TEST AND TRAIN 2017 TEST AND TRAIN 2017 SISÄLLYSLUETTELO

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1 1 TEST AND TRAIN 2017 SISÄLLYSLUETTELO Esipuhe... 5 Substantiivit... 6 Substantiivit A... 8 Substantiivit B... 9 Artikkelit Erisnimet ja artikkeli Genetiivi Persoonapronominit A Persoonapronominit B Relatiivipronominit Relatiivipronominit A Relatiivipronominit B Indefiniittipronominit A Indefiniittipronominit B Paljoussanoja A Paljoussanoja B Numeraalit Adjektiivit ja adverbit Aikamuodot Aikamuodot A Aikamuodot B Liitekysymykset Liitekysymykset A Liitekysymykset B Ehtolauseet Ehtolauseet A Ehtolauseet B Passiivi Passiivi A Passiivi B... 48

2 2 Infinitiivi ja ing-muoto Apuverbit Apuverbit A Apuverbit B Fraasiverbit It ja There It ja There A It ja There B Sanajärjestys Epäsuora kerronta A (aikamuodot eivät muutu) Epäsuora kerronta B (aikamuodot eivät muutu) Epäsuora kerronta A (aikamuodot muuttuvat) Epäsuora kerronta B (aikamuodot muuttuvat) Konjunktiot ja sidesanat Lauseenvastikkeet A Lauseenvastikkeet B Prepositiot: ajan ilmauksia Prepositiot : ajan ilmaukset A Prepositiot: ajan ilmaukset B Prepositiot: paikan ilmauksia Prepositiot: paikan ilmaukset A Prepositiot: paikan ilmaukset B Prepositioilmauksia Verbit + prepositio, adjektiivi + prepositio, substantiivi + prepositio Oikeinkirjoitus Idiomit Reading comprehension 1 1 st year Reading comprehension 2 1 st year Reading comprehension 1 2 nd year Reading comprehension 2 2 nd year Rakenne- ja sanastomonivalinta 1 1st year Rakenne- ja sanastomonivalinta 2 1st year Rakenne- ja sanastomonivalinta 1 2nd year Rakenne- ja sanastomonivalinta 2 2nd year AIHEPIIRISANASTOT

3 3 Ihmissuhteet Koulutus Työelämä Asuminen Liikenne Sosiaaliturva Terveydenhoito Ihminen Puolustus Kirjallisuus Media Kuvataide Elokuva ja teatteri Musiikki Oikeus Politiikka Kansainvälisyys Tiede Talous Ympäristö RATKAISUT Substantiivit Artikkelit Erisnimet ja artikkelit Genetiivi Persoonapronominit Relatiivipronominit Indefiniittipronominit Numeraalit Adjektiivit ja adverbit Aikamuodot Liitekysymykset Ehtolauseet Passiivi

4 4 Infinitiivi ja ing Apuverbit Fraasiverbit It ja There Sanajärjestys Epäsuora kerronta Konjunktiot ja sidesanat Lauseenvastikkeet Prepositiot Oikeinkirjoitus Idioms Reading Comprehension Rakenne ja sanastomonivalinta AIHEPIIRISANASTOT Perhesuhteet Koulutus Työelämä Asuminen Liikenne Sosiaaliturva Terveydenhoito Puolustus Kirjallisuus Media Kuvataide Elokuvat Musiikki Oikeus Politiikka Kansainvälisyys Tiede Talous Ympäristö Quizlets and PC games

5 5 ESIPUHE Opettajalle Olkaa hyvä, tässä uusi harjoitteluun ja testaamiseen tarkoitettu materiaalinne! Tällä kertaa painopisteiksi valikoituivat seuraavat aihepiirit: englannin kieliopin koko keskeinen aines katettuna, katso sisällysluettelo suullisia A/B-tehtäviä voi hyödyntää kotiläksyinä siten, että puolet saavat monisteella A-osan, toinen puoli B-osan; tarkistus parin kanssa oppitunnilla prepositioista tänä vuonna runsaasti harjoituksia hankalien sanojen oikeinkirjoitustehtäviä idiomiharjoituksia, arkienglannissa usein käytettyjä kielikuvia luetun ymmärtämistä monivalintakysymyksin ykkösille ja kakkosille, aiheina hauskoja tarinoita kuuluisista henkilöistä, urheilusta ja matkustamisesta, muun muassa rakenne- ja sanastomonivalintoja ykkösille ja kakkosille ajantasaistetut teemasanastot kertaamiseen, eri harjoitustyyppejä, Quizlets QR-koodeina (kännykät, tabletit, tietokoneet) sekä Class Tools -sanastopelejä (PC) abeille preliminäärikoe ja kuullun ymmärtäminen ABITTI-versiona Antoisia hetkiä englannin kielen parissa! Tekijät

6 6 SUBSTANTIIVIT I Fill in the plurals according to the clue. 1. The conditions on refugee camps affect, and alike. (miehet, naiset, lapset) 2. Farmers who used to keep,, chicken and now have to rely on food supplied by relief workers, mostly rice or only rice. (lampaat, härät, hanhet) 3. The write about armed conflicts and military maneouvres, but often fail to mention like lack of education, poor hygiene, vermin, roaches and, for example. (tiedotusvälineet, ilmiöt, täit) 4. And who is looking after the refugees' health, swollen and rotting? War, famine and natural disasters are all to blame for these. (jalkaterät, hampaat, kriisit) 5. Luckily there are who are willing to dedicate their to alleviating the suffering of the thousands of disaster. (ihmiset, elämät, uhrit)

7 7 II Fill in the missing words. 1. The world needs. (sankareita) 2. That's why I joined the voluntary fire brigade. It's one of my. (harrastukset) 3. They have strict for membership. (kriteerit) 4. Sometimes I go hiking in the wild, fishing for and trout. (lohia) 5. It's possible to see interesting wildlife out there, such as otters and. (hirviä) 6. As kids, we used play cops and robbers. It was fun to catch and other villains. (varkaita) 7. At other times, we were astronauts landing our on alien planets. (avaruusalukset) 8. Our cheap: empty cardboard boxes, pieces of wood and string. (varusteet olivat) 9. My godfather was a bit of an adventurer, and I liked to listen to his. (neuvoja) 10. "Never carry a lot of, and don't envy other people's," he said. (matkatavaroita, rahoja) 11. "Forget about expensive, and let Ikea be good enough for you." (korut, kalusteet) 12. Now my daughter is studying to become a, and here : I'm also about to become a grandmother next month. (poliisi, tulevat hyvät uutiset)

8 8 SUBSTANTIIVIT A Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. Talon ympäristö näyttää siistiltä. 2. The contents of this TV series are interesting. 3. Ihmisiä on menossa pelloille. 4. The Middle Ages were exciting, weren't they? 5. Heidän karjansa on vahvaa ja tervettä. 6. In the next episode England are fighting France. 7. Maatalouskoneet maksavat maltaita. 8. The Queen's hair is curly and bright red. 9. Härät katselevat ohikulkijoita. 10. Will Poulter is playing a twenty-five-year-old knight. 11. Nelipäiväinen lomamme maaseudulla on päättymässä. 12. I'm fascinated by such phenomena as magic and witchcraft. 13. Olemme nähneet lampaita ja syöneet haukia. 14. Excuse me, but why do I get the feeling that you're not listening to me at all? 15. Voisin sanoa samaa sinusta!

9 9 SUBSTANTIIVIT B Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. The surroundings of this house look neat. 2. Tämän TV-sarjan sisältö on kiinnostava. 3. People are going to the fields. / There are people going to the fields. 4. Keskiaika oli jännittävää, eikö ollutkin? 5. Their cattle are strong and healthy. 6. Seuraavassa jaksossa Englanti taistelee Ranskaa vastaan. 7. Farming machinery / equipment costs a lot. 8. Kuningattaren hiukset ovat kiharaiset ja kirkkaan punaiset. 9. The oxen / bulls are watching (the) passers-by / people walking past. 10. Will Poulter näyttelee 25-vuotiasta ritaria. 11. Our four-day holiday in the country(side) is about to end. 12. Minua kiehtovat (fascinate) sellaiset ilmiöt kuten taikuus ja noituus. 13. We have seen sheep and eaten pike. 14. Anteeksi, mutta miksi minulla on tunne, että sinä et kuuntele minua ollenkaan? 15. I could say the same (thing) about you!

