by the sentence. In Finnish, the em dash should not be used. The hyphen and the en dash are to be used according to their various respective uses. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation Save as Dialog. ( ) Tallenna nimellä valintaikkuna. Save as Dialog. ( ) Tallenna nimellä valintaikkuna. (+) Tallenna nimellä - valintaikkuna. (+) Tallenna nimellä - valintaikkuna. The en dash should not be used in compound words, the hyphen must be used. The em dash should not be used in compound words, the hyphen. 15 C. ( ) -15 C. (+) 15 C. The hyphen should not be used as a minus sign. There also needs to be a space between the number and the C part. Save With this command, you can you re your work. ( ) Tallenna Tällä komennolla voit tallentaa työsi. (+) Tallenna tällä komennolla voit tallentaa työsi. The em dash should not be used as an ajatusviiva in a sentence. En dash should be used. The latter part should also not be capitalized MB ( ) Mt (+) Mt Hyphen should not be used in number ranges, the en dash should. In such cases, there should be no spaces around the en dash. Quotation Marks Quotation marks are used in English far more often than in Finnish. In US source strings, you may find software references surrounded by English quotation marks. In English, both single and double quotation marks are used. However, in Finnish, neither of the English quotation mark styles are to be used. Research Institute for the Languages of Finland recommends using the so-called right double curved quotes ( ) (Unicode name: RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK; Unicode hexadecimal (decimal): 201D (8221); HTML: ). The opening and the closing quotation marks are identical in Finnish, so this same character is used in opening and closing a quote. If for some reason these quotation marks cannot be used, since some 32

33 localization tools might not be able to produce them, you can also use the so-called straight quotation marks (") (Unicode name: QUOTATION MARK; Unicode hexadecimal (decimal): 0022 (0034); HTML: "). These also have an identical opening and closing quotation mark. The important thing is that the opening and the closing quote mark are identical, unlike in English. English tends to overuse quotation marks, so you should not always copy them to Finnish. Consider whether the entry actually needs them, whether it is quote-like. Sometimes you can omit the quotes in Finnish. Always follow all Finnish grammar rules related to quotes. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation According to Bill Gates, Microsoft is doing well. ( ) Bill Gates sanoi: Microsoftilla menee hyvin. (+) Bill Gates sanoi: Microsoftilla menee hyvin. / Bill Gates sanoi: "Microsoftilla menee hyvin." The English quotation marks should be replaced with the Finnish ones. The first option is the preferred method. If those quotation marks cannot be used, the straight quotation marks can be used. Usage must always be consistent in the whole product, document, etc.! You can burn the images to a CD. ( ) Voit polttaa kuvat CD:lle. (+) Voit tallentaa kuvat CD:lle. You do not always have to copy the quotes into Finnish, if the quotes are not really needed. They are used in English far more than in Finnish. Parentheses In English, there is no space between the parentheses and the text inside them. The same applies to Finnish. If the text inside the parentheses is a full sentence, it starts with a capital letter and ends in a full stop inside the parentheses. If the text is not a full sentence, it does not start with a capital letter or end in a full stop. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation Click here for more details (You will receive the information an e- mail). ( ) Saat lisätietoja napsauttamalla tätä (saat tiedot sähköpostitse). (+) Saat lisätietoja napsauttamalla tätä. (Saat tiedot sähköpostitse.) The text in the parentheses is a full sentence, so it should be capitalized and followed by a full stop. The initial sentence also needs a full stop. Click here for more details. ( ) ( ) Saat lisätietoja napsauttamalla tätä (Sähköposti). (+) Saat lisätietoja napsauttamalla tätä (sähköposti). The text in the parentheses is not a full sentence, so it should not be capitalized or followed by a full stop. 33

34 Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation The initial sentence also does not need a full stop before the parentheses. Singular & Plural This section does not apply to Finnish. Split Infinitive This section does not apply to Finnish. Subjunctive This section does not apply to Finnish. Symbols Trademark and Copyright symbols (,, and ) If a word that has a trademark or a copyright symbol has to be inflected in Finnish, the symbol is placed after the suffix used for inflection. However, inflection of such words should be avoided if possible. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation This is a Microsoft Proprietary Technology. ( ) Tämä on Microsoft :in patentoima tekniikka. (+) Tämä on Microsoftin patentoima tekniikka. The symbol is placed incorrectly. Syntax When translating into Finnish, please take into account the following syntax instructions: You should prefer short sentences. Sentence structure should be clear and easy to read. Sometimes long source sentences need to be split into several sentences in Finnish. You should avoid multiple repetitive subordinate clauses. Multiple repeated subordinate clauses are only accepted, if they re short. Consecutive relative clauses should also be avoided. When you give instructions, use imperative form. Try to adapt the sentences into natural Finnish, instead of just direct translation. 34

35 Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation After you sign up for Office 365, you need to configure your computer so that software updates can be installed. These updates are required when connecting Microsoft Office desktop applications to Office 365. ( ) Kun rekisteröidyt Office 365 -käyttäjäksi, sinun on määritettävä tietokoneesi siten, että ohjelmistopäivitykset voidaan asentaa, sillä näitä päivityksiä vaaditaan, kun muodostat Microsoft Office - työpöytäsovelluksista yhteyden Office 365:een. (+) Rekisteröidyttyäsi Office 365 -käyttäjäksi sinun on määritettävä tietokoneesi ohjelmistopäivitysten asentamista varten. Näitä päivityksiä vaaditaan, kun muodostat yhteyden Microsoft Office - työpöytäsovelluksista Office 365:een. A lot of subordinate clauses. The sentence is very long and complex, which makes it harder to understand. When you create a purchase offer, a custom URL is created for you that includes an embedded code identifying you as the subscription advisor. ( ) Kun luot hankintatarjouksen, sinulle luodaan mukautettu URLosoite, joka sisältää upotetun koodin, jolla sinut tunnistetaan tilausneuvojaksi. (+) Kun luot hankintatarjouksen, sinulle luodaan mukautettu URLosoite. Se sisältää upotetun koodin, jolla sinut tunnistetaan tilausneuvojaksi. Consecutive relative clauses should be avoided and short sentences preferred. Verbs Active verb forms should be preferred. Noun structures make sentences heavier and make reading more difficult. Noun structures can, however, be used in messages (from the computer), if you want to avoid a passive form in situations where the logical agent is not a person, but a program or such (more information on this in the Personification section). The passive form can nonetheless be used as well. Passive can also be used for example when referring to the general characteristics of a program (for example in User Guides introductions). You should avoid starting sentences with verbs in the second person singular form. In introductions, these can be replaced by a passive form. Otherwise, use another active form with the verb can. When you give instructions, use the imperative form. Verb forms in titles and list headings are often in the infinitive form. Usually the best way to translate these is to use a -minen form. If titles and headings are, however, in the imperative form, they can sometimes be translated in the imperative form as well. Especially in software translations it might be difficult to know if a string is the actual command or the title of a window, since they can be in identical form, so titles like these should be 35

36 translated in the imperative form in software translations. In documentation, imperative form titles and headings can nonetheless be translated with a -minen form as long as the translations are consistent (i.e. all in the -minen form or in the imperative form). Continuous operations are usually expressed in English with a gerund, which can be translated into Finnish usually with a -minen verb (in headings and such) or with a passive form (messages from the computer). English texts tend to use the infinitive form quite a lot (for example To create a document ). You can use a similar structure in Finnish as well. Sentences like this usually state the objective first ( To create a document ) and then the steps to achieve it ( click New document ). You can translate these structures into Finnish with a non-finite clause or a subordinate clause. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation When installing the program, please close all other applications ( ) Kun ohjelmaa asennetaan, sulje kaikki muut sovellukset. (+) Sulje kaikki muut sovellukset, kun asennat ohjelman. Active forms should be used when possible and suitable. File cannot be saved. ( ) Et voi tallentaa tiedostoa. (+) Tiedostoa ei voida tallentaa Passive form can be used in error messages. Chancing the structure of strings to the active form could often confuse the user. You use PowerPoint to create presentations. ( ) Käytät PowerPointia esitysten luomiseen. (+) PowerPointilla voit luoda esityksiä / PowerPointilla luodaan esityksiä. Try to avoid starting sentences with a second person singular verb if possible. Create a Presentation ( ) Luo esitys (+) Esityksen luominen (in Help content) / Luo esitys (if a window title in software) Assuming this is a heading in Help content, a -minen form should be preferred. Saving file ( ) Tiedoston tallentaminen (+) Tiedostoa tallennetaan Assuming this a message from the computer, a passive form should be used. If this were a heading, the - minen form could also be used. To create a new presentation, click New in the File menu. ( ) Valitse Tiedostovalikosta Uusi luodaksesi uuden esityksen. (+) Luo uusi esitys valitsemalla Tiedostovalikosta Uusi / Kun haluat luoda uuden esityksen, valitse Tiedosto-valikosta Uusi. Try to maintain the sentence structure of infinitive sentences so that the objective is stated first and the steps to reach it after it. 36

37 Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation Save changes by clicking Apply. ( ) Muutokset voi tallentaa valitsemalla Käytä. (+) Tallenna muutokset valitsemalla Käytä. Use the imperative form when giving instructions. Word Order Localization involves adapting the content to your language and culture. Therefore it naturally involves modifying the word order, since using the English word order would make translations sound very unnatural. Therefore, you should always adapt the sentence to make it natural in Finnish. This naturally requires changing the word order. In Finnish, the word order should normally reflect the order of user actions, even if it doesn't in English. Remember that the sentence structure can be modified. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation How to start using Word ( ) Miten Wordin käyttö aloitetaan? (+) Wordin käytön aloittaminen Assuming this a heading in help content, not an actual question, the sentence can be modified to make it more natural in Finnish. The Wizard uses the information you ve entered to configure your account. ( ) Ohjattu toiminto käyttää antamiasi tietoja sähköpostitilin määrittämiseen. (+) Ohjattu toiminto määrittää sähköpostitilin antamiesi tietojen avulla. No need to translate word for word, sentences can be modified to improve fluency and readability. Before a user can access the services, the administrator must create an account - which includes creating a user name and password - for that user. ( ) Ennen kuin käyttäjä voi käyttää palveluita, järjestelmänvalvoja on luotava tili mikä sisältää käyttäjänimen ja salasanan luomisen tälle käyttäjälle. (+) Käyttäjä voi käyttää palveluita vasta sen jälkeen, kun järjestelmänvalvoja on luonut hänelle tilin. Tämä sisältää käyttäjänimen ja salasanan luomisen. No need to translate word for word, sentences can be modified to improve fluency and readability. Personification A computer or a program should not be treated as a person. Avoid personification, when you describe programs actions or translate questions the program asks user. Many messages from a system are for example best translated in the passive voice. However, when the English source mentions the name of the program or the if the 37

38 action carried out is active, the agent can be the program also in the Finnish translation. In such cases, the name of the program is the agent in a sentence. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation Word is saving the file. ( ) Tiedostoa tallennetaan Wordissa. (+) Word tallentaa tiedostoa Here the name of the program can be the agent. No need to use the passive voice. Saving file. ( ) Tallennan tiedostoa. (+) Tiedostoa tallennetaan. Do not personify the program in this manner. Cases The inflection and cases of some words allow for several possible alternative forms. Below is a list of some words recommended cases and inflection. If you are unsure about the case of a word, consult the Kielitoimiston sanakirja. Word asema leikepöytä levy levyke lomake nauha näyttö näyttöruutu osio sivu sivusto tietokone tilarivi toimialue tulostin työkalurivi työpöytä valikko valikkorivi Cases asemassa, asemasta, asemaan leikepöydällä, leikepöydältä, leikepöydälle levyllä, levyltä, levylle levykkeellä, levykkeeltä, levykkeelle lomakkeessa, lomakkeesta, lomakkeeseen nauhassa, nauhasta, nauhaan näytössä, näytöstä, näyttöön näyttöruudussa, näyttöruudusta, näyttöruutuun osiossa, osiosta, osioon sivulla, sivulta, sivulle sivustossa, sivustosta, sivustoon tietokoneessa, tietokoneesta, tietokoneeseen tilarivillä, tilariviltä, tilariville toimialueella, toimialueelta, toimialueelle tulostimessa, tulostimesta, tulostimeen työkalurivillä, työkaluriviltä, työkaluriville työpöydällä, työpöydältä, työpöydälle valikossa, valikosta, valikkoon valikkorivillä, valikkoriviltä, valikkoriville 38

39 viivain vyöhyke välilehti viivaimella, viivaimelta, viivaimelle vyöhykkeessä, vyöhykkeestä, vyöhykkeeseen välilehdessä, välilehdestä, välilehteen Tense Please observe the rules of using verb tenses. This mainly means that complex tenses (present perfect and past perfect) should also be used where appropriate, not replaced with the past tense. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation Word has finished formatting the file. ( ) Word muotoili asiakirjan. (+) Word on muotoillut asiakirjan. Also the complex tenses should be used, when appropriate. Style and Tone Considerations This section focuses on higher-level considerations for audience, style, tone, and voice. Audience, Style, and Tone You should always bear in mind the audience of your translation. Microsoft content has a variety of audiences, so you should reflect this in your translations. However, certain products may be primarily aimed for certain audiences. In such cases, take into account the specific characteristics of the audience. Unless otherwise stated, you should always use neutral standard language. Avoid slang, colloquialisms, dialects etc. The tone shouldn t be too formal, but it should not be too informal either. In Finnish, the tone of neutral standard language is OK, unless otherwise stated, whereas in English the tone might differ a lot more in different kinds of content. Nonetheless, you should always think about the audience, when you think about the tone and style to be used. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation With Office 2010 you can get the job done in no time. ( ) Uudella Office 2010:llä saat duunit hoidettua alta aikayksikön. (+) Uudella Office 2010:llä työnteko sujuu entistä nopeammin. Avoid slang and colloquialisms. Please note that the passive can also be used in sentences like this, which refer to the general characteristics of a program. 39

40 Voice The active voice should be preferred when suitable, and the unnecessary use of personal pronouns avoided, when suffixes suffice. For more information, check the previous sections. English You can start using the Internet with your computer. Translation (+) Nyt voit aloittaa Internetin käytön tietokoneellasi. Localization Guidelines This section contains guidelines for localization into Finnish. General Considerations In order to ensure that you are using current terminology and phrases, search for approved translations of terms in the Microsoft Language Portal. Consistent use of Microsoft approved terminology in all localized products is one of the major factors in achieving required quality of the localized products. Also familiarize yourself with any possible prior releases or prior versions. Abbreviations Common Abbreviations You might need to abbreviate some words in the UI (mainly buttons or options names) due to lack of space. This should always be done according to normal grammar rules. English content uses a lot of abbreviations, which must be handled with care in the Finnish version. IT for example has a lot of established abbreviations, which are often used even in Finnish, so they can usually be used without any problems. When you use a non-established abbreviation, it is however usually best to explain what it stands for, when you mention it for the first time. Often abbreviations nonetheless must be used for space restrictions sake. When you do use abbreviations, abbreviate according to grammar rules and in a way that the readers understand the abbreviation. You can find a list of common Finnish abbreviations at the website of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland: Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation Installation requires 500 MB of hard disk space. ( ) Asennus edellyttää 500 MB kiintolevytilaa. (+) Asennus edellyttää 500 Mt kiintolevytilaa. Remember to handle even the most common abbreviations with care, and to use their Finnish forms. 40

41 Accessibility Accessibility information is not available at the moment. Acronyms Acronyms are words made up of the initial letters of major parts of a compound term. Some well-known examples are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random Access Memory). Acronyms established in Finnish (for example laser or NATO ) can be used as such. Uncommon acronyms should be made clear to the readers so that they ll understand their meaning. Always handle acronyms according to normal Finnish grammar rules. Inflection of acronyms usually causes some problems, so make sure you pay extra attention to grammar rules on inflecting acronyms. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation You can make changes directly in HTML. ( ) Voit tehdä muutoksia suoraan HTML:llässä. (+) Voit tehdä muutoksia suoraan HTML:ssä. Follow normal grammar rules when handling acronyms. Applications, Products, and Features Application/product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely translated. Occasionally, feature names are trademarked, too (e.g. IntelliSense ). Before translating any application, product, or feature name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way. You can find more info on handling trademarked names in the Symbols section. When localizing Microsoft content, you often come across various product, feature, and component names. In order to ensure the consistency and high quality of translated content, it is important to know how to deal with such names. When you come across a name of a product, feature or a component, you should do the following: Check if the product name (or the feature name or the component name) is localizable or not. If the name is localizable, you should check if the product (or the feature or the component) has been previously translated in earlier projects or in the Microsoft Language Portal. If it has been translated, use the existing translation. If the name is localizable and it has not been previously translated and it cannot be found in any of the terminology sources, make query for it. In Finnish, product and feature names will often have to be inflected. Always pay extra attention to inflecting product or feature names, so that the actual name is always clear to the user. Use modifiers if necessary. 41

42 Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation Microsoft Office Home and Student ( ) Microsoft Office 2010:n koti- ja opiskelijaversio (+) Microsoft Office Home and Student 2010 Product name localized, when it should not be. Frequent Errors This section does not apply to Finnish. Information on frequent errors might be added in future releases of this SG. Glossaries Unless otherwise specified, always use the terminology available in the Microsoft Language Portal. Fictitious Information Fictitious content is legally sensitive material and as such cannot be handled as a pure terminology or localization issue. Below is some basic information and contact points when dealing with fictitious content: Vendors and Localizers are not allowed to create their own fictitious names. Please contact your designated contact person for further information on how to deal with fictitious companies, names, addresses, addresses, phone numbers, etc. in your product. For technical products, you may also check with the designated contact person whether localized fictitious content is required or not (e.g. Visual Studio). Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation John Smith has been using Windows for years. ( ) Jussi Sivula on käyttänyt Windowsia vuosia. (+) John Smith on käyttänyt Windowsia vuosia. Do not make up fictitious information, including names. Get the approved localized fictitious names from your project contact. Recurring Patterns This section does not apply to Finnish. 42

43 Standardized Translations This section does not apply to Finnish. Unlocalized Items Trademarked names and the name Microsoft Corporation shouldn t be localized. A list of Microsoft trademarks is available for your reference at the following location: It is common in localization that some items in the localizable content may be left in English on purpose. The localizable content may, for example, contain references to the UI of other software providers' products or to products which have not been localized or to features or content that has to remain unlocalized. When you come across UI references to other software products (other than Microsoft), UI references to unlocalized Microsoft products, or other unlocalizable items, you should contact your designated contact person and ask how these items should be handled. They can either be translated, left in English, or they can be presented in bilingual format (with either the original or the translation in brackets, though this is quite rare). If UI items from other providers software are translated, you should ask for a glossary of the specific UI. Translation without this kind of a glossary is not recommended. If there's no UI glossary available, it is recommended that these UI items are left in English or the translation is provided only in brackets. However, this should be confirmed by your contact person on a case-by-case basis! You can also find unlocalized items in non-ui translations. You may for example translate help for a product that has no localized UI. In this case, UI references should naturally be left in English. Unlocalized items should always be handled according to Finnish rules. Using the Word Microsoft In English, it is prohibited to use MS as an abbreviation for Microsoft. In Finnish, Microsoft should be handled according to normal grammar rules. Do not abbreviate it, unless the source does it too. The word can be inflected according to grammar rules. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation Microsoft Word 2010 offers great new features! ( ) MS Word 2010 sisältää hienoja uusia ominaisuuksia. (+) Microsoft Word 2010 sisältää hienoja uusia ominaisuuksia. Do not modify the word Microsoft or abbreviate it. Use the same form as the source. 43

44 Software Considerations This section refers to all menus, menu items, commands, buttons, check boxes, etc., which should be consistently translated in the localized product. Refer to for a detailed explanation of the Windows user interface guidelines (English). User Interface The English forms often do not distinguish between various uses of verbs (whether it is used as a command, function name, heading or description of an ongoing process, etc.). Before translating, always ensure that you know how the verb (or any other word for that matter) is used in the software, and translate accordingly. For commands, instructions, suggestions, etc., always use the personal imperative form, not impersonal forms, infinitives or deverbal nouns. Use the 2nd person to address the user. Normally, the pronoun you or your itself will not be needed, but if it is used, write it with a lowercase letter. This is to ensure consistency with any printed material on the same topic (which traditionally uses lowercase pronouns). Many UI items have standardized translations, which stay the same in all applications. Always use these translations consistently. You can search for Finnish translations of UI items in the Microsoft Language Portal. Messages Messages from the system (like error messages) are usually translated in the passive form. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation File cannot be saved. ( ) Et voi tallentaa tiedostoa. (+) Tiedostoa ei voida tallentaa Passive form should be used in error messages. Chancing the structure of strings to the active form could often 44

45 Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation confuse the user. Saving file ( ) Tiedoston tallentaminen (+) Tiedostoa tallennetaan Assuming this a message from the computer, a passive form should be used. Status Messages What is a Status Bar Message? A status bar message is an informational message about the active document or a selected command as well as about any active or selected interface item. Messages are shown in the status bar at the bottom of the window when the user has chosen a menu, a command or any other item, or has started a function. The status bar messages refer to actions being performed or already complete (for example in Outlook below). Finnish Style in Status bar Messages In English, the status bar messages have different forms dependent on the information they must convey. In Finnish, menu and commands status bar messages should follow the format below. Status bar messages should be translated in the third-person singular indicative form. Below are some examples of how certain features and status bar messages are translated. Name Finnish Name Category English Status Bar message Finnish Status Bar message Edit (+) Muokkaa menu Contains editing commands (+) Sisältää muokkauskomentoja Copy to Folder... (+) Kopioi kansioon menu Copies the selected items to a new location (+) Kopioi valitut kohteet uuteen sijaintiin New (+) Uusi command Creates a new document (+) Luo uuden asiakirjan Make object visible? Word is converting the document. Press Esc to (+) Määrittää, onko objekti näkyvissä (+) Word muuntaa asiakirjaa. Lopeta 45

46 Name Finnish Name Category Undo (+) Kumoa command English Status Bar message stop. Datasheet View Done Undo last command Finnish Status Bar message painamalla Escnäppäintä. (+) Taulukkonäkymä (+) Valmis (+) Kumoaa edellisen toiminnon Some examples from Internet Explorer: The importance of standardization In the US product you can often find messages that are phrased differently even though they have the same meaning. Try to avoid this in the localized Finnish version. Use one standard translation as in the examples below: English term Correct Finnish translation Press F1 to get Help (+) Saat ohjeen näyttöön painamalla F1. If you want Help press F1 To get Help press F1 Not enough memory (+) Muisti ei riitä. Insufficient memory There is not enough memory Save changes to %1? Do you want to save changes to %1? (+) Haluatko tallentaa kohteeseen %1 tehdyt muutokset? 46

47 Error Messages What Is An Error Message? Here is an example: Error messages are messages sent by the system or a program, informing the user that there is an error that must be corrected in order for the program to keep running. For example, the messages can prompt the user to take an action or inform the user of an error that requires rebooting the computer. Finnish Style in Error Messages It is important to use consistent terminology and language style in the localized error messages, and not just translate as they appear in the US product. Error messages are usually translated in the passive form, but this is not an absolute requirement. If the source is in the active voice, it can be translated similarly. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation Changes cannot be saved. ( ) Muutoksien tallentaminen ei onnistu. (+) Muutoksia ei voida tallentaa Passive form should be used in error messages like this. You cannot rename a {0}. ( ) Ei voi uudelleennimetä: %1. (+) Et voi nimetä kohdetta %1 uudelleen. Error messages do not need to be converted into the passive form, if the source is not a passive. Standard Phrases in Error Messages When translating standard phrases, standardize. Note that sometimes the US uses different forms to express the same thing. Try to avoid this in Finnish, if the meaning is the same. Examples: 47

48 English Translation Comment Changes cannot be saved. Changes could not be saved. Not enough memory Insufficient memory There is not enough memory There is not enough memory available... is not available... is unavailable (+) Muutoksia ei voida tallentaa. (+) Muisti ei riitä. (+) ei ole käytettävissä Muutoksia ei voida tallentaa should be OK in both cases, since this is an error message shown to the user after saving failed. These all have the same basic meaning, so these can be standardized. These all have the same basic meaning, so these can be standardized. Error Messages Containing Placeholders When localizing error messages containing placeholders, try to find out what will replace the placeholder. This is necessary for the sentence to be grammatically correct when the placeholder is replaced with a word or phrase. Note that the letters used in placeholders convey a specific meaning, see examples below: %d, %ld, %u, and %lu means <number> %c means <letter> %s means <string> Examples of error messages containing placeholders: "Checking Web %1!d! of %2!d!" means "Checking Web <number> of <number>". "INI file "%1!-.200s!" section" means "INI file "<string>" section". Try to find out what will replace the placeholder. This is necessary for the sentence to be grammatically correct when the placeholder is replaced with a word or phrase. If you do know what the placeholder will be replaced by, translate accordingly. Often placeholders will, however, not be known or the placeholder can be replaced by a variety of items. In these cases, you should usually use modifiers. This approach usually makes the translation sound quite unnatural, but sometimes it cannot be helped. But you should always try to find what the placeholder will be. Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation This file cannot be moved to {1}. ( ) Tätä tiedostoa ei voida siirtää kohteeseen {1}. (+) Tätä tiedostoa ei voida siirtää {1}- kirjastoon. In this example, the placeholder was queried. It will be one of the default libraries in Windows 7, in this case the Pictures library, so I can translate it accordingly. 48

49 Source Text Error Example Correction Explanation You cannot rename a {0}. ( ) Ei voi uudelleennimetä: %1. (+) Et voi nimetä kohdetta %1 uudelleen. A modifier has to be used, because in this case the placeholder is unknown. Menus Menu titles and menu items should be consistently translated in all localized products. The same US menus should have identical translation in all localized products and they should mirror the consistency of the US products. When possible, try to use the following combinations of word classes in menus: Menu title Menu items Example A verb A noun A noun or noun phrase A verb or verb phrase On the Insert menu: Table, Picture (Lisää-valikko: Taulukko- ja Kuvatoiminnot) On the Table menu: Insert Table, Select Row, Insert Column (Taulukko-valikko: Lisää taulukko-, Valitse rivi- ja Lisää sarake - toiminnot) The word classes of the US term and the localized term do not have to coincide, i.e. please do consider the possibility of translating a verb as a noun or vice versa, if that improves the result. Adjectives are used relatively rarely and adverbs only in exceptional cases. Verbs should normally be in informal 2nd person imperative mood, nouns in singular or plural nominative. Note! Always check current translations of menu titles and menu items from Microsoft terminology databases. 49

50 Keys The keyboard is the primary input device used for text input in Microsoft Windows. For accessibility and efficiency, most actions can be performed using the keyboard as well. While working with Microsoft software, you use keys, key combinations and key sequences. In English, References to key names, like arrow keys, function keys and numeric keys, appear in normal text (not in small caps). In Finnish, key names always start with a capital letter. Most key names are identical to the English, names, but certain key names are usually localized. Localized key names are listed below. Key in English Key in Finnish Notes Shift Backspace Right Arrow, Left Arrow, Up Arrow, Down Arrow Tab Vaihto Askelpalautin Oikea nuolinäppäin, Vasen nuolinäppäin, Ylänuolinäppäin, Alanuolinäppäin Sarkain Space/Spacebar Välilyönti/Välinäppäin Välilyönti does not have to be capitalized in running text, for example in a sentence like Paina välilyöntiä ja kirjoita seuraava sana. Access Keys/Hot keys 50

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