Imaging frontiers, contesting identities / edited by Steven G. Ellis and Lud a Klusáková (Frontiers and identities : thematic work group 5 ; 2)

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1 Imaging frontiers, contesting identities / edited by Steven G. Ellis and Lud a Klusáková (Frontiers and identities : thematic work group 5 ; 2) (21.) 1. Identità 2. Multiculturalismo I. Ellis, Steven G. II. Klusáková, Lud a CIP a cura del Sistema bibliotecario dell Università di Pisa This volume is published thanks to the support of the Directorate General for Research of the European Commission, by the Sixth Framework Network of Excellence CLIOHRES.net under the contract CIT3-CT The volume is solely the responsibility of the Network and the authors; the European Community cannot be held responsible for its contents or for any use which may be made of it. Cover: Fernand Leger ( ), Contrast of Forms, painting, Rosengart Collection, Luzern, detail Photo Scala Archives, Florence Copyright 2007 by Edizioni Plus Pisa University Press Lungarno Pacinotti, Pisa Tel Fax Section Biblioteca Member of ISBN Manager Claudia Napolitano Editing Francesca Petrucci, Eleonora Lollini Informatic assistance Massimo Arcidiacono, Michele Gasparello

2 From Dynamic to Declining: Mass Emigration from Northern Finland to Sweden, Marianne Junila Oulu University Abstract Today, Finland, like the other Scandinavian countries, is regarded as a wealthy welfarestate where citizens, regardless of their backgrounds or locations, generally enjoy socioeconomic equality. However, there are regions in Finland, which the European Union categorizes as under-developed, particularly in the thinly populated north. This chapter explains how these once dynamic municipalities became thinly populated, retrograde areas without any meaningful intervention by the Finnish government on the basis of a case study of a rural district: Salla, in Lapland. Using statistical evidence taken from a variety of local and national sources, and recreated in the form of tables and graphs, emigration from Salla is contextualized, serving as an exemplar of provincial Finnish demographic change in the second half of the twentieth century. Overall, the chapter challenges the assumption of general equality between the different regions in Finland. Suomi on muiden pohjoismaiden tavoin käynyt hyväksi esimerkiksi demokraattisesta ja tasa-arvoisesta yhteiskunnasta, jossa kansalaisten hyvinvointi ei riipu esimerkiksi hänen lapsuudenkodistaan eikä asuinpaikastaan. Toisen maailmansodan jälkeisen muuttoliikkeen tarkastelu haastaa kuitenkin käsityksen yhtäläisten mahdollisuuksien solidaarisesta Suomesta. Suomesta muutti toisen maailmansodan jälkeen noin ihmistä Ruotsiin muuton kiihkeimpien vuosien ajoittuessa ja 1970-luvulle. Lukumääräisesti eniten suomalaisia muutti suurista asutuskeskuksista, mutta kun muuttajien määrää verrataan lähtöalueen asukaslukuun, suurimmat tappiot koettiin Itä- ja Pohjois-Suomen maaseudulla. Tämän muuttoliikkeen vaikutuksia tarkastellaan tässä yhden pohjoisen esimerkkikunnan avulla, joka on Koillis-Lapissa sijaitseva Salla. Sallan kylät joko tuhoutuivat sodan aikana tai menetettiin rauhanteossa Neuvostoliitolle. Takaiskut eivät kuitenkaan lannistaneet asukkaita, vaan pian sodan jälkeen alkoi vilkas jälleenrakentamisen kausi. Sallasta tuli yrittämisen ja yritteliäsyyden mallikunta, jonka asukasluku kasvoi voimakkaasti 1960-luvun alkuun asti. Contesting Identities through Migration

3 304 Marianne Junila Sallassa ei ollut kuitenkaan minkäänlaisia jatkokoulutuspaikkoja oppivelvollisuutensa suorittaneille nuorille. Kunnassa, sen naapurikunnissa eikä koko läänissä ollut myöskään riittävästi tarjolla teollisuuden, kaupan tai palvelualojen työpaikkoja. Kun perinteiset elinkeinot maa- ja metsätalous eivät kyenneet enää 1960-luvulla tarjoamaan työtä nuorille, toimeentulon perään oli lähdettävä kauas joko Etelä-Suomeen tai Ruotsiin. Suomen viranomaiset havahtuivat maastamuuttoon myöhään. Suurin muutto oli jo ohitse, kun valtion toimesta ryhdyttiin kaavailemaan toimenpiteitä Pohjois-Suomen tyhjenemisen estämiseksi. Muuttajien virta hiipui vähitellen, ja osa lähteneistä palasi takaisin Suomeen. Paluumuutto suuntautui useimmiten Etelä-Suomen suuriin asutuskeskuksiin, ei seuduille, joista muuttajien virta oli ollut voimakkain. Sallakaan ei saanut takaisin menettämiään asukkaita, vaan siitä tuli vähitellen taantuva, taloutensa kanssa kamppaileva paikkakunta. Since World War II more than 500,000 Finns have migrated to Sweden, most of them during the 1960s and 1970s. As a consequence of this emigration the overall population of Finland has dropped by 100,000 people 1. While the majority of the migrants came from large cities in southern Finland, emigration affected northern Finland most profoundly. The parish of Salla, in the province of Lapland and close to the Russian border, was among the places with the highest proportion of emigrants in Finland 2. This chapter focuses on Salla and its emigrants in the period Salla serves as an exemplar for the many rural municipalities in eastern and northern Finland, which after recovering from the war, were unable to survive the drastic structural changes of the 1960s. These changes caused mass emigration to Sweden, reversing population growth, and curtailing local development. Few of the rural districts recovered from the population loss caused by emigration. None of ours have gone! During a field trip to Salla, it was only natural that I asked local people how emigration to Sweden had affected them personally. Most locals had at least one family member who had gone to Sweden, while the few who did not appeared almost to be proud of the fact: None of ours have gone! From the locals perspective, emigration to Sweden was not just a logical consequence of the structural change in Finnish society, a balancing of the labour markets or simply an interesting demographic phenomenon. Emigration, at the turn of the millennium, was viewed as a seminal development which stymied the municipality s growth and revival. For in the initial post-war period, Salla had been rebuilt, and was described as a flourishing rural municipality with dynamic villages, industrious people and an optimistic spirit. Dynamic, cheerful, growing the population of Salla The Second World War was, for the people of Salla, a time of great uncertainty, characterized by repeated evacuation, and frequently frustrated attempts at recommencing

4 Mass Emigration from Northern Finland to Sweden 305 normal life. When the Winter War against the Soviet Union broke out in November 1939, the population of Salla was evacuated west to the Tornio River Valley. Some began to return in early spring 1940, but it was impossible for whole families to move back to a region ravaged by war, and some did not even have a ruined house to return to. Under the terms of the peace treaty nine villages, home to nearly half of the parishioners, were lost to the Soviet Union. The time for rebuilding on their return was short. The peace lasted one year, before the next war against the Soviet Union (known in Finland as the Continuation War 3 ) broke out, enduring for three years. In late summer 1944 the people of Salla living near the eastern border once again had to be evacuated, this time because of the violent attacks of Russian partisans. By the autumn the entire population of Salla was on the move as the inhabitants of Finland s most northerly province were transferred to the province of Vaasa or to Sweden, away from the war between the Finns and Germans in Lapland 4. The return of the people of Salla was slow due to the systematic destruction of their homeland, but they were eager, on finally receiving permission, to build houses and clear the fields for farming. New housing areas sprang up alongside the old village communities for those whose homes were now situated on the wrong side of the border and for the men who had served at the front. The rebuilding, hampered by a serious shortage of building materials, continued well into the 1950s 5. In 1950 the weekly magazine Suomen Kuvalehti published an account of the Salla rebuilding project. It noted with approval, under the headline Dynamic and cheerful Salla : Looking at the new buildings in Salla today, and strolling along the plots of land a kilometre long with their thick crop of timothy, even the outsider will absorb the local population s faith in the future and their land 6. Far more land had been cleared for cultivation than ever before, and the number of cattle in the new cowsheds was increasing steadily. Neighbours were eager to help one another, and a variety of associations and sports clubs were being founded 7. Salla was experiencing a major revival. In the 1950s the traditional occupations in agriculture and forestry still provided a livelihood for most of the people of Salla, and animal husbandry in particular took great steps forward. The other areas of employment construction, trade, communications and light industry likewise recovered 8. There seemed to be enough work and things that needed to be done to keep everybody occupied, and there was active interest in the leisure pursuits which had been revived after the war 9. The pioneering spirit and faith in the future were enhanced by the high birth rate and the considerable natural increase in the population as a result. Until 1945 the natural increase in the population had varied greatly from one province to the next, but after the war it was noticeably higher in the provinces of Oulu and Lapland than it was in other parts of the country. Within this trend, Salla and a few other neighbouring districts recorded particularly high natural increases. The annual natural population increase in Salla was about 3 percent in the early 1950s, and slightly over 2 percent at the end of the decade. The birth rate was thus slowly falling, but it was not yet reflected in the age structure of the population, since half the population of the parish was under the age of The energetic programme of school reconstruction Contesting Identities through Migration

5 306 Marianne Junila introduced after the war was necessary, since the number of children in elementary education was highest at the end of the 1950s. In mid-decade the municipality also established a middle school, but only a few of the young people continued their studies there. For those who had no more than an elementary education, there was no public vocational training available in Salla 11. In order to find a career one often had to move. Remaining to work at the small home farm was a merely a short-term option: the small crofts were too small and unprofitable to sustain all the members of larger families. Fig. 1 The population of Salla and net migration Source: SVT VI A 125 Väestönmuutokset [Official Statistics for Finland VI A: 125 Vital Statistics]. Although there was significant internal migration both to and from Salla, fig. 1 shows that the balance of internal migration (net migration), remained negative. The population of Salla rose steadily throughout the 1950s, apart from a dip in The reason for this dip was the abolition of the diaspora congregations ; from then onwards, evacuees were registered according to their actual place of residence. The dip did not therefore represent a sudden drop in the population, since many of the people registered as residents in Salla had in fact not been there for years. The overall rural population of Finland was largest in 1955; thereafter urban areas expanded and the rural population began to wane. The accelerated urbanization process did not, however, extend to the northern parts of the country, where the rural population continued to

6 Mass Emigration from Northern Finland to Sweden 307 grow. Rural growth continued in the province of Oulu until the late 1950s, and in Lapland, including Salla, until the mid-1960s 12. The mass migration from the rural regions has been explained by demographic, economic and social factors, but its impact clearly differed from one region to another. The rate of natural population increase, sparse settlement and an economy dominated by agriculture were by no means always clear indicators of an area suffering from a net population loss. Such factors as the number of persons of working age in the area, the unemployment rate and the type of municipality (urban or rural) were far more likely to be determinants. However, the number of evacuees correlated most clearly with the rate of post-war migration away from a municipality: the more evacuees a municipality had, the greater its population loss 13. In the case of Salla the evacuees tended to move to other regions more than other members of the population 14. Emigration from Salla in the 1950s was rather exceptional compared with mass emigration from Finland as a whole. By the middle of the decade 20 persons had left Salla to live abroad, compared to more than 1,000 to other parts of Finland 15. An important piece of legislation altered radically the migration figures. From 1954 onwards persons seeking work in other Nordic countries no longer needed a passport; therefore, though migration did not cease at this time, the numbers were not reflected in sources as they had been previously. The Church Archives at Salla reveal that the pattern of migration did not alter substantially. A young, fertile population was a natural resource, typical of Salla as of many another rural municipalities in northern Finland, and the population loss did not appear to spell doom. The very high birth rate meant a steady increase in the population made up for the slowlyincreasing loss suffered throughout the post-war years. It continued to be moderate throughout the 1950s, partly because of the age profile of the population. The emigration rate was highest in municipalities with a large population of working age and Contesting Identities through Migration

7 308 Marianne Junila persons aged most ready to emigrate. Many of the inhabitants of Salla were only just reaching this age. End-of-the-world municipality the population of Salla The rural population of Finland experienced its greatest period of growth in the early 1960s in the province of Lapland. The majority of districts in the province recorded their highest population figures after 1960, though many not until after The population of Lapland as a whole was highest in 1967; its rural municipalities were highest in 1965 and Salla itself in Despite the fact that the population growth seemed to cease in the middle of the decade, a very bright future was forecast for Salla: it would be one of the municipalities with a steadily rising population, because the numerous new settlement areas and the age and gender profile of its inhabitants would be greatly conducive to population growth 17. The rise of urban Finland, which attracted many people from remote rural areas, would not, it was predicted, affect northern Finland unduly. Admittedly, the north was not expected to be immune from urbanization, but Salla was expected to thrive as an urban centre, while surrounding villages were expected to at least maintain their present populations 18. When these optimistic forecasts were made, migration from Salla had just assumed mass proportions, though this was not definitively established until the census of Fig. Fig. 2 The population of Salla and net migration Source: SVT VI A:111, Väestönmuutokset [Official Statistics for Finland VI A: 111, Vital Statistics].

8 Mass Emigration from Northern Finland to Sweden does indeed show a sharp drop in the population of Salla and a peak in migration in As has been stated, this was not, however, a sudden phenomenon but rather the verification of a more lasting trend by the findings of the census. The preponderance of births had, furthermore, been falling considerably throughout the 1960s, and although the natural population increase was still 2 percent in the 1960s 19, the days when Salla was growing were over. The population, which had stood at over 10,000 for a good ten years or more, took a downward turn that was never to be reversed. Although emigration to Sweden had fallen off by the mid-1970s, the population of Salla continued to dwindle. By the end of the millennium, it was half that of the post-war years. In 2000 Salla had 5,000 inhabitants the same number as in the early 20th century, and half the population in the 1950s and 60s. In the space of forty years the fifth biggest municipality in the province in terms of population no longer ranked among the top ten 20. Mass emigration to Sweden The volume of emigration to Sweden has risen and fallen in waves. Busy years have been followed by quieter periods, and then by a new wave again. According to Swedish statistics, immigration peaks occurred in 1962, and Although statistical information on Finnish emigration to Sweden is only approximate until 1970, it is nevertheless possible to draw a relatively reliable picture of the waves of immigration from Salla. Data for emigrants before 1969 can be gleaned from the Fig. 3 Emigration from Finland Source: Migration statistics, Migration Institute. Contesting Identities through Migration

9 310 Marianne Junila Salla Church Register; in most cases the Register indicates the new locations of those who departed the parish 22. There is no such data in the official population statistics for Finland, in which the number of persons entered as absent in Salla clearly differs from the number stated in the Church Register. In the late 1960s the stream of emigrants in a westward direction was so strong that the population registers could not keep pace. From 1970 onwards the number of persons emigrating from Salla are to be found in the Church Registers, the Archive of Statistics Finland and the official statistics for Finland, and they are, furthermore, largely consistent. The last two of these sources give the same number for emigrants, and the figures in the Church Register are exactly those to be expected when allowance is made for persons whose data were recorded in the civil register. The figures for 1969 present an anomaly. The same sources also show that the figures for the previous year are less than the true number, though the discrepancy is not so marked as in It was not until the late 1960s that the authorities in Lapland became aware of the alarming proportions of emigration. The fault lay squarely with the lack of the upto-date statistics about migration. The true extent was thus investigated in 1969 by the Provincial Government and the Regional Council. To ensure that the data for the number of emigrants were up-to-date, they were collected by each municipality by a variety of methods. Absentees were traced via municipal and church offices, address agencies, schools and various unofficial information channels. The investigation confirmed the suspicion that substantial emigration from the province was taking place. The Finnish government was also informed about the worrying development in the north, but without any serious response. According to one study conducted in the municipalities in the province of Lapland, 662 persons had left Salla by the end of September Assuming that the rate of emigration remained the same until the end of the year, some 800 would have left in that entire year. Judging from the various population data, at least 2,330 persons emigrated from Salla to Sweden in Salla had experienced a population shift of a similar magnitude during the war years, when the inhabitants of the villages lost to the Soviet Union were relocated in the remaining western part of the municipality 25. Emigration from Salla to Sweden occurred in cycles, as fig. 3 shows. For 1968 and 1969 it is based on the lower figures given separately for these years in the migration statistics of Statistics Finland. The first years of mass emigration from Salla appear to be 1960 (136 persons) and 1964 (68), though the high figure for 1960 can admittedly be explained to some extent by the correction made after the census. Since, furthermore, the figures are based on the time of notification and not of emigration, no conclusions can be drawn on the annual variation from these figures alone. The first wave of emigration from Salla would, in the light of the population and labour exchange statistics, appear to have been in , and the second in The flow of emigrants was thus in line with the trend for the country as a whole, except that it occurred slightly earlier. Although there were in the

10 Mass Emigration from Northern Finland to Sweden 311 Fig. 4 Emigration from Salla to Sweden Source: Poissaolevan väestöön (PV) siirretyt. Sallan seurakunnan arkisto [Nettransfers to the absent-in-area population. Salla Church Register]. first wave undoubtedly far more emigrants to Sweden than appears from the sources, the peak in emigration from Salla was nevertheless in 1969 and Examination of the Finnish municipalities that supplied Sweden with the most emigrants at the height of the emigration boom reveals that the big towns or those in Northern Finland rank among the top twelve. The list is naturally headed by the cities with the largest populations, like Helsinki. There were only a few rural municipalities among the biggest Finnish population losers 26. The extent of emigration in can be clearly seen by examining the number of emigrants from Salla in proportion to the population of the region. As in Finland as a whole, the number of emigrants to Sweden from the province of Lapland in proportion to the population of the region was highest in 1970, and even before this in Salla. Table 1 Emigrants to Sweden as a percentage (%) of the population of the region Source: Maastamuutto kunnittain iän ja sukupuolen mukaan. Siirtolaisuustilasto TC 022:05. Tilastokeskuksen arkisto [Finnish emigrants by municipality, age group and gender. Migration Statistics TC 022:05. Statistics Archives] Salla Lapland all Finland Contesting Identities through Migration