10 10 ARTIKKELIT I Fill in a, an, the or Let's play... game of... chess. 2. After... hour, we can have... dinner sky is... unusual colour tonight sun is about to set and... colour of... clouds over... sea is constantly changing more I think about... nature conservation... worse I feel. 6. Would you say that... most people are not concerned about... state of... environment? 7. One of... cutest creatures in... world must be... giant panda few panda bears came to Finland by... plane from China. 9. Should... animals born in... wild be taken to live in... zoos? 10. In s when I went to... school,... government dramatically cut down... number of... lessons in... biology. II Fill in a, an, the or Here are... couple of jokes. (If one of your parents happens to be... lawyer, we hope they have... great sense of humour.) 2. Question: What's... difference between... jellyfish and... lawyer? 3. Answer: One is... spineless, poisonous blob;... other is... form of... sea life woman and her little girl were visiting... grave of... little girl's grandmother. 5. On their way through... cemetery back to... car,... girl asked, 6. "Mummy, do they ever bury two people in... same grave?" 7. "Of course not, dear," replied... mother. "Why would you think that?" tombstone back there said 'Here lies... lawyer and... honest man." Santa Claus,... tooth fairy,... honest lawyer and... old drunk are walking down... street together when they simultaneously spot... hundred-dollar bill. Who gets it? old drunk, of course;... other three are... fantasy creatures.

11 11 III Write the phrases in English. 1. A journey round the world is (liian kallis lahja) for a fifteen-year-old. 2. I wonder how (niin nuori näyttelijä) would manage to act this role. 3. It was (melkoinen yllätys) that Diane should move to San Francisco. 4. Continuing her studies here would have been (aivan yhtä hyvä vaihtoehto). 5. (kuinka tahansa vaikea ongelma) you may have, you can always talk to me. 6. (puoli maailmaa) has already heard the news. 7. We should have bought the house last year. Now we'll have to pay (kaksinkertainen summa) for it. 8. Mikä kamala sää!! 9. Lee's son is (äärimmäisen lahjakas pianisti). 10. (Miten kokenutta opettajaa) are you looking for?

12 12 ERISNIMET JA ARTIKKELI I Write in English. Pay attention to the use of articles. 1. Englannin kanaali 2. Itämeri 3. Kanarian saaret 4. Itä-Lappi 5. Etelä-Amerikka 6. Hyväntoivonniemi 7. Keski-Eurooppa 8. Rooman valtakunta 9. Man-saari 10. Gatwickin lentokenttä II. Write in English. Pay attention to the use of articles. 1. Sininen Niili 2. Alankomaat 3. Yhdysvallat 4. Yhdistynyt kuningaskunta 5. Suuret järvet

13 13 6. Päiväntasaaja 7. Tyyni meri 8. Laatokka 9. rikas Sveitsi 10. paavi III Write in English. Pay attention to the use of articles. 1. etelänapa 2. Välimeri 3. kuningatar Victoria 4. Tonava 5. Suomenlahti 6. lumoava Itävalta 7. pohjoinen napapiiri 8. nuoruuteni Moskova 9. Trafalgarin aukio 10. Towerin silta

14 14 IV Write in English. Pay attention to the use of articles. 1. Mustameri 2. Andit 3. Lähi-Itä 4. Gibraltarin salmi 5. Gobin autiomaa 6. Wight-saari 7. Haag 8. Idän pikajuna 9. pohjoisnapa 10. Irlannin tasavalta GENETIIVI I Fill in the missing possessive structures. 1. Excuse me, what is? (tuon kirkon nimi) 2.. (Pyhän Paavalin katedraali) 3. It reminds me of St Peter's Basilica in Rome, which is one of. (maailman suurimpia kirkkoja) 4. Have you visited any of? (Lontoon museot) 5. Not as yet, but we visited at Eton. It was founded in (poikamme college) 6. It's from here. (tunnin ajo) 7. Tomorrow we'll go and see in Richmond. (ystäviemme uusi talo)

15 15 8. But first I'll have to go to. (kampaajalle) 9. was born two months ago. (Katen ja Liamin vauva) 10. Where did I put my Oyster card? In my perhaps? (housuntasku) 11. Hey, look at that guy. He's waving. (Suomen lippu) II Fill in the missing possessive structures. 1. Do you sell? (miesten kenkiä) 2. What about? (poikien sukkia) 3. I have to drop in at the. (lihakauppa) 4. I have to get ready for tomorrow. (Rosen ja Peterin lounas) 5. The kids are going on a field trip at. (kuun lopulla) 6. in Ireland will be most welcome. (viikon loma) 7. They'll be enjoying, I'm sure. (Dublinin nähtävyydet) 8. was pretty high, though. (matkan hinta). 9. Mind you, are sponsoring this type of student exchange. (Irlannin hallitus) 10. I think we all ought to be concerned about (nuorten tulevaisuus)

16 16 PERSOONAPRONOMINIT A Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. Pyydä Joannaa viemään saappaansa ulos. Hän ei voi jättää niitä tänne. 2. Don't throw those papers away. They are mine. 3. Meidän naapurimme eivät tervehdi meitä. Mikä heidän ongelmansa on? 4. I'm going to get myself a big dog. It will protect me. 5. Onko isoisäsi asunut samassa kylässä koko elämänsä? 6. Both (of) his brothers moved south / to the south. 7. He olivat poikamiehiä ja viljelivät maataan itsekseen. 8. Sometimes I feel lonely. All my friends live somewhere else. 9. Kaksi työkaveriani kyseli sinusta eilen. 10. Here is your new tutor Veronica. She'll take you to a student concert. Enjoy yourselves!

17 17 PERSOONAPRONOMINIT B Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles.. 1. Ask Joanna to take her boots out. She can't leave them here. 2. Älä heitä noita papereita pois. Ne ovat minun. 3. Our neighbours don't greet us / say hello to us. What's their problem? 4. Minä aion hankkia itselleni ison koiran. Se suojelee minua. 5. Has your grandfather lived in the same village all his life? 6. Hänen molemmat veljensä muuttivat etelään. 7. They were bachelors and farmed their land by themselves. 8. Joskus tunnen itseni yksinäiseksi. Kaikki ystäväni asuvat jossakin muualla. 9. Two colleagues of mine / Two of my workmates were asking about you yesterday. 10. Tässä on sinun uusi tutorisi Veronica. Hän vie sinut opiskelijakonserttiin. Nauttikaa!

18 18 II Fill in the missing parts. 1. Elvira looks unhappy. What has done now? (se hänen poikaystävänsä) 2. Ray? He has in Elvira's flat, that's what. (tehnyt olonsa kotoisaksi) 3. uses the poor girl as meal ticket. (hän, omistuspronomini) 4. Why don't women? (puolustaudu) 5. think that help is needed to save the world and. (he, heidän, kaikki sen luuserit) 6. Oh, come on, don't believe in that rubbish. (sinä, itsekään) 7. Don't? Look at mother: hasn't got a single hobby. (minä, meidän, hänellä, omaa) 8. has been looking after. (hän, meitä, koko elämänsä) 9. At least have learnt to. (me, käyttäytymään kunnolla) 10. What about Ray? Don't guys like guilty? (hänenlaisensa, tunne itseään)

19 19 RELATIIVIPRONOMINIT I fill in who, whose, which, what tai that. 1. There are these crazy drivers annoy me so much. 2. Some fail to signal when they're about to turn, is very inconsiderate. 3. Cars owners park their vehicles in front of gates and doorways ought to be towed away. 4. Mr Manning, taught all my daughters to drive, emphasizes anticipation when driving. 5. also bothers me is tailgating, means driving too close to the vehicle in front. 6. All can be said about this habit is that it's downright stupid. 7. That reminds me of something happened the other day. 8. A heavy truck was driving through our neighbourhood stopped to let a mother duck lead its chicks across the street to the pond nearby. 9. People take the time to mind other road users are my kind of guys. 10. is worth doing is worth doing well, goes for driving, too.

20 20 RELATIIVIPRONOMINIT A Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. Poika, jonka blogia luet parhaillaan, kirjoittaa myös elokuva-arvosteluja (film reviews). 2. The movie that/which/- we watched yesterday was very popular in the USA. 3. En pidä sellaisesta elokuvasta, jonka juoni on ennalta arvattavissa (predictable). 4. Kaurismäki and Kuosmanen are directors whose films are also shown abroad. 5. Näyttelijä, jonka todella haluaisin tavata, on Benedict Cumberbatch. 6. This movie application is the best birthday present that/- you have ever given me. 7. Kaiken, minkä olen oppinut elokuvista, olen oppinut Peter von Baghilta. 8. There's still something that/- I'd like to say. 9. Kamera rakastaa kasvojasi, minkä luultavasti tiedätkin. 10. Let's go for a drive/ride, after which I'll tell you a secret.

21 21 RELATIIVIPRONOMINIT B Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. The boy whose blog you are reading also writes film reviews. 2. Leffa, jonka katsoimme eilen, oli hyvin suosittu Yhdysvalloissa. 3. I don't like a film whose plot is predictable / the plot of which is predictable. 4. Kaurismäki ja Kuosmanen ovat ohjaajia, joiden filmejä näytetään myös ulkomailla. 5. An actor who/that/- I'd really like to meet is Benedict Cumberbatch. 6. Tämä movie-sovellus on paras syntymäpäivälahja, minkä olet koskaan minulle antanut. 7. Everything/ All that/- I've learnt about films I've learnt from Peter von Bagh. 8. On vielä jotakin, minkä haluaisin sanoa. 9. The camera loves your face, which you probably know. 10. Mennään ajelulle, minkä jälkeen kerron sinulle salaisuuden.

22 22 INDEFINIITTIPRONOMINIT A Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. Jokainen pelkää jotakin. 2. Every child is worth loving. 3. Kukaan ei voi unohtaa ensi suudelmaansa. 4. Nothing happens by chance / by accident. 5. Onko joku sanonut jotain? 6. Something is not right here. 7. Jonkun meistä pitäisi jäädä tänne. 8. Every one of you / Each of you must do their best. 9. Jotkut teistä näyttävät tietävän kaiken. 10. None of us is perfect. 11. Eivät ketkään heistä tulleet auttamaan meitä. 12. No customer would buy a house like this / this kind of house. 13. Kuka tahansa pystyy kertomaan valheita. 14. No food could be better than this. 15. Kokkaaminen on kaikkea muuta kuin helppoa. 16. Anything can go wrong. 17. Oletko tavannut ketään, jonka tunnet? 18. Have you heard anything from Oliver? 19. Hän voi olla missä tahansa. 20. Everyone/Everybody is so worried.

23 23 INDEFINIITTIPRONOMINIT B Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. Everyone/Everybody is afraid of something. 2. Jokainen lapsi on rakastamisen arvoinen. 3. No one/nobody can forget their first kiss. 4. Mitään ei tapahdu sattumalta. 5. Has someone/somebody said something? 6. Jokin tässä mättää. 7. One of us ought to/should stay here. 8. Jokaisen teistä täytyy tehdä parhaansa. 9. Some of you seem to know everything. 10. Kukaan meistä ei ole täydellinen. 11. None of them came to help us. 12. Kukaan asiakas ei ostaisi tällaista taloa. 13. Anyone/Anybody can tell lies. 14. Mikään ruoka ei voisi olla parempaa kuin tämä. 15. Cooking is anything but easy. 16. Mikä tahansa voi mennä pieleen. 17. Have you met anyone you know? 18. Oletko kuullut mitään Oliverista? 19. He can be anywhere. 20. Kaikki ovat niin huolissaan.

24 24 II Fill in the missing parts. 1. I bought two mice; was grey and was white. (toinen, toinen) 2. They seem to enjoy company. (toistensa) 3. of them likes to sleep alone. (Ei kumpikaan) 4. people think reptiles make wonderful pets, loathe them. (Toiset, toiset) 5. Oops, I spilled water on the floor. I need towel, please. (vähän, toinen) 6. of these two can I take? - Take. (Kumman, kumpi vain) 7. it's nice to have pets in the house, but it's hard work looking after them. (Toisaalta, toisaalta) 8. could clean the cage next time. (Joku toinen) 9. we're going to have to sort out the turns. (Tavalla tai toisella) 10. How about this: you clean out the cage? (joka toinen kerta)

25 25 PALJOUSSANOJA A Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. Monica on lukenut vain vähän kirjoja lastenkasvatuksesta (on bringing up children). 2. Many teenage mothers have too little experience. 3. Pikkuvauvoilla on paljon opittavaa. 4. Little do we know about babies' lives. 5. Harvat lapset osaavat kävellä 9 kuukauden iässä. 6. Most toddlers learn to speak a few words before their first birthday. 7. Suurin osa heistä ymmärtää paljon enemmän. 8. Monica has (got) too many baby clothes. 9. Useimmilla perheillä on liian vähän sukulaisia, jotka voisivat auttaa heitä. 10. Everyone/Everybody sometimes feels a little helpless. 11. Vähintä mitä voisimme tehdä, on tarjota apuamme väsyneille vanhemmille. 12. Very few would refuse / say no thanks. 13. Yhä harvemmat nuoret perustavat (start) perheen. 14. Fewer/Less children are born. 15. Tähän tilanteeseen on niin paljon syitä. 16. Luckily Monica sleeps a little better and eats less junk food than before. 17. Aion ostaa hänelle vähän uusia vaatteita talveksi. 18. It's a little cold in her flat.

26 26 PALJOUSSANOJA B Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. Monica has read only a few/ few books on bringing up children. 2. Monilla teiniäideillä on liian vähän kokemusta. 3. Little babies have a lot to learn. 4. Vähänpä me tiedämme vauvojen elämästä. 5. Few children can walk at nine months / at the age of nine months. 6. Useimmat taaperot (toddlers) oppivat puhumaan muutamia sanoja ennen ensimmäistä syntymäpäiväänsä. 7. Most of them understand a lot more / much more. 8. Monicalla on liian paljon vauvanvaatteita. 9. Most families have too few relatives that/who could help them (out). 10. Jokainen tuntee itsensä joskus vähän avuttomaksi. 11. The least we could do is to offer help to tired parents. 12. Hyvin harvat kieltäytyisivät. 13. Fewer and fewer young people start a family. 14. Vähemmän lapsia syntyy. 15. There are so many reasons for this situation. 16. Onneksi Monica nukkuu vähän paremmin ja syö vähemmän roskaruokaa kuin ennen. 17. I'm going to buy a few new clothes for her for the winter./ I am going to buy her a few new clothes for the winter. 18. Hänen asunnossaan on vähän kylmä.

27 27 NUMERAALIT I Fill in the missing expressions. 1. We've talked about this. (satoja kertoja) 2. You can't take showers that last. (puolitoista tuntia) 3. And as for smoking in the house, we have. (nollatoleranssi) 4. You can invite schoolfriends to bathe in our hot tub. (puoli tusinaa, enintään) 5. Remember that the party must be over at. ( > kirjoita kirjaimin) 6. Also take into consideration that our neighbours are. (kahdeksankymppisiä) 7. In other words, they were born, so don't play the music too loud. (1900-luvulla) 8. There are reasons why we mustn't upset them. (tuhat ja yksi) 9. Your father and I were young so we know a bit about partying ourselves. (70-luvun loppupuolella) 10. Next month we'll be celebrating our wedding anniversary. How time flies! (kahdeskymmeneskolmas)

28 28 II Write the following expressions in numbers or in Finnish using letters. If you start counting at one and spell out the numbers as you go, you won't use the letter "A" until you reach 1, thirteen hundred 2. point five 3. the fifty-third 4. one plus one equals two 5. three squared 6. sixty divided by four 7. eight cubed 8. nine to the power of five 9. the square root of a hundred 10. the seventeenth century 11. half eight pm 12. nineteen hundred hours 13. eighteen months 14. forty-eight hours 15. a quarter to two am

29 29 ADJEKTIIVIT JA ADVERBIT I Fill in the missing words according to the clues. 1. Hope for but prepare for. (paras, pahin) 2. Fortune favours. (rohkeat) 3. A chain is its link. (yhtä vahva kuin, heikoin) 4. safe sorry. (Parempi... kuin) 5. said soonest mended. (Vähiten) 6. Still waters run.(syvällä) 7. Stop it. Repeating old platitudes is thing I've heard in ages! (ikävystyttävin) 8. Besides, I'm getting. (yhä väsyneempi) 9. I'll be in a minute. (sikeässä unessa) 10. Okay. I'll shut up and switch on the TV. I hope this show is for you. (tarpeeksi kiinnostava)

30 30 II Fill in the missing words according to the clues. 1. Are you scared of? (tuntematon) 2. hardly ever appreciates the advice of. (Nuori, vanhat) 3. What is estimate? (optimistisin) 4. Lana's work is yours. (paljon raskaampaa kuin) 5. Which would be, losing your job or losing your health? (pahempaa tai traagisempaa) 6. Our Christmas traditions are those in Sweden. (samanlaiset kuin) 7. The little boy has. (niin iloiset kasvot) 8. This material is. (ehdottomasti ohuin) 9. we put this behind us. (Mitä pikemmin, sen parempi) 10. will never come back. (vanhat hyvät ajat)

31 31 III Fill in the missing phrases. This exercise may be challenging. 1. What could have put such an idea in your? (pieni sievä pää) 2. Tokaj is. (viinistään kuuluisa alue) 3. Has grown or diminished in the past few years? (ökyrikkaiden lukumäärä) 4. My hay allergy is in July. (pahimmillaan) 5. New recruits shouldn't feel their older colleagues. (alempiarvoisempi kuin) 6. Last winter was. (poikkeuksellisen leuto) 7. Downshifiting is becoming (yhä suositumpaa) 8. Are you your partner? (samanikäinen kuin) 9. I hope of my life will be the first. (jälkimmäinen puolisko, onnellisempi kuin) 10. This TV show is not suitable for. (kaksitoistavuotiaat)

32 32 I Fill in the adverbs. 1. So you woke up? (tavallista aikaisemmin) 2. And you didn't sleep? (kovin hyvin) 3. You say you switched off the alarm. (automaattisesti) 4. Could you explain to me what you did afterwards? (lyhyesti) 5. You aren't trying, are you? (todella kovasti) 6. Could you have forgotten something? (mahdollisesti/mitenkään) 7. Let's start from the beginning, shall we, and not this time. (niin nopeasti) 8. Am I speaking? (tarpeeksi selvästi) 9. Would you say you are married? (onnellisesti) 10. The way I see it, things couldn't go for you. (paljon huonommin)

33 33 II Fill in the missing words. 1. This happened. (kauan sitten) 2. I why it happened. (en ymmärrä vieläkään) 3. I believed in the supernatural. (jo lapsena) 4. As I was walking away into the woods, I felt I was being followed. (kauemmas) 5. I stepped on the sticks and stones ever before. (varovaisemmin kuin) 6. It was a wild creature, an elk. (luultavasti, mahdollisesti) 7. I tried to control my breathing I could. (niin kovasti kuin) 8. It wasn't an elk. There were three fairies, whispering to each other. (hiljaa) 9. They approached me, and one of them addressed me. (lyhyesti) 10. She spoke to me, but I'm not allowed to tell you or anyone what she said. (ystävällisesti)

34 34 AIKAMUODOT I Fill in the verb form according to the clue. 1. Every morning Moira to the tube station at half past eight. (kiiruhtaa) 2. Yesterday when she to take a free newspaper from a stand to read on the train, she something touch her head. (pysähtyi, tunsi) 3. It a small parrot that right there on her shoulder. (oli, oli laskeutunut) 4. "OMG, this!" Moira. ei tapahdu, ajatteli) 5. By now the bird her earring, making funny noises. (tutki) 6. People. (hymyilivät) 7. "What next?" Moira. (tapahtuu, ihmetteli) 8. Then she a child's voice ask, " a blue and yellow parrot? It out of our tent this morning." (kuuli, onko kukaan nähnyt, lensi) 9. "Oh, there you are, Polly. You a naughty girl. I you back to the circus straight away. The ringmaster for you since 6 o'clock." (olet ollut, vien, on etsinyt) 10. Only it a child, or a tube station. All around her Moira midgets, giants, fire eaters, clowns and circus animals. " my mind?" (ei ollut, näki, Olenko menettämässä)

35 35 AIKAMUODOT A Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. Oletko huomannut, kuinka päivät lyhenevät? 2. Autumn has always been my favourite season (time of the year). 3. Miten voit sanoa niin? Kukaan ei pidä pimeästä. 4. I do. Everything feels/seems so fresh and exciting. 5. Minä odottelen ensimmäistä lumisadetta. Se tulee tavallisesti lokakuussa. 6. Judy and I are travelling/will travel/will be travelling to Greece for a short holiday next month. 7. Kuulostaa mukavalta. Miksi valitsitte Kreikan? 8. We tried/were trying to get to Cyprus but there was no room on the plane / there wasn't any room on the plane. 9. Olimme varmoja, että Rodoksella olisi lämmintä. 10. I didn't travel at all last summer. I was working on a farm the whole time. 11. Judy ei pidä talviurheilusta, enkä minäkään. 12. What kind of sports do you and your friends/mates go in for? 13. Laitesukelluksesta? Paljonko se maksaa? 14. Where and when did you start/begin diving/ to dive? 15. Kun Judy oli teini-ikäinen, hänen isänsä oli ostanut hänelle lainelaudan. 16. At the moment we are planning to buy SUP boards. 17. Mitä kirjaimet SUP tarkoittavat? 18. Standup paddleboarding. Didn't you know that? 19. En. Luulin, että se tarkoittaa Seriously Unbalanced Posture. 20. You're joking. No one/nobody can be so silly/daft.

36 36 AIKAMUODOT B Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. Have you noticed how the days are getting shorter? 2. Syksy on aina ollut lempivuodenaikani. 3. How can you say that? Nobody/No one likes the dark. 4. Minä pidän. Kaikki tuntuu niin tuoreelta ja jännittävältä. 5. I'm waiting for the first snow(fall). It usually comes in October. 6. Judy ja minä matkustamme Kreikkaan lyhyelle lomalle ensi kuussa. 7. (That) sounds nice. Why did you choose Greece? 8. Me yritimme päästä Kyprokselle, mutta lentokoneessa ei ollut tilaa. 9. We were sure it would be warm in Rhodes. 10. Minä en matkustanut ollenkaan viime kesänä. Työskentelin maatilalla koko ajan. 11. Judy doesn't like winter sports, and neither/nor do I. 12. Millaista urheilua sinä ja sinun kaverisi harrastatte (go in for)? 13. Scuba diving? How much does that cost? 14. Missä ja milloin sinä aloitit sukeltaa? 15. When Judy was a teenager, her father (had) bought her a surf board. 16. Tällä hetkellä suunnittelemme ostavamme SUP-laudat. 17. What do the letters SUP mean/stand for/refer to? 18. Standup paddleboarding. Etkö tiennyt sitä? 19. No, I didn't. I thought it means/meant Seriously Unbalanced Posture. 20. Vitsailet. Ei kukaan voi olla noin hölmö.

37 37 III Fill in the irregular verbs according to the clues. 1. Jethro on his bike. (kaatui) 2. He several times before but never so badly. (oli kaatunut) 3. A car straight in front of him and his front wheel. (oli ajanut, osunut) 4. Jethro on the ground for a while. Then a bystander to his rescue. (makasi, tuli) 5. The paramedics that he his left arm. (sanoivat, oli katkaissut) 6. Jethro consciousness but he from the nose. (ei menettänyt, vuoti verta) 7. He his tongue. (oli myös purrut) 8. I that this Jethro's last ride but he other ideas. (ajattelin, olisi, :llä oli) 9. The police the hit-and-run driver, and Jethro back to health. (sai kiinni, taisteli) 10. He he'd on riding until his 90th birthday, which two months away. (vannoi, jatkaa, oli)

38 38 IV Fill in the irregular verbs according to the clues. 1. I no grudge to Atticus. (kannoin) 2. Everybody he was a superior player. (tiesi) 3. I was actually proud that he me to be his opponent. (oli valinnut) 4. Brad was different. When he, he the pieces on the floor and out of the room. (hävisi, sinkosi, harppoi) 5. Atticus his smile. I how his eyes every time he an opponent. (kätki, olin unohtanut, loistivat, löi) 6. I from my seat and to stay calm. (nousin, pyrin) 7. Atticus his nose and out the cold coffee. (niisti, sylkäisi) 8. I my girlfriend to watch the match but she behind my chair and her head. (olin kieltänyt, seisoi, pudisti) 9. My mum me all the tricks of the trade, and I several matches against the best players in the country. (oli opettanut, olin voittanut) 10. I more enemies than I cared to remember. But still, both Atticus and I this particular game seriously. Which of us Scrabble master of the year? (olin surmannut, otimme, tulisi)

39 39 LIITEKYSYMYKSET I Fill in the appropriate question tag. It's quite simple, isn't it? 1. Cary and Stuart won't let us down,? 2. Cary's always been very reliable,? 3. Your sister's not telling anyone about the plan,? 4. The whole idea seems so incredibly great,? 5. We found just the right gift for Florian,? 6. There are no last minute changes,? 7. Everybody loves surprise parties,? 8. You'll make a speech for Florian,? 9. It's not every day your boss gets married,? 10. Okay, let's ask everyone to gather in the meeting room,?

40 40 LIITEKYSYMYKSET A Read the sentences to each other by adding an appropriate question tag at the end of your sentence. You know what I mean, don't you? 1. It's been a lovely holiday,...? 2. You can't find a better place to stay, can you? 3. Pictures don't do justice to this scenery,...? 4. The mountain over there looks magnificent, doesn't it? 5. Your boyfriend came here last year,...? 6. There's still time for a quick swim, isn't there? 7. Adam thinks our flight will be delayed,...? 8. I am right about that, aren't I? 9. Nobody wants to be late,...? 10. You will let Mum know, won't you? 11. Parents never trust their kids completely,...? 12. Let's text them to say we're okay, shall we? 13. There were some problems with the wi-fi at the hotel,...? 14. Adam's lost his battery charger again, hasn't he? 15. Mother's going to be furious,...? 16. Adam shouldn't be so careless, should he? 17. Some people will never learn,...? 18. Okay, we've done what we can, haven't we?

41 41 LIITEKYSYMYKSET B Read the sentences to each other by adding an appropriate question tag at the end of your sentence. You know what I mean, don't you? 1. It's been a lovely holiday, hasn't it? 2. You can't find a better place to stay,...? 3. Pictures don't do justice to this scenery, do they? 4. The mountain over there looks magnificent,...? 5. Your boyfriend came here last year, didn't he? 6. There's still time for a quick swim,...? 7. Adam thinks our flight will be delayed, doesn't he? 8. I am right about that,...? 9. Nobody wants to be late, do they? 10. You will let Mum know,...? 11. Parents never trust their kids completely, do they? 12. Let's text them to say we're okay,...? 13. There were some problems with the wi-fi at the hotel, weren't there? 14. Adam's lost his battery charger again,...? 15. Mother's going to be furious, isn't she? 16. Adam shouldn't be so careless,...? 17. Some people will never learn, will they? 18. Okay, we've done what we can,...?

42 42 EHTOLAUSEET I Fill in the missing verb forms. 1. If I again, I studying economics. (voisin valita; en alkaisi) 2. I an artist if my parents me to get on with my painting. (olisi voinut tulla; olisivat rohkaisseet) 3. If I my well-paid job now, my wife it. (jätän; ei ymmärrä) 4. If everyone their dreams, the world a happier place. (seuraisi; olisi) 5. If my kids their school, I them to stay on. (eivät pitäisi; en pakottaisi) 6. Oh, is it ten thirty already? If Morgan get here soon, her dog. (ei tule; huolestuu) 7. If she out with her friends, I her with her science project. (ei olisi mennyt; olisin auttanut) 8. If it so late, we it. (ei olisi; voisimme vieläkin tehdä) 9. How as a dad, if Morgan and she's dropped out of school? (minä reagoin; soittaa, sanoo) 10. If I a bachelor, life so complicated now! (olisin jäänyt; ei olisi)

43 43 EHTOLAUSEET A Say the sentences in English. Swap your roles. 1. Jos jättäisit minut, en tietäisi mitä tehdä. 2. If you are late, I won't wait / won't be waiting for you. 3. Jos sinä olisit ollut siellä, tätä ei olisi tapahtunut. 4. If I didn't know you so well, I wouldn't trust you. 5. Jos Roddy ei usko meitä, hän alkaa kysellä vaikeita kysymyksiä. 6. If we had changed our minds, we sould have told Roddy. 7. Jos en olisi niin väsynyt, voisin mennä kävelylle. 8. If you don't stop eating junk food, you will lose your health. 9. Jos kesä ei olisi ollut niin sateinen, olisimme voineet pyöräillä merenrannalle. 10. If you are not ready by ten o'clock, we will leave without you. 11. Jos Orla maksaa puolet laskusta, syömme Covent Gardenissa teatterin jälkeen. 12. If this doesn't suit you, we will find another solution. EHTOLAUSEET B Say the sentences in English. Swap your roles. 1. If you left me, I wouldn't know what to do. 2. Jos olet myöhässä, en odota sinua. 3. If you had been there, this wouldn't have happened. 4. Jos minä en tuntisi sinua niin hyvin, en luottaisi sinuun. 5. If Roddy doesn't believe us, he will start asking difficult questions. 6. Jos me olisimme muuttaneet mielemme, meidän olisi pitänyt kertoa Roddylle. 7. If I wasn't/weren't so tired, I could go for a walk. 8. Jos et lopeta roskaruuan syöntiä, menetät terveytesi. 9. If the summer hadn't been so rainy, we could have cycled to the seaside. 10. Jos et ole valmis kymmeneen mennessä, lähdemme ilman sinua. 11. If Orla pays half of the bill, we will eat in Covent Garden after the theatre. 12. Jos tämä ei sovi sinulle, löydämme toisen ratkaisun.

44 44 PASSIIVI I Fill in the missing parts in English. 1. Calvin Klein's Obsession for men by researchers to attract animals to cameras in the wilderness. (käytetään) 2. After Leonardo da Vinci's death, the Mona Lisa in the bathroom of King Francis I of France. (ripustettiin) 3. Fredric Baur invented the Pringles can. When he passed away in 2008, his ashes in one. (haudattiin) 4. The sex of a horse by its teeth. Most males have 40, females have 36. (voidaan kertoa) 5. The word "queue" is the only word in the English language that the same way when the last four letters (äännetään, poistetaan) 6. Guinness Book of Records holds the record for being the book which most often from public libraries. (varastetaan) 7. Snow by two-thirds of the people on Earth. (ei ole koskaan nähty) 8. Did you know that mammoths walked on the Earth when the Great Pyramids? (rakennettiin, kestomuoto) 9. One in ten European babies in an Ikea bed. (siitetään) 10. that there are more vacant houses than homeless people in the Unites States. (on laskettu)

45 45 II Write in English by using the passive voice and prepositions where necessary. 1. Huolehditaanko teistä? (kestomuoto) 2. Minua ei kuunneltu. (kestomuoto) 3. Asia on käsitelty. 4. Meitä tuijotettiin. (kestomuoto) 5. Sinulle naureskellaan. (kestomuoto) 6. En tykkää siitä, että minulle nalkutetaan. 7. Mistä minua syytetään? (kestomuoto) 8. Harryn käytöksestä on valitettu. 9. Se on jotain, josta en halua, että minua muistutetaan. 10. Mihin tämä idea perustuu?

46 46 III Fill in the missing parts in the passive voice. 1. Yosemite to appreciate its unusual beauty. (täytyy vierailla) 2. Wild nature, giant granite cliffs and waterfalls in this great national park. (voi nähdä) 3. The Yosemite Grant by President Abraham Lincoln in That was in aid of nature conservation. (allekirjoitettiin) 4. Yosemite National Park in the Sierra Nevada mountains. (sijaitsee) 5. It by over 4 million people each year. (vierailee) 6. About 1 million years ago, when snow and ice accumulated, glaciers at the higher Alpine meadows. (muodostui) 7. The giant sequioa trees by tourists ever since the park for tourism. (on valokuvattu, avattiin) 8. The Wawona Tree, which as the Tunnel Tree, was 69 metres tall and 27 metres in circumference. (tunnetaan myös) 9. When a carriage-wide tunnel through the tree in 1881, it became even more popular as a tourist attraction. (koverrettiin) 10. Later on, automobiles through this 2,300-year-old tree. (ajettiin) 11. Today, of course, people to interfere with any living organisms in the area. (ei sallita) 12. The Wawona Tree in a storm in (tuhoutui) 13. Yosemite a paradise for rock climbers. (sanotaan olevan)

47 47 PASSIIVI A Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. Walesissa puhutaan kahta virallista kieltä, englantia ja cymrya. 2. Wales was ruled by Romans for over three hundred years. 3. Roomalaiset legioonat kutsuttiin kotiin 300-luvulla. 4. Many huge stone castles were built in Wales in the thirteenth century / in the twelve hundreds. 5. Walesia kutsutaan usein "Laulun maaksi". 6. Many Celtic works of art have been found in Wales. 7. Prinssi Cadwaladerin Punainen Lohikäärme voidaan nähdä Walesin lipussa. 8. Rugby is played in every village. 9. Monet walesilaiset snookerin pelaajat tunnetaan ympäri maailmaa. 10. Famous Welsh actors can be admired on the silver screen. Anthony Hopkins is one of them. 11. Walesissa ei pitäisi vierailla tammikuussa voimakkaiden myrskytuulien (gales) vuoksi. 12. Several/Many new hotels have been opened in Cardiff, the capital of Wales. 13. Stadionit täyttyvät yhä Tom Jonesin ihailijoista. 14. He was born in Pontypridd as Thomas John Woodword. 15. Walesilainen näyttelijätär Catherine Zeta-Jones ja Michael Douglas vihittiin vuonna Most coal mines in Wales have been closed. 17. Many Welsh boys are given the name Rhys. 18. Welsh poetry will be taught in universities in the future, too.

48 48 PASSIIVI B Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. Two official languages are spoken in Wales, English and Cymry. 2. Walesia hallitsivat roomalaiset yli kolmesataa vuotta. 3. The Roman legions were called home in the fourth century / in the three hundreds. 4. Monia valtavia kivilinnoja rakennettiin Walesiin 1200-luvulla. 5. Wales is often called The Land of Song. 6. Monia kelttiläisiä taideteoksia on löydetty Walesista. 7. The Red Dragon of Prince Cadwalader can be seen in the Welsh flag. 8. Rugbya pelataan joka kylässä. 9. Many Welsh snooker players are known all over the world. 10. Kuuluisia walesilaisia näyttelijöitä voi ihailla valkokankaalla (the silver screen). Anthony Hopkins on yksi heistä. 11. Wales shouldn't be visited in January because of (the) strong gales. 12. Useita uusia hotelleja on avattu Cardiffin, Walesin pääkaupunkiin. 13. Stadiums are still (being) filled by Tom Jones' fans. 14. Hän syntyi Pontypriddissä Thomas John Woodwordina. 15. Welsh actress Catherine Zeta-Jones and Michael Douglas were married in 2000 / in the year Useimmat hiilikaivokset Walesissa on suljettu. 17. Monille walesilaisille pojille annetaan nimi Rhys. 18. Walesilaista runoutta tullaan opettamaan yliopistoissa tulevaisuudessakin.

49 49 INFINITIIVI JA ING-MUOTO I Choose the correct verb form. 1. It wouldn't be a good idea a. buying b. to buy c. to have bought a new snowboard now that the winter sales are just round the corner. 2. It'd be better a. wait b. having waited c. to wait just another week or two. 3. You could a. be saving b. have been saved c. to save quite a few euros. 4. You're as bad as my dad. He does nothing but a. nags b. nag c. nagging at me about my spending habits. 5. Your dad? My mum won't allow me even a. to mention b. have mentioned c. mention a snowboard. 6. Besides, she makes us kids a. clean b. to clean c. to have cleaned the house every second day! 7. Could you have your uncle a. be found b. to find c. find us proper jobs we would get paid for? 8. The sandwich bar at the station is said a. looking b. to have been looked c. to be looking for temps, as it happens. 9. I heard my uncle a. mention b. to have mentioned c. to mention about it to Troy. 10. Let's go a. and ask b. asking c. to be asking him for details. 11. I don't fancy a. cut b. cutting c. be cutting sandwiches day in day out. 12. Oh come on, it's no good a. to be b. being c. be so choosy. Beggars can't be choosers, you know. 13. Why a. to pretend b. pretending c. pretend? You need the cash, and that's that. 14. You will enjoy a. to work b. working c. being worked in a busy place like that. 15. I guess I'm just afraid of a. getting disappointed b. disappointing c. having disappointed. II Fill in according to the clue in Finnish. 1. You had better if you want to catch the nine fifteen. (juosta) 2. Did I just see you your ticket on the floor? (pudottavan) 3. I don't understand why I was asked another shift. (tekemään) 4. The boss makes me the rubbish out every night. (viemään) 5. It's no use about the situation either. (valittaa) 6. Louisa and Jo are said a very nice flat. (löytäneen) 7. It's worth a flat with a friend, so much cheaper. (jakaa) 8. Cilla left Zak. They had nothing any longer. (puhuttavaa) 9. Cilla warned me about this but I did, didn't I? (olla juoruamatta) 10. I thought. (sinulle pitäisi kertoa)

50 50 APUVERBIT I Fill in the missing parts. 1. It's nice play an instrument. (voida) 2. I on my father's Gibson. (olen saanut harjoitella) 3. He money for a long time before he it. (täytyi säästää, pystyi ostamaan) 4. I a record one day, who knows. (saatan tehdä) 5. My dad any instrument as he's really musical. (olisi voinut valita) 6. Most musicians a lot of work before they their own music. (on täytynyt tehdä, ovat voineet levyttää) 7. At least I my wings in the music business. (olen aina saanut kokeilla) 8. I for permission to take music lessons, for example. (minun ei ole tarvinnut pyytää) 9. Your guitar a lot of money or be anything special for you to enjoy its sound. (ei tarvitse maksaa) 10. My dad taught himself all the techniques, fingerpicking included, which easy. (ei ole voinut olla)

51 51 APUVERBIT A Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. Megan osaa kiinaa. 2. She had to learn it when she lived in Hong Kong. 3. Onko hän pystynyt puhumaan sitä Englannissa? 4. Writing Chinese must be difficult/hard. 5. Minä olisin voinut oppia puolaa, kun meillä oli puolalainen au pair. 6. Were you allowed to travel alone on the subway/underground when you were kids/children? 7. Se olisi saattanut olla vaarallista. 8. Tavelling doesn't have to be expensive. 9. Minä en ole koskaan saanut liftata. 10. I may/might try it some day/one day. 11. Minun on aina täytynyt tehdä paljon kotitöitä. 12. It was annoying that my brother didn't have to clean his own room. 13. Hän on aina pystynyt keksimään tekosyitä. 14. You should have said something/ought to have said something. 15. Ei ole voinut olla helppoa sietää sitä (put up with it). 16. You don't have to/need to feel sorry for me. 17. On kiva voida jutella näistä asioista. 18. But now I must go/i've got to go/i have to go.

52 52 APUVERBIT B Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. Megan knows Chinese / can speak Chinese. 2. Hänen täytyi oppia sitä, kun hän asui Hong Kongissa. 3. Has she been able to speak it in England? 4. Kiinan kirjoittamisen täytyy olla vaikeaa. 5. I could have learnt/learned Polish when we had a Polish au pair. 6. Saitteko te matkustaa yksin metrossa, kun te olitte lapsia? 7. It might/could have been dangerous. 8. Matkustamisen ei tarvitse olla kallista. 9. I have never been allowed to hitchhike. 10. Saatan kokeilla sitä jonain päivänä. 11. I have always had to do a lot of housework. 12. Oli ärsyttävää, kun veljeni ei tarvinnut siivota omaa huonettaan. 13. He has always been able to make up excuses / come up with excuses. 14. Sinun olisi pitänyt sanoa jotain. 15. It can't have been easy to put up with it. 16. Sinun ei tarvitse sääliä minua. 17. It's nice to be able to talk about these things. 18. Mutta nyt minun on mentävä.

53 53 III Fill in the missing parts. 1. Most children in springtime. (syntyvät) 2. When? (sinä olet syntynyt) 3. Stephanie her past. (häpesi) 4. She of the future. (pelkäsi) 5. I of challenging situations. (en pelkää) 6. Mo at the new garage. (pesetti autonsa) 7. You need a haircut. (Niin Charleskin.) 8. Sarah never touches alcohol. (Emme mekään.) 9. something? (Olitko aikeissa sanoa) 10. James young. (oli kuoleva)

54 54 FRAASIVERBIT I Choose the best alternative. 1. Call for a tow truck if your car breaks up / down/ out on the highway. 2. George has been unemployed for six months but he hopes something will come out / across / up in the near future carried out / on / away the mission successfully. 4. North Koreans seem to look down on / up to / out for their leaders. 5. The boss gives me too many assignments. I can't keep off / on / up with all the new technology at work. 6. Sorry we're late. We were held up / on / out by roadworks on the M The singer had fallen ill, so the gig was called up / out / off. 8. Britney kept asking her father for a new phone. Finally he gave in / off / out and got her one. 9. Tilda did very well at the singing contest. Her performance really stood out / up / by this time. 10. Moneyed people often invest in art. Sometimes the works they buy turn up / out / down to be frauds. 11. Luke got stranded in the bush. His car ran over / for / out of petrol. 12. Let's have lunch next week. We've put up with / off / out our meeting way too long. 13. Gina picked out / on / up bass guitar playing by ear. 14. You nicked 20 from the petty cash! You can't expect to get on with / along with / away with it. 15. The police found a bomb in an abandoned rucksack at the station. Luckily it didn't go off / out / up.

55 55 II Choose the verb that comes closest in meaning to the underlined phrasal verb. 1. Ralph calls on his demented aunt twice a week. A. phones B. visits C. checks 2. Her ulcer is so bad it calls for surgery. A. requires B. hinders C. looks like 3. The team members have always looked up to their coach. A. searched for B. opposed C. respected 4. Ibrahim's application for asylum was turned down last week. A. rejected B. approved C. handled 5. Most bosses won't put up with employees being late for work. A. care about B. argue with C. tolerate 6. Dan's appointment was called off because the dentist had got ill. A. postponed B. cancelled C. confirmed 7. Luckily we managed to put out the flames before the fire spread to the rest of the building. A. extinguish B. control C. warn about 8. I won't give up without a battle. A. go away B. surrender C. start 9. A serious epidemic broke out in the area. A. died down B. disappeared C. erupted 10. Don't pick on your little brother. A. despise B. tease C. take with you

56 56 IT JA THERE I Fill in it or there and the correct forms of the verb be, eiher positive or negative. 1. a quarter past eleven, and our plane is about to land in Boston. 2. Boston is the largest city in New England, but 22 larger cities in the US. 3. a heavy storm raging in the area since 5pm, making it impossible to bring down planes safely. 4. a pity if our flight were diverted to some other city farther north. 5. On a night like this, any stars in the sky, just this dense darkness all around us. 6. many students on this flight going to Harvard University to commence their studies. 7. the 29th of September, and the registeration for the fall term begins today. 8. Oh, no. We'll be landing in Salem, MA. I'm afraid 22 miles from Salem to Boston. 9. long queues for taxis at the airport, I bet. 10. I hope raining tomorrow when we set sail for Martha's Vineyard.

57 57 IT JA THERE A Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. Suomessa ei ole monia korkeita vuoria. 2. It is over seven hundred kilometres from Rovaniemi to Tampere. 3. Vaasan seudulla on usein tuulista. 4. There are a lot of large/big forests in eastern Finland. 5. Kello on vasta puoli yhdeksän. 6. Yesterday there was a horrible thunderstorm in Helsinki. 7. On outoa, että tänä syksynä ei ole satanut kovinkaan usein. 8. It is twenty degrees outside, and the sun is shining. 9. Juuri auringonpaistettahan me talvella kaipaamme. 10. Is it time to say goodbye to summer? 11. On sääli jättää kesämökki ja kalareissut taakse. 12. Luckily there are all kinds of activities in town, too. / Fortunately there is all kinds of action going on in town, too.

58 58 IT JA THERE B Say your sentences in English and check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1. There aren't many high mountains in Finland. 2. Rovaniemeltä Tampereelle on yli 700 kilometriä. 3. It is often windy in the Vasa area. 4. Itä-Suomessa on paljon suuria metsiä. 5. It is only half past eight / eight thirty / half eight. 6. Eilen Helsingissä oli kauhea ukkosmyrsky. 7. It is strange/weird that it hasn't been raining very much this autumn/fall. 8. Ulkona on 20 astetta, ja aurinko paistaa. 9. It is the sunshine we miss in winter. 10. Onko jo aika sanoa jäähyväiset kesälle? 11. It is a shame/pity to leave the summer cottage and the fishing trips behind. 12. Onneksi kaupungissakin on kaikenlaista toimintaa.

59 59 SANAJÄRJESTYS I Add the words given in brackets to the sentences below. 1. You should have given up your dreams. (never) 2. Trust your instincts. (always) 3. Have I told you about my old classmate Fabian? (ever) 4. Fabian was late for appointments. (often) 5. But he became a top model a few years ago. (in Italy) 6. I watch his fashion vlogs on his channel. (sometimes) 7. I must say he dresses even in his free time. (smartly) 8. Fabian's sister Laura admires her big brother. (very much) 9. Their long lost American aunt left a lot of money in her will. (to them) 10. I thought things like that happened in storybooks. (only) II Continue the sentence according to the clue in Finnish. 1. How many pills? (olet ottanut tänään) 2. Had I known about this problem before,. (olisin voinut auttaa sinua) 3. Your friends can't bail you out. Neither. (enkä voi minäkään) 4. It would be so much better if you. (kertoisit minulle totuuden) 5. Only then our future together. (voisimme rakentaa) 6. The doctor wants to know where these drugs. (sinä ostit) 7. Are you listening to what? (hän sanoo) 8. I can't remember for the taxi. (maksoinko minä) 9. I asked the driver back at eight. (tulemaan) 10. Okay, I'll try too much. (olla huolehtimatta)

60 60 EPÄSUORA KERRONTA A (AIKAMUODOT EIVÄT MUUTU) Change the direct quotes into indirect speech according to the tense in the introductory sentence. Check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1."What instrument does Vera play?" I'm not sure I can't remember when she began to play. 3. "Do they have to learn the pieces by heart?" I've no idea I wonder if she practises every day. 5. "Where did she buy her flute?" Do you know 6. Can you show me how this digital metronome works? 7. "How long do the lessons last?" Steve wants to know I'd like to know if Vera is tired afterwards. 9. "Why can't she play in public more often?" I don't see 10. I wonder if she told you about her quintet. EPÄSUORA KERRONTA B (AIKAMUODOT EIVÄT MUUTU) Muuta suorat lainausmerkeissä olevat sitaatit epäsuoraksi kerronnaksi johtolauseeseen sopivassa muodossa. Tee vuorotellen parisi kanssa, korjatkaa toistenne virheet ja tehkää tehtävä uudelleen vaihtaen osia. 1. I'm not sure what instrument Vera plays. 2. "When did she begin to play?" I can't remember I've no idea if they have to learn the pieces by heart. 4. "Does she practise every day?" I wonder Do you know where she bought her flute? 6. "How does this digital metronome work?" Can you show me Steve wants to know how long the lessons last. 8. "Is Vera tired afterwards?" I'd like to know I don't see why she can't play in public more often. 10. "Did she tell you about her quintet?" I wonder...

61 61 EPÄSUORA KERRONTA A (AIKAMUODOT MUUTTUVAT) Change the direct quotes into indirect speech according to the tense in the introductory sentence. Check your partner's answers. Take turns and then swap roles. 1."How good are you at maths?" Jason asked me Nicola asked Pete why he didn't like to play chess. 3. "What time will you phone me?" Pauline asked me Harry asked his mum where she could pick him up. 5. "How long have you been waiting for us?" Dan and Sid asked the girls Samir asked me why I had to leave so early. 7. "Do you collect Pokemon characters?" Aisha asked Benjamin Lenny asked Lorna and me if we were interested in local politics. 9. "Have you signed up for a new Yahoo account?" Cecily asked me The little boy asked the little girl if he was her best friend. 11. "Don't believe everything I say." My uncle told me My dad used to tell me to clean my teeth twice a day. 13. "Never criticise a gift." I was told Kate asked the kids not to be late. EPÄSUORA KERRONTA B (AIKAMUODOT MUUTTUVAT) Muuta suorat lainausmerkeissä olevat sitaatit epäsuoraksi kerronnaksi johtolauseeseen sopivassa muodossa. Tee vuorotellen parisi kanssa, korjatkaa toistenne virheet ja tehkää tehtävä uudelleen vaihtaen osia. 1. Jason asked me how good I was at maths. 2. "Why don't you like to play chess?" Nicola asked Pete Pauline asked me what time I would phone her. 4. "Where can you pick me up?" Harry asked his mum Dan and Sid asked the girls how long they had been waiting for them. 6. "Why do you have to leave so early?" Samir asked me Aisha asked Benjamin if he collected Pokemon characters. 8. "Are you interested in local politics?" Lenny asked Lorna and me Cecily asked me if I had signed up for a new Yahoo account. 10. "Am I your best friend?" The little boy asked the little girl My uncle told me not to believe everything he said. 12. "Clean your teeth twice a day." My dad used to tell me I was told never to criticise a gift. 14. "Don't be late." Kate asked the kids...

62 62 III Finish the sentence according to the clue in Finnish. 1. Kahtleen said. (pitävänsä indiepopista) 2. They asked me. (liittymään bändiinsä) 3. I wasn't quite sure. (olinko valmis siihen) 4. Kathleen told me. (kuulleensa minun soittavan kitaraani) 5. They said. (pyytävänsä Tommya soittamaan rumpuja) 6. I wanted to know where. (me harjoittelisimme) 7. I didn't know how long. (bändi oli soittanut yhdessä) 8. Kathleen told me. (olemaan ottamatta asioita niin vakavasti) 9. We weren't sure. (tiesikö Tommyn tyttöystävä suunnitelmasta) 10. I don't believe. (katuvani päätöstäni)

63 63 KONJUNKTIOT JA SIDESANAT I Fill in according to the clues. 1. Take enough warm clothes with you you won't catch a cold. (jotta) 2. You had better take a raincoat as well it rains. (siltä varalta että) 3. The weather forecast predicts rain shine. (sekä... että) 4. I would go trekking in the wild it rained. (vaikka) 5. you mentioned trekking, where did I put my hiking boots? (nyt kun) 6. Could you be looking for them I pop in the shed and get out the tent? (sillä välin kun) 7. I take this camping stove with us we'll just eat cold snacks. (joko... tai) 8. Take the stove. I want to have a nice cup of coffee I can. (aina kun) 9. I'm quite fit, I'm a little worried about the length of the trail. (vaikka) 10. Don't be. I'm 81 you're only 76! (kun taas) II Choose the linking word that fits. 1. You may go out with Jenny a. in case b. provided that c. in order that you finish your homework first. 2. It looks a. as though b. so that c. as soon as I shall have to stay up late tonight. 3. a. Consequently b. Nevertheless c. What's more, your dad phoned to say he's out of town. 4. a. That's why b. Even so c. Instead, it could be relaxing to have the house all to myself for once. 5. You have been working so hard at school and a. thus b. for all that c. furthermore deserve a bit of a break, as do I. 6. Maybe I'll have a look at a few holiday resorts on the net a. unless b. until c. as long as you have better ideas. 7. I got a promotion at work, which means better pay, and, a. nonetheless b. as a result c. besides, we could take a vacation some time before Christmas. 8. Paris fascinates me, a. even b. since c. although it hasn't been very safe to travel there lately. 9. We'll talk about these plans more a. while b. once c. till you come home tonight. 10. You'd better hurry, a. either b. so c. otherwise Jenny might get tired of waiting for you.

64 64 LAUSEENVASTIKKEET A Read the sentences to your partner by using a shortened clause instead of a whole subclause. When I came home, I changed into something more comfortable. -> Coming home, I changed into something more comfortable. Take turns and swap roles. 1. As I got a summer job, I could finally start saving for a micro car. 2. (If) bought second hand, it can't be very expensive, I thought. 3. When I spoke to my friends about it, I realized how wrong I had been. 4. Not knowing much about fixing cars anyway, I would have to pay quite a bit for maintainance. 5. Although it was sold at a special price, the car still cost a small fortune. 6. (When) driving it home, I managed to scratch its wing against a gate post. 7. If it wasn't repaired at once, it might start getting rusty. Darn! 8. (Being) frustrated, I asked my godfather for help. 9. Because he owns a garage, he could perhaps fix my problem. 10. (Although) feeling nervous, I called him and asked him a favour. 11. As he was a nice guy, he promised to help me out. 12. (When) thinking about the situation, I decided to drive extra carefully in future. LAUSEENVASTIKKEET B Lue lause parillesi siten, että käytät lauseenvastiketta kokonaisen sivulauseen sijaan. Esimerkki: When I came home, I changed into something more comfortable. -> Coming home, I changed into something more comfortable. Vuorotelkaa ja vaihtakaa lopuksi osia. 1. Getting a summer job, I could finally start saving for a micro car. 2. If it is bought second hand, it can't be very expensive, I thought. 3. (When) speaking to my friends about it, I realized how wrong I had been. 4. As I didn't know much about fixing cars anyway, I would have to pay quite a bit for maintainance. 5. (Although) sold at a special price, the car still cost a small fortune. 6. When I drove it home, I managed to scratch its wing against a gate post. 7. (If) not repaired at once, it might start getting rusty. Darn! 8. Since I was frustrated, I asked my godfather for help. 9. Owning a garage, he could perhaps fix my problem. 10. Although I felt nervous, I called him and asked him a favour. 11. Being a nice guy, he promised to help me out. 12. When I thought about the situation, I decided to drive extra carefully in future.

65 65 II Use shortened clauses instead of full subclauses. 1. Books that are written in English have a much wider market than those that are written in Finnish. 2. Kids who read a lot usually become good writers themselves. 3. Do you know the girl who always sits by the window? 4. No, but I know the guy who took photos of her a while ago. 5. If you are approached by a fundraiser, do you give them money? 6. You should answer when you are being spoken to. 7. Patrick was the first colleague who congratulated me. 8. What happens to the drinks that are confiscated by the police? 9. Food that otherwise goes to waste should be given to those who need it. 10. Who was the last person that saw Abigail?

66 66 III Use full subclauses instead of shortened clauses. 1. Before signing a contract, you should also read the text in small print. 2. Having bought an expensive gadget, you might want to get it insured. 3. Items sold at sales ought to be carefully examined (Caveat emptor!). 4. Beware of con artists selling non-existent stuff online. 5. An object costing a lot less than the going market value is probably a fraud. 6. After paying for your purchase, make sure you keep the receipt. 7. Finding fault with your purchase, don't hesitate to make a complaint. 8. On returning a faulty object to the shop, you should get your money back. 9. Although tiresome, it's worth sticking to your rights. 10. Not wishing to upset you, I'll finish lecturing you now.

67 67 PREPOSITIOT: AJAN ILMAUKSIA I Choose the best preposition. 1. I'm going to meet Jeff at/ in/ on lunchtime. 2. We always have a meal together at/ in/ on Tuesdays. 3. Jeff moved to York at/ in/ on He started working for our company at/ in/ on the beginning of September. 5. We first met at/ in/ on a conference in London at/ in/ on October. 6. We chatted at/ in/ on the flight back home and soon became friends. 7. I come to work at/ in/ on 9 o'clock at/ in/ on most weekdays, but sometimes we have to work at/ in/ on weekends, too. 8. I'm usually pretty tired at/ in/ on the morning, but then I get going, and my best ideas come to me when I work at/ in/ on night. 9. Our company was established at/ in/ on the 19th century, so we have quite a lot of old traditions here. 10. Our whole team is going to a cricket match at/ in/ on Saturday afternoon. II Fill in the expressions of time according to the clues in Finnish. 1. Tony is going to the Bahamas. (kahdeksi kuukaudeksi) 2. He has been dreaming of a surfing holiday. (viime vuodesta saakka) 3. His greatgrandfather was stationed in Nassau. (sodan aikana) 4. That would be WWII, of course. He was then. (vähän päälle kolmenkymmenen) 5. Tony will keep his job as a waiter. (marraskuun loppuun asti) 6. He must give his notice to the employer. (tämän viikon loppuun mennessä) 7. He also needs to get himself a new passport. (viiden päivän sisällä) 8. Nassau used to be a stronghold of pirates. (menneisyydessä) 9. It was built on the island of New Providence. (1600- luvun loppupuolella) 10. Nassau is the capital, largest city and commercial centre of the Bahamas. (tätä nykyä)

68 68 PREPOSITIOT : AJAN ILMAUKSET A Read the sentences to your partner by filling in the missing expressions of time. Check each other s answers and swap roles. 1. You've been sitting here in the library every day... (muutaman viime viikon ajan) 2. Have you been here since six o'clock? 3. We always seem to be studying... (samaan aikaan) 4. I'm living in my sister's flat for the time being. 5. It's so noisy and busy there... (iltaisin) 6. I'm moving to my own flat at Christmas. 7. My sister's kids wake me up... (kukonlaulun aikaan) whereas I like to study... (yöllä). 8. But I've become much more independent over the years. 9. I'm passing my exams... (yksi kerrallaan) 10. Our parents got married in (In the year 1995) 11. They had me when they were still... (vähän päälle kaksikymppisiä) 12. My mum works from nine to five. 13. Next week she's going to Estonia... (pariksi päiväksi) 14. I'll be looking after their dog till/ until Friday (joulukuun alussa) my dad is going to have a knee operation. 16. He's been playing football all his life/ his whole life/ all through his life (on jo aikakin) he had his knee fixed. 18. I'm sure it'll heal over time. 19. Guess who I saw in town... (syntymäpäiväni iltana) 20. Jasper. I hadn't seen him in a long time/ for a long time.

69 69 PREPOSITIOT: AJAN ILMAUKSET B Lue lauseet parillesi täydentäen samalla puuttuvat ajan ilmaukset. Tarkistakaa toistenne lauseet ja vaihtakaa lopuksi osia. 1. You've been sitting here in the library every day for/ over the past few weeks. 2. Have you been here... (kello kuudesta lähtien)? 3. We always seem to be studying at the same time. 4. I'm living in my sister's flat... (toistaiseksi) 5. It's so noisy and busy there in the evenings. 6. I'm moving to my own flat... (jouluna) 7. My sister's kids wake me up at dawn whereas I like to study at night. 8. But I've become much more independent... (vuosien mittaan) 9. I'm passing my exams one at a time. 10. Our parents got married... (vuonna 1995) 11. They had me when they were still in their early twenties. 12. My mum works... (yhdeksästä viiteen) 13. Next week she's going to Estonia for a couple of days. 14. I'll be looking after their dog... (perjantaihin saakka) 15. At the beginning of December my dad is going to have a knee operation. 16. He's been playing football... (koko ikänsä) 17. It's about time he had his knee fixed. 18. I'm sure it'll heal... (ajan myötä) 19. Guess who I saw on the evening of my birthday. 20. Jasper. I hadn't seen him... (pitkään aikaan)

70 70 PREPOSITIOT: PAIKAN ILMAUKSIA I Fill in the missing expressions of place according to the clues in Finnish. 1. Let's walk. (tämän pellon poikki) 2. The pub is. (joen äärellä) 3. Don't the clouds just look great? (punaista taivasta vasten) 4. I love the moment when the sun is about to set (horisontin tuolle puolen) 5. What is that building? (vastapäätä kirkkoa) 6. There are quite a few people gathered. (ovien eteen) 7. Oh, it's a marching band! Now they're heading. (hautausmaata kohti) 8. Last time I saw a burial like this was. (New Orleansissa) 9. Can you see anyone you know? (väkijoukon keskuudessa) 10. We can get to the pub if we walk. (puiston läpi) 11. More people are getting. (ulos autoistaan) 12. Look at that guy. He's leaving his car. (keskelle tietä)

71 71 PREPOSITIOT: PAIKAN ILMAUKSET A Take turns in saying the sentences in English. Please note that the English prepositions do not always correspond to the Finnish case suffixes. 1. Vanessa aikoi rakentaa uima-altaan puutarhaansa. 2. She found a reliable contractor in Edinburgh. 3. Mutta sitten hän hukkasi miehen puhelinnumeron autoonsa. 4. Why didn't she save the number on her phone? 5. Kun hän meni etsimään käsilaukkuaan autosta, hän jätti avaimensa keittiön pöydälle. 6. Vanessa's house is built on a hill. 7. Hän omistaa myös majan (chalet) Alpeilla. 8. Mark parked his van in the street/ on the street. 9. Lapsia leikki pihalla. 10. They were watching/ looking at (the) deer in the field. 11. Angiella ei ollut kenkiä jalassa. 12. Dora had her mother's wedding ring on her finger. 13. Aurinko oli korkealla taivaalla. 14. I decided to stay in Scotland. PREPOSITIOT: PAIKAN ILMAUKSET B Sanokaa lauseet vuorotellen englanniksi. Kiinnittäkää huomio englannin prepositioihin, jotka eivät aina vastaa suomen sijapäätteitä. 1. Vanessa was going to build a swimming pool in her garden. 2. Hän löysin luotettavan rakennuttajan (contractor) Edinburghista. 3. But then she lost the man's phone number in her car. 4. Miksei hän tallentanut numeroa puhelimeensa? 5. When she went to look for her handbag in her car, she left her keys on the kitchen table. 6. Vanessan talo on rakennettu kukkulalle. 7. She also owns/ has a chalet in the Alps. 8. Mark pysäköi pakettiautonsa kadulle. 9. Children were playing in the yard/ in the garden. 10. He katselivat peuroja pellolla. 11. Angie wasn't wearing/ didn't have shoes on her feet. 12. Doralla oli äitinsä vihkisormus sormessaan. 13. The sun was high (up) in the sky. 14. Päätin jäädä Skotlