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2 Vantaa 2006

3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This publication is intended as a handbook for anyone who wishes to carry out Content and Language Integrated Learning. It was produced in the Team Teaching CLIL-AXIS -project by the following people: Tanja Ala-Hiiro, Mariusz Andryszczyk, Maria Jésus Frigols, Isabell Hodgson, Tuula Ikonen, Marcin Jazwiec, Steven Jones, Petra Kaseva, Helli Kitinoja, Maruta Koha, Maija Kärnä, Päivö Laine, Ritva Leppänen, Minna Lindström, Riikka Länsisalmi, Larisa Malinovska, Sanna Malkki, Päivi Ouallen, Kaarina Pekkala, Päivi Salokangas, Karen Schwartz, Janis Silis, Joanna Szczecinska, Aila Vallejo-Medina, Kati Valtonen, Anda Zeidmane. This publication and the contents of the web site are available also in DVD Team Teaching, CLIL-AXIS. The Team Teaching project (FI-03-B-F-LA ) has received European Union Leonardo da Vinci funding. Handbook Edited by: Handbook Translated by: Handbook Design and Layout: Petra Kaseva (Adulta) FI Karen Schwartz (LeedsMet) UK Riikka Länsisalmi (Laurea) FI Kaarina Pekkala (Laurea) FI Päivi Ouallen (Laurea) FI Maria Jésus Frigols (Generalitat Valenciana) ES Maruta Koha (VUC) LV Marcin Jazwiec (WSHE) PL Maija Luomala (Laurea) FI Project s website: Copyright Team Teaching CLIL-AXIS 2006 ISBN Edita Prima Oy, HELSINKI 2006.

4 THE PROJECT PARTNERS Coordinating Partner Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Finland Partner Institutions Generalidad Valenciana Consellería de Educación, Spain Adulta, Keski-Uusimaa Institute of Further Education, Finland Pirkanmaa University of Applied Sciences, Finland Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences, Finland Latvia University of Agriculture, Latvia Ventspils University College, Latvia Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz, Poland Leeds Metropolitan University, Leslie Silver International Faculty, The UK Project Evaluation David Marsh, University of Jyväskylä, Continuing Education Centre UNICOM, Finland

5 CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION 6 2 CLIL AND TEAM TEACHING DIMENSIONS IN PARTNER COUNTRIES Finland Nursing and Health Care Business Administration Tourism and Hospitality Immigrant Training Company Training Future Prospects Spain Cheste Vocational College, Valencia Latvia Economics and Business Administration Engineering Translation Studies General Remarks Poland Information Technology Corporate Finance, Marketing and Management The UK Overseas Students Future Prospects 20 3 WORKING-LIFE DIMENSIONS IN PARTNER COUNTRIES Finland Spain Latvia Poland The UK 24 4 CONCLUSION 26 5 TRANSLATIONS Suomi España Latvija Polska 48 Annex 1 53 Annex 2 54

6 1 INTRODUCTION According to the European language skill objectives, all European citizens should be able to communicate in at least two foreign languages. In present-day working life, there is an increasing need for intercultural skills and competencies. At the same time, the resources for language and culture training in vocational education are decreasing. One way of addressing future challenges is to enhance the integration of language and culture training and the teaching of vocational content. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) involves imbedding vocational content into language teaching (beyond technical terminology) and/or including language learning elements in the teaching of vocational content. Learning is facilitated by the pedagogical elements of both language and substance. This is what distinguishes CLIL from content learning based on teaching delivered in another language. In practice, individual teachers are rarely able to implement CLIL without co-operation with other teachers. Also, the fact that many training programmes are actually carried out in the working environment implies that a more profound cooperation between the representatives of educational institutions and working life is called for. Team Teaching is a pedagogical method in which teachers of the same or of different subject areas co-operate in the planning, realisation and further development of an educational course, programme, etc. The students are aware of the presence of more than one teacher throughout their learning experience. This is what distinguishes Team Teaching from other types of teacher co-operation. Team Teaching project: Transferability and Boundary Zones in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL-AXIS) is a three-year pilot project funded by the European Union (Leonardo da Vinci Programme). The aim of the project is to launch an awareness package for educators and employers on development opportunities in education delivery for the new realities of working life in Europe. The CLIL-AXIS Toolkit includes this handbook and the project s web site (www.clil-axis.net). The Toolkit presents options for adapting methods, models and practices to enhance the development of key competencies for the new reality of working life. It provides insight into innovation and good practice on the integration of content, communication and culture in the world of education and work. In practice, this means that the partners have made an effort to implement Team Teaching as a CLIL method. Using the results from these documented efforts the project produces the Toolkit mentioned above, giving background and sources regarding CLIL and Team Teaching, as well as practical examples and ideas for teachers and decision makers. The project involves nine partners from five European countries representing several disciplines, as well as an external advisor and evaluator (Annex 1). The following chapter presents a summary of the partner institutions teaching experiences regarding training in several educational institutions and a variety of vocational training programmes, courses and course modules 6

7 in Finland, Spain, Latvia, Poland and the UK. The final section describes the job market s needs for employees with language, communication and culture competencies in the respective areas of operation in the partner countries, as well as the partner institutions methods and efforts to meet those needs. This project has also co-operated with another Leonardo-funded project, CLILCOM, co-ordinated by Helsinki Polytechnic Stadia. The outcomes of both projects were presented at an international CLIL conference in Helsinki in June 2006, CLIL Competencebuilding for Globalization, Quality in Teaching through Foreign Language. Conference proceedings will be presented in a separate publication. 2 CLIL AND TEAM TEACHING DIMENSIONS IN PARTNER COUNTRIES This chapter presents state of the art practices in each partner country. As a considerable variety of training is carried out on a continuous basis, it must be kept in mind that new experiences and outcomes are emerging. Overall, these practices have been found to help teachers and partners to be reflective, innovative and broad-minded when facing, analysing and introducing new training methods. Pidän vieraskielisen opetuksen järjestämistä tosi tärkeänä, sillä kansainvälisyys tulee lisääntymään, koska olemme osa Eurooppaa ja tulevaisuudessa tulemme haalimaan työvoimaa ulkomailta. student quote 2.1 Finland The CLIL method has not been deeply integrated into the Finnish vocational training system. Efforts have been limited by strict disciplinary divisions reflected in attitudes to teaching, and allocation of resources. In further education, the vocational content teachers and language teachers have traditionally not worked as a team. Any resemblance to CLIL has been limited to the use of vocation-related teaching material in the target language Nursing and Health Care Laurea University of Applied Sciences (Laurea): Designed a course of patient-centered counselling for Finnish and exchange students. Students learned to use specific terminology and adequate sentences for health education material, to promote writing and comprehension skills in English and to communicate in a foreign language in a multicultural environment. As part of this training, the English teacher spent one month in health care units getting to know the language, culture competencies and working life requirements. 7

8 MINNA LINDSTRÖM Exchange students practising on pediatric wards in Tampere University Hospital. Pirkanmaa (PIRAMK) University of Applied Sciences: Designed an English course for Intensive Care Unit nurses, who had been newly chosen to act as practical training supervisors. The aim of the training was to promote and support co-operation between PIRAMK and the hospital wards when sending and receiving exchange students for practical training. The training received excellent feedback from the students. The use of varied teaching methods and authentic learning environment kept students aware of their learning processes and the multi-national group created a real need to use English during the training sessions. Furthermore, the presence of the content teacher enabled the activating and deepening of the vast technical terminology associated with this field. Seinäjoki (SeAMK) University of Applied Sciences: Designed a course on the care of elderly people with dementia. Content-related themes were taught in Finnish, language training consisted of learning the core terminology, understanding professional English, and encouraging students to communicate in a foreign language. Students felt more competent with the use of foreign language and they suggested further courses in English. Teachers experience of combining CLIL and Team Teaching methods was also positive. They felt that despite the somewhat more demanding preparation of teaching situations, the outcomes were rewarding and gave new insight to everyday working life Business Administration Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences: Implemented CLIL in the module Introduction to International Business. The course objectives were to familiarise the students with an international business environment, to enable them to understand internationalisation in SME s (Small 8

9 and Medium size Enterprises) and to encourage and motivate the students to find opportunities for internationalisation in their future careers. The students found it very useful to learn the basic concepts/terms also in English, and believe it will prepare them for the study semester abroad. Teachers found that planning and implementing a study unit together with another staff member gave new ideas and approaches to teaching. Adulta Further Education College: Designed a course in secretarial studies, which is mostly carried out as distance learning with a help of an internet-based learning environment. Adulta tried to implement CLIL and Team Teaching, but due to obstacles such as difficulties in resource allocation and time management, changes in the teaching personnel the project ceased. The experience showed that it is crucial for all teamwork and planning to start in good time before the course starts. Administrational obstacles should be removed, and management support is critical. The pilot demonstrated that there is interest in trying these methods and to co-operate with colleagues beyond one s own area of expertise. It also generated many new ideas that will have a positive impact on the teachers every-day work and professional development Tourism and Hospitality Laurea University of Applied Sciences: Conducted a survey on students and teachers reactions to CLIL. Benefits were considered to be the development of the teachers own language skills and the increased opportunities to participate in international programmes and co-opera- MINNA LINDSTRÖM Independent study. Listening, comprehension and working with the material package ICU English in Pirkanmaa University of Applied Sciences. 9

10 MINNA LINDSTRÖM Describing pain. Learning the vocabulary in the module Training of Health Care Specialists on the Way to Europe Pirkanmaa University of Applied Sciences and Tallinn Medical School. tion. It was also found to diversify everyday work and make teachers re-analyse and reorganise their teaching. However, CLIL was considered time-consuming and the teachers lack of competence in CLIL methods and their insufficient mastery of the target language were found worrying. The majority of the students considered their language skills to be good enough to study through a foreign language, tourism students being the most confident. English was the most desired language for CLIL teaching and respondents preferred participation to be optional. The students completed a course in Experiences and Programme Services in Tourism` by working for a tourist activities company in an authentic environment in Lapland. The practical training involved attending to British and Irish Christmas tourists. These family tourists spent an experiential Christmas holiday of one to three days, highlighted by a meeting with the real Father Christmas. Laurea s students performed various tasks for the programme service company to attend to these tourists. Prior to practical training, the students defined their goals, in which following the working methods in the company and improving their English language skills were emphasised. In addition, the students underwent a course in Complimentary English for Tourism. The aim of this was to develop oral language skills in authentic communicative situations. The students also reflected on their development in oral language skills in a written report. In their final evaluations the students emphasised the improvement in communication skills that emerged from the practical work situations. 10

11 Adulta Further Education College: Upon identifying a need for language skills among entrepreneurs in the tourism industry, a team of language teachers and a vocational teacher designed a course using the blended learning approach. The language teachers created web-based learning materials for special themes in tourism, with input on the content from the vocational teachers. The language teacher s role was to bring the linguistic aspects and appropriate language use into authentic situations, such as fishing trips or guided tours Immigrant Training Adulta Further Education College: Knowledge of Finnish working life is an important part of the immigrant training programme as it helps foreign students find a job and to integrate into Finnish society. Team Teaching is widely used, especially when a Finnish language teacher cannot teach all the subjects, especially those related to warehouse work. Course contents include knowledge of working life, safety conditions at work, logistics, recruitment processes and Finnish language Company Training Adulta Further Education College: Produces language and culture training for business enterprises and other organisations. For example, an English course for oil terminal personnel was run, in which the objectives and contents of learning were jointly set by a language teacher and company representatives. The training received excellent feedback because the course contents corresponded to the actual work. The participants were further motivated by the use of various learning methods MINNA LINDSTRÖM Learning by doing demonstration. ICU English in Pirkanmaa University of Applied Sciences. 11

12 such as blended learning and problem solving. The participants gained confidence in dealing with every-day situations in English and realised the importance of good language skills. The teacher also benefited from the opportunity to gain new knowledge and to develop professionally Future Prospects A clear need for a CLIL approach in Finnish vocational education has arisen as a result of several pedagogical and political factors: The emphasis in learning processes is nowadays more on multi-disciplinary learning and on practical skills instead of theoretical knowledge of isolated topics Regional development is an important consideration in education and research The internationalisation of Finnish communities has brought new challenges for training providers Finland is a small country and Finnish a minority language. Business competitiveness requires efficient foreign language training programmes providing good communication skills in other languages, as well as cultural knowledge. This applies to all forms of vocational training; in universities of applied sciences, in vocational education on the secondary level and company training A political and social requirement is imposing on the universities of applied sciences (polytechnics) in Finland to enhance the internationalising of the region they are operative in. Integrating content and language offers an excellent method to introduce the Finnish work culture to non- Finnish students. Universities of applied sciences usually operate in several units or institutes. All of these are not large enough to offer entire degree programmes in English. However, they do arrange also teaching in English, for example to foreign exchange students. CLIL and Team Teaching offer a model to realise this, in co-operation with teachers in other units. These universities develop different kinds of pedagogical models that combine the three main functions of professional higher education; professional education and teaching based on applied research and regional development. The main idea is that the students learn through active participation in an authentic project, so CLIL and Team Teaching would be very effective methods to use in this context. In vocational education at the secondary level, Finland has a system of qualifications for adults. Since language, communication and culture skills are not required in real life situations isolated from other vocational skills they should not be offered as separate exams, but integrated into a vocational exam, based on vocational content in the training. 12

13 In further education, many adult students have failed to qualify for a vocation in their younger years, because they have learning problems. Many of them start or continue their studies now, recognising that these problems must be addressed. Nevertheless, they are often reluctant to study languages. CLIL is a perfect method to motivate these students by introducing a communicative, working-life-related approach and by offering more comprehensive support to each student. Modern company training requires non-traditional pedagogical approaches to language teaching and learning. There are numerous institutions and private businesses of a variety of sizes competing for personnel training. However, implementing CLIL and Team Teaching is an asset that only few have implemented up to the present day. Si hubiéramos empezado antes ahora tendríamos más nivel y más fluidez student quote 2.2 Spain Although the Spanish Education Law establishes a general education framework for the whole country, the Spanish education system is extremely decentralised. Each Autonomous Region is responsible for curriculum development and implementation, according both to its own educational policy and to the general legal guidelines. However, the situation is currently under change due to the proposals in the forthcoming Education Law. As a consequence of this regional diversity, the implementation of CLIL also varies greatly among the different Autonomous Regions. Several of the Boards of Education (including Madrid, Catalonia, the Basque Country, Navarre, Galicia and the Balearic Islands) have implemented different bilingual pilot experiences in a number of primary and secondary schools Cheste Vocational College, Valencia Students in vocational streams can learn Aeronautics, Biochemistry, Cookery, Catering, Law and ICT through English and/or French. Team Teaching has been found to be a useful tool to cope with the methodological tools and lesson-planning strategies that subject teachers may need for integrating content and language in their daily practice when introducing students to the CLIL approach. 13

14 The Team Teaching modality described by Robinson & Schaible (1995) as Collaborative Teaching has been chosen as the most appropriate approach. This involves both the language and the content teacher develop didactic materials, design the unit and implement it in the classroom. Following this pattern, both teachers interact in the classroom and promote cooperative learning, students are equipped with skills for future work, improved communication, acquiring intercultural competence and working in a more internationalised society. The Team Teaching experience has been included in the school quality frame, since CLIL is an added value that improves the institution s profile. Course design considerations: Use of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages to establish the degree of knowledge of foreign language (both for students and teachers) The differences between teaching through a foreign language and teaching in a foreign language: double focus on content and language in the CLIL classroom The ratio of content and language teaching may vary depending on the module, didactic objectives, degree of knowledge of L2, etc. Changing the means of instruction implies changing the method of instruction The differences between learning through CLIL and learning in the mother tongue Selection and adapting of learning materials and tasks Developing linguistic skills: BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) and CALP (Cognitive and Academic Language Proficiency) Promoting discourse activities Boosting cognitive processes Implementation considerations: Inter-actional (student-centred) vs. Transactional (teacher-centred) methodology Check that students understand and learn the content by frequently proposing comprehension activities Pacing: too accelerated can make comprehension difficult, too slow can de-motivate students Prioritise communication skills: the learning process is enhanced by giving students the possibility of expressing themselves Make students produce information in a specific way This is my first time to study in English. It has been a good experience to work in a group with the others. At the beginning I was a bit stressed because I did not want to make mistakes when I speak, but now I am more confident and I am more eager to express myself in English. student quote 14

15 Promote discourse activities: analysis, description, summarising Use of audiovisual resources: PowerPoint slide shows, transparencies, authentic materials and documents Use of different information formats (e.g. maps, tables, graphics) Trans-languaging Use of transparent vocabulary Pedagogic materials: developed from content teacher s materials, original materials from the target language country, Internet materials Learning activities similar to those used in the foreign language classroom Manam draugam bija saskarsme ar CLIL un, pamatojoties uz vina iespaidiem, es domaju, ka musu universitate vajag ieviest CLIL student quote 2.3 Latvia Since Latvia entered the European Union, a high level of competence in English has become more and more crucial. It is necessary to provide a studying process that can help students become competitive after graduation. In order to respond efficiently to the requirements of the labour market, efforts have been made to implement CLIL and Team Teaching methods Economics and Business Administration Ventspils University College (VUC): CLIL and Team Teaching are practised in the academic BBA and MBA study programmes. For example, in the Project Management course, the content teacher puts more stress on the techniques and methods of project planning and management, while the language teacher encourages the students to use the necessary vocabulary and structures. Many students are already in employment, so they find it useful to discuss project management issues in English Engineering Latvia University of Agriculture (LUA): At the Faculty of Engineering the teaching of the course Technical Service of Automobiles contains elements of CLIL and team teaching methods. The language teacher teaches special terms and special texts, while the content teacher teaches the theoretical part in the Latvian language. Then the content teacher gives technological descriptions as laboratory work to the students in English. The aims of this teaching technique are to help students to acquire special terminology in English related to the content of the course, to develop foreign language and communication skills, and to be able to put the acquired knowledge into practical use. 15

16 2.3.3 Translation Studies Ventspils University College (VUC): Courses combining professional content and English as translators and interpreters B language are preceded by courses developing English language competence. Team Teaching is practised in interpreting classes with content and language teachers. A different Team Teaching model is practised when co-ordinating the pedagogical activities among the teachers of specialised practical translation courses, where teamwork takes place before and after direct classroom activities. CLIL principles are also promoted through annual students research conferences, visits of guest lecturers from British, American, German and Finnish higher education, students internship conferences, open lectures and classes given by the members of academic staff General Remarks The students are very satisfied and their motivation to acquire subject knowledge is increased. With the introduction of the CLIL method, the need for co-operation and teamwork will increase and many members of the academic staff will get involved in this type of teaching. Moreover, the application of the methods of CLIL ensures improved possibilities for the graduates to be successful in their professional working life. Regarding the programme External Relations of Organisations at the LUA Faculty of Social Sciences, the most important requirement for students to be competitive in the labour market is to be competent in foreign languages on a professional level, and to have developed communication and cross-cultural competencies. At the same time, students should have sufficient knowledge in other fields, like economics, sociology, psychology and project management. The students cannot acquire the knowledge in these fields in an isolated way, and therefore intersubject links must be established in order to provide fruitful learning results. The best solution for this is teamwork among teachers of different subjects in co-operation with students. One must have a very good command of the language to be able to teach in a foreign language. I think that even with a very good knowledge of the language it is very demanding, because one must prepare all the materials in a foreign language. One must also have a very good command of the special vocabulary of one s field of expertise. I think that it is not possible to achieve good enough command of the language only studying in Latvia. One should actually work for a time outside Latvia to be able to cope with all the requirements. teacher quote 16

17 Students spend at least four years at the university, which gives teachers the task of implementing a programme of studies capable of preparing the students in every field that will be of importance after graduation. Here again teamwork is of great help. One of the most serious challenges is the successful implication of CLIL and Team Teaching in a situation when the scope of foreign language teaching has been consciously diminished due to the tendencies and beliefs in education policies of all the recent governments of Latvia. Ksztalcenie zintegrowane wplywa w sposób istotny na komunikatywnosc. Ma tez istotny wplyw na przyswajanie jezyka obcego i zwieksza szanse na rynku pracy. student quote 2.4 Poland CLIL has only recently been introduced in Poland, mainly due to political and economic factors brought about a dramatic transformation due to changes in the political structure. The free market economy, which has grown rapidly, has been the main cause of increasing unemployment. Competitiveness in the job market has been the main driving force for seeking better education. Language learning is also affected by the present-day possibility of founding a private educational institution, increasing Internet access, rapidly developing science and technology, growing mobility of students and the work force, joining the EU in 2004 and access to international degrees and certificates. There has been a considerable increase in courses intended to teach content in a foreign language in Poland. So far however, teachers who mastered a foreign language to a degree where they can lecture and instruct students in this language have taught such courses. Interviews of several teachers teaching content in a foreign language showed that teachers do not consult any language specialists and do not consider this important in a process of successful integrated learning. The Team Teaching of various subjects would undoubtedly offer the benefits of more motivated students, a higher quality of teaching, personal development for the teachers and prestige for the educational institutions who practise CLIL through Team Teaching. For Polish people, CLIL will undoubtedly become a key concept to facilitate professional and social functioning in a foreign language environment Since the beginning of this project many teachers and institutes have been contacted throughout Poland. According to a survey, it was discovered that both students and teachers are interested in the CLIL method and are aware that such classes are beneficial to improving their language skills (both communication skills and vocabulary), professional competencies and personal development. Most (85%) believed CLIL classes improved chances in the job market. 17

18 2.4.1 Information Technology CISCO Academy and Corporate Finance: A CLIL course was designed to develop vocabulary and phrases for special purposes (IT) and to revise grammar. Reading (technical texts, finding specific information), speaking (describing process and how things are built, providing arguments, discussion, problem solving, making suggestions, negotiating) and listening skills were also practised. These classes also incorporated content on Information Technology Corporate Finance, Marketing and Management Wyższa Szkoła Humanistyczno-Ekonomiczna w Łodzi (WSHE): A content teacher prepares material that is then adapted by language teachers to fit the students linguistic needs. A number of language exercises and tasks are prepared, such as case studies that help students learn practical management in an international environment. Firstly, the content and language teachers run classes separately based on collective materials, which is then followed by Team Teaching. Students receive separate marks for content and language. CLIL is taking two birds with one stone. student quote 2.5 The UK CLIL has not reached the sort of levels of take-up in the UK that have been seen across much of Europe. It is easy to speculate and discuss some of the reasons for this and some of the arguments are well rehearsed. An initial look at the state of language study in the UK reveals a number of factors including: lower levels of take-up of language as a whole focus on a number of languages (as opposed to a concentration on English) that tends to diffuse efforts and reduce potential class sizes (issues of economic viability) lack of commitment to language education by students the possibility to stop language study mid way through secondary school less of the curriculum dedicated to language lower levels of language competence in students coming out of many UK schools many students not seeing the need to learn languages since everyone speaks English now initiatives such as CLIL and Team Teaching to some extent inhibited by the over-prescriptive nature of The National Curriculum 18

19 These factors and others have meant that there is often less time spent on languages and less importance attached to languages by university-level students. This lack of importance attached to language learning is also often encountered amongst content teachers in higher education across the UK. There is a greater reason for optimism on the adoption of CLIL in UK schools, with most UK links for CLIL pertaining to school education. One interesting point that often occurs is the possibility of UK schools attaining a specialist status, with a number of schools being language specialists. This has helped promote new (to the UK) educational practices. Two areas where some of the features of CLIL and Team Teaching were exhibited or where limited CLIL and Team Teaching were in practice were uncovered. The first example is one that has started to occur in some blended learning courses. These are often team taught to enable better and more frequent coverage of spontaneous classroom occurrences such as discussions that can happen any time the learners wish. Team Teaching does not involve specifically content and language teachers, but language and content are often goals. A primary feature of these courses is that the teachers have set up exercises within the virtual learning environment (VLE) that are not supported in any classroom contact. In this type of situation, support must come from within the module materials to ensure that aspects such as vocabulary are made accessible to the student. Approaches to specialised vocabulary may include a hypertext glossary linked to examples of uses in both written and audio versions. Additionally, in the teacher s e-moderating role for course discussions, language may be looked at in the context of its usage. One issue often encountered is that since debate on this type of course is often completely open in nature and seen by all, teachers must be very careful as to how any language correction is given to the learner. This is particularly important in courses that mix native English speakers with overseas students. Another issue often encountered in discussions/ is that of the younger age group native English speakers often using a very colloquial text message-based form of speech. Here teachers often find it necessary to set up ground rules relating to the standard and usage of English. In VLE discussion group environments it is important to avoid learners either becoming disenfranchised from an aspect of the learning process or picking up poor linguistic habits. 19

20 2.5.1 Overseas Students The teaching of study skills and English culture to overseas students is one area where CLIL appears in UK higher education. This is a consequence of the large numbers of overseas students in the UK who want a UK education and who have (sometimes) marginal language skills. A large number of UK universities run extra classes for these students. Language support is often now offered - perhaps a reflection on those students who may have used rote forms of learning to pass English language entry tests, but now struggle with practical English. Frequently one teacher is tasked to conduct this teaching, but a degree of Team Teaching together with CLIL is sometimes apparent. Engagement in CLIL in higher education needs either a language or a content specialist working together or (in some cases) a content teacher with sufficient language teaching skills. The second example relates to the classes provided for the teaching of study skills and English culture to overseas students. In cases where there are sufficient numbers (the majority of the class) in need of supplementary support then a subject teacher (often one with pastoral responsibility for the group) and an English teacher may work together in the class. These classes are often run in the first six weeks and may look at: study skills differences in academic practice (Far Eastern v. Western) supplementary English (one issue often encountered is of overseas students having been taught a form of English that differs in terms of vocabulary, dialect, etc. from that taught in their own country) local culture (avoidance of culture shock is often one of the motivating factors here) These classes can often help to support studies and avoid alienating students who may have very different expectations of language and culture in the UK. The use of two teachers can increase the effectiveness of such a process, helping the student to make progress earlier in the course Future Prospects In a country where language learning on vocational courses is not as strong as in other countries it is difficult to suggest areas of best practice. Where there may be practice of interest is in the support for learners on content courses in English whose first language is not English. The Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success. Henry Ford 20

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