11 312 Marianne Junila Even though emigration from Salla declined in the 1970s, the number of emigrants in proportion to the population remained well above that of the province of Lapland and the country as a whole throughout the period under review. Emigration to Sweden was a phenomenon that specifically affected the rural municipalities of Lapland 27. Salla s neighbouring municipalities likewise experienced a rapid rate of emigration 28. The direction of migration Large-scale migration both to and from a municipality was a typical feature of the northernmost Finnish provinces as the large young population of working age sought more favourable conditions 29. People continued to migrate from Salla to other parts of Finland at a steady pace throughout the period under review. Each year some inhabitants moved to other parts of Finland, and the population loss caused by migration was 150 persons a year on average 30. There was, however, a clear change of direction in the 1960s. In the early years of the decade people had for the most part moved from Salla to other parts of the province of Lapland, and most often to the neighbouring localities. There was clearly most movement in the north, for seven Salla people out of ten migrated within the two most northerly provinces. At the end of the decade people Fig. 5 Migration to Sweden from Salla, the province of Lapland and other parts of Finland in Source: Siirtolaisuustilasto, Tilastokeskuksen arkisto [Migration Statistics, The Archive of Statistics Finland]. were moving further than they had before 31. The focus of mass migration shifted from the nearby regions at the start of the large-scale emigration to Sweden, and in 1969 Sweden had become the primary destination of migrants from the north. Sweden was

12 Mass Emigration from Northern Finland to Sweden 313 the destination of two out of three migrants from all the provinces, and of four out of five of the migrants from the rural regions. Almost without exception the inhabitants of rural municipalities, among them Salla, moved to Sweden 32. The popularity of Finnish towns had been surpassed. Most of the Finnish emigrants headed for southern Sweden and the industrial centres in the zone stretching from Stockholm to Gothenburg. The provinces of Stockholm and West Götaland (Gothenburg) received most Finnish immigrants, each accounting for about a quarter of the total for Only in exceptional cases did emigrants from northern Finland and Salla settle in the neighbouring province of Norrbotten, the most northerly province in Sweden 34. Compared to northern Finland the standard of living was notably higher in Northern Sweden, but within Sweden the province was regarded as a problematic area with less development and a high unemployment. The Swedish government s solution to these problems was migration to more developed parts of the country 35. Those who settled there probably migrated south later on. All the receiving areas in Sweden had large-scale engineering, motor and electronics industries. Immigrants from Salla worked in the textile industry and shipyards, at Saab, Volvo, Electrolux, LM Ericsson, ESAB and Bofors. The receiving municipalities differed considerably in size, however. Some were cities such as Gothenburg and Norrköping, with hundreds of thousands of inhabitants, while a few had a population roughly the same size as Salla or its nearest town, Rovaniemi. Whether people from Salla ended up in a city or a village was not purely a matter of chance. Families were more likely to settle in a small town than single migrants 36. In cases where jobs and housing were available regardless of locality, towns the size of Rovaniemi were undoubtedly felt to be safer and more like home than the cities. Is Finland emptying? The forecasts for the trend in the Finnish population were pessimistic in the 1930s. Too few children were being born, and the nation did not appear to possess the vitality necessary to raise the population to the desired four million 37. New national family policies, which introduced child benefits, were launched by the government to encourage parents to have more children. The high birth rate after the war put an end to any worry over the number of Finns for a couple of decades to come. Nevertheless, from the early 1950s onwards, the birth rate began to decline annually, and by the end of the following decade it was below the death rate in some municipalities. The name coined for these areas was end-of-the-world municipalities 38. However, Salla was not one of them, since there continued to be more births than deaths 39. The stream of emigrants to Sweden from the late 1960s onwards checked the growth in population even further. Compared with the emigration figures for Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s, those for Finland were numerically rather insignificant. They were, however, highly significant for Finland. In the peak emigration years of 1969 and 1970, one Finn out of hundred left the country; this was more than the number of Finns born over the same Contesting Identities through Migration

13 314 Marianne Junila period 40. A shortage of labour could therefore be expected, and as a consequence a drop in production by the beginning of the 1980s at the latest. The gloomiest prognoses saw Finland as a developing country supplying its better-off neighbours with labour 41. This pessimistic vision did not come true. But for certain areas, like Salla, this period of migration nevertheless proved to be crucial 42. The net population loss in Salla did not come as a surprise, since it could already be foreseen in the 1970s that migration was affecting and would continue to affect the population trend in the various regions in very different ways. In proportion to the population, there was far more emigration from northern Finland to Sweden than from the other parts of the country, and although many returned in the years to come, the returnees tended to settle more often in the south of the country 43. The net population gain due to returnees was not regionally distributed in the same proportion as the net loss. Finland, then, was not emptying because of the low birth rates in 1930s; but northern Finland was partially emptying because of migration in 1960s and 1970s. During this time the children of the larger families the results of the government s drive for a population increase came to maturity. Many found that their futures lay in Sweden. Notes 1 SVT VI A: Väestönmuutokset [Official Statistics for Finland VI A: Vital Statistics]. 2 Suomesta muuttaneet lähtökunnan ja tulokunnan (Ruotsissa) mukaan Siirtolaisuustilasto TC 0220:05. Tilastokeskuksen arkisto [Migration from Finland by commune of out-migration and commune of in-migration (in Sweden) in Migration Statistics TC 022:05. The Archive of Statistics Finland]: Immigrants and emigrants from Finland in , Migration Statistics of the Institute of Migration, Turku, 3 The latter war was named in Finland as The Continuation War already during the war to make clear its relationship to the Winter War. It was to continue the fight against the Soviet Union and for Finland s sovereignty and also to make up the loss of the Winter War. 4 H. Heinänen, Sallan historia, Salla 1993, pp ; Sallan kunnan kunnalliskertomus 1945 [The Municipal Report of Salla 1945]. 5 Heinänen, Sallan historia cit., pp ; Kolmen rintaman veteraani: muistoja sodasta, jälleenrakentamisesta ja siirtoväen asuttamisesta, Salla 2001, p. 133; M. Junila, Does the war explain the emigration during ? A case study from Salla in northern Finland, in Faravid, 2003, 27, pp Suomen Kuvalehti, 1950, Kolmen rintaman veteraanit cit., p Heinänen, Sallan historia cit., pp Ibid., pp T. Purola, Internal migration in Finland in and its regional variations, Helsinki 1964, pp. 137, 151; A. Majava, Väestönmuutokset talousalueittain ja kunnittain vuosina , Valtakunnansuunnittelutoimiston julkaisusarja A:21, Helsinki 1968, Heinänen, Sallan historia cit., pp ; Written statement, Risto Junikka, Principal of Kemijärvi Vocational College, 15 May 2001.

14 Mass Emigration from Northern Finland to Sweden A. Naukkarinen, Population Development in Northern Finland , in Nordia, 1969, 8, pp ; SVT VI A 125 Väestönmuutokset [Official Statistics for Finland VI A: 125 Vital Statistics], p Purola, Internal migration in Finland cit., pp A. Marttila, Rajaseudun muuttovirrat: Tutkimus Suomen itäisen rajaseudun väestön muuttoliikkeestä, Helsinki 1965, p. 131; Purola, Internal migration in Finland cit., pp ; P. Myrskylä, Muuttoliike: Maassamuutto sekä Suomen ja Ruotsin välinen muuttoliike , Helsinki 1978, p SVT VI A: Väestönmuutokset [Official Statistics for Finland VI A: Vital Statistics]. 16 Naukkarinen, Population Development in Northern Finland cit., pp ; SVT VI A: Väestönmuutokset [Official Statistics for Finland VI A: Vital Statistics]. 17 H. Pesonen Väestönmuutoksen ja väestörakenteen alueellisista piirteistä Pohjois-Suomessa, in Väestöntutkimuksen vuosikirja, , 10, p Naukkarinen, Population Development in Northern Finland cit., pp Ibid., p For population change statistics and demographic data by region see Heinänen, Sallan historia cit., p See e.g. S.A. Reinans, Den finländska befolkningen i Sverige en statistisk-demografisk beskrivning in Finnarnas historia i Sverige 3, Helsingfors 1996, p. 65; Immigrants and emigrants from Finland in , Migration Institute, 22 Poissaolevan väestöön (PV) siirretyt Sallan seurakunnan arkisto [Net transfers to the absentin-area population Salla Church Register]. 23 Poissaolevan väestöön (PV) siirretyt , Sallan seurakunnan arkisto [Net transfers to the absent-in-area population , Salla Church Register]. Suomesta Ruotsiin muuttaneet iän ja sukupuolen sekä lähtö- ja tulokunnan mukaan. Siirtolaisuustilasto TC 022:05. Tilastokeskuksen arkisto. [Finnish emigrants by outgoing municipality, age group and gender and Finnish emigrants by outgoing and incoming (Sweden) municipality. Migration Statistics TC 022:05. The Archive of Statistics Finland]. Statistics Finland has supplemented the Finnish statistics on international migration with data from the Swedish statistical authorities. Communication by Senior Statistician Matti Saari 10 October The monitoring of migration between the Nordic countries was revised with the introduction of an Inter-Nordic Migration Form on 1 October 1969; persons entered in the Salla church register as emigrating to Sweden in that year thus appear in two registers. Eighty-three persons are marked absent and 62 as having filled in an Inter-Nordic Migration Form. The official statistics for Finland for 1969 mention absentees only, numbering 122 in Salla. The migration statistics of Statistics Finland present the number of Salla persons living in Sweden in two different ways. According to one set of statistics, they totalled 934 in ; according to the other, they numbered 155 in 1968 and 635 in 1969, i.e. a total of 790 in These figures include only those whose place of residence on arrival in Sweden was known. In reality the total figure is thus higher. 24 H. Annanpalo, Selostus vuoden 1969 muuttotutkimuksesta, Lapin lääninhallitus/lapin maakuntaliitto Sallan kunnan kunnalliskertomus 1940 [Municipal report for Salla 1940]. 26 Maastamuutto lähtökunnan ja tulokunnan mukaan (Ruotsissa) kunnittain Siirtolaisuustilasto TC 0220:05. Tilastokeskuksen arkisto [Finnish emigrants by municipality of emigration and immigration (Sweden) Migration Statistics TC 0220:05. Statistics Archives]. See also N. Häggström, Migrationen mellan Finland och Sverige åren Några flyttningsmodeller: varifrån i Finland kommer flyttarna och var i Sverige hamnar man? Umeå 1978, pp Reinans, Den finländska befolkningen i Sverige en statistisk-demografisk beskrivning cit., p Annanpalo, Selostus vuoden 1969 muuttotutkimuksesta cit., p Pesonen, Väestönmuutoksen ja väestörakenteen alueellisista piirteistä Pohjois-Suomessa cit., p. 87. Contesting Identities through Migration

15 316 Marianne Junila 30 SVT VI A: Väestönmuutokset. Väestönmuutokset ja väestö lääneittäin, talousalueittain ja kunnittain [Official Statistics for Finland VI A: Population changes. Population changes and population by province, economic region and municipality ]. 31 Kuntien välinen muuttoliike lähtökunnan mukaan. Muuttoliike. Tilastokeskuksen arkisto [Intercommunal migration by out-migration municipalities. Migration Statistics. The Archive of Statistics Finland]. 32 Annanpalo, Selostus vuoden 1969 muuttotutkimuksesta, p Reinans, Den finländska befolkningen i Sverige en statistisk-demografisk beskrivning cit., p. 72; Häggström, Migrationen mellan Finland och Sverige åren cit., p. 8. The province of Södermanland lies on the Baltic, south of the province of Stockholm, and its capital is Nyköping. The province of Västmanland is its neighbour to the north and lies inland, north of Lake Mälare. Its capital is Västerås. See e.g. Sveriges lan, 34 Suomesta muuttaneet lähtökunnan ja tulokunnan (Ruotsissa) mukaan Siirtolaisuustilasto TC 0220:05. Tilastokeskuksen arkisto [Migration from Finland by commune of out-migration and commune of in-migration (in Sweden) in Migration Statistics TC 022:05. The Archive of Statistics Finland]. See also C. Edgren, Suomalaisen siirtolaistyövoiman rakenne ja taloudellinen asema Ruotsissa, Helsinki 1974, p L.E. Gallaway, R. Rydén, R. Vedder, International Labor Migration in Sweden1967, in The Swedish Journal of Economics, 1973, 3, pp ; M. Dribe, Långväga flyttningar i Sverige : en studie av förändringarna I de interregionala flyttningar för män I åldern år, in Lund Papers in Economic History, 1994, 38, pp Lähetetyt PM-muuttokirjajäljennökset Sallan seurakunnan arkisto [Copies of emigration documents Salla Church Register]. Persons moving to the same address in Sweden at the same or almost the same time are regarded as family migrants. 37 See, e.g., G. Modeen, Suomen väkiluvun tuleva kehitys ja sen taloudelliset seuraukset in Kansantaloudellinen Aikakauskirja, 1934, 4; G. Modeen, G. Fougstedt, Laskelmia Suomen vastaisesta väestönkehityksestä, in SVT VI:89, Helsinki The Government s National Planning Agency (disbanded in 1973) used this expression. K. Sipponen, J. Hulkko, The Population Situation in Finland and the Population Policy it requires in Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, , 14, p The net increase in Salla was 1968: 114, 1969: 55, 1970: 67, 1971: 45, 1972: 33. SVT VI A: Väestönmuutokset [Official Statistics for Finland VI A: Vital Statistics]. 40 R. Wiman, Työvoiman kansainvälisen muuttoliikkeen mekanismi: Tutkimus Ruotsiin muuton syistä, ETLAn julkaisuja B9, Helsinki 1975, p T.Filpus, E. Polus, The Labour Force Future Supply and Demand in Yearbook of Population Research in Finland XII (1971), p. 58; Sipponen-Hulkko, The Population Situation in Finland and the Population Policy it requires cit., p T. Hartman, Kunnittainen väestöennuste vuoteen 2000 saakka, osa 1, in Tilastollisia tiedonantoja, 1969, 4, pp. 30, 37, See, e.g., S-L. Heikkinen, Ruotsista palanneet, Siirtolaisuustutkimuksia 5, Helsinki Bibliography Primary sources Immigrants and Emigrants , Institute of Migration, Turku. Migration Statistics TC 022:05, The Archive of Statistics Finland, Helsinki. Migration Statistics , Salla Church Register, Salla.

16 Mass Emigration from Northern Finland to Sweden 317 Secondary works Annanpalo H., Lapin läänin työllisyysongelmista, in Lapin Kansa, 1969, 17. Id., Selostus vuoden 1969 muuttotutkimuksesta, Lapin lääninhallitus/lapin maakuntaliitto Unpublished memorandum. Dribe M., Långväga flyttningar i Sverige : en studie av förändringarna i de interregionala flyttningarna för män I åldern år in, Lund Papers in Economic History, 1994, 38. Edgren C., Suomalaisen siirtolaistyövoiman rakenne ja taloudellinen asema Ruotsissa, Helsinki Filpus T., Polus E., The Labour Force Future Supply and Demand, in Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, 1971, 12. Gallaway L.E., Rydén R., Vedder R., International Labor Migration in Sweden1967, in The Swedish Journal of Economics, 1973, 3. Hartman T., Kunnittainen väestöennuste vuoteen 2000 saakka, osa 1, in Tilastollisia tiedonantoja, 1969, 45. Heikkinen S-L, Ruotsista palanneet, Siirtolaisuustutkimuksia 5. Helsinki Heinänen H., Sallan historia, Salla Häggström N., Migrationen mellan Finland och Sverige åren Några flyttningsmodeller: varifrån i Finland kommer flyttarna och var i Sverige hamnar man?, Umeå Junila M., Does the war explain the emigration during ? A case study from Salla in northern Finland, in Faravid, 2003, 27. Kolmen rintaman veteraanit: Muistoja sodasta jälleenrakentamisesta ja siirtoväen asuttamisesta: veteraanimatrikkeli, Salla Majava A., Väestönmuutokset talousalueittain ja kunnittain vuosina , Valtakunnansuunnittelutoimiston julkaisusarja A:21, Helsinki Marttila A., Rajaseudun muuttovirrat: Tutkimus Suomen itäisen rajaseudun väestön muuttoliikkeestä, Helsinki Modeen G., Suomen väkiluvun tuleva kehitys ja sen taloudelliset seuraukset, in Kansantaloudellinen Aikakauskirja, 1934, 4. Id., Fougstedt G., Laskelmia Suomen vastaisesta väestönkehityksestä. SVT VI:89, Helsinki Myrskylä P., Muuttoliike. Maassamuutto sekä Suomen ja Ruotsin välinen muuttoliike , Helsinki Naukkarinen A., Population Development in Northern Finland , in Nordia, 1969, 8. Pesonen H., Väestönmuutoksen ja väestörakenteen alueellisista piirteistä Pohjois-Suomessa, in Väestöntutkimuksen vuosikirja, , 10. Purola T., Internal migration in Finland in and its regional variations, Helsinki Reinans S.A., Den finländska befolkningen i Sverige en statistisk-demografisk beskrivning in Finnarnas historia i Sverige, 1996, 3. Sipponen K., Hulkko J., The Population Situation in Finland and the Population Policy it requires, in Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, , 14. Suomen virallinen tilasto VI A Väestönmuutokset [Official Statistics of Finland VI A. Vital Statistics]. Wiman R., Työvoiman kansainvälisen muuttoliikkeen mekanismi. Tutkimus Ruotsiin muuton syistä, ET- LAn julkaisuja B9, Helsinki Contesting Identities through Migration

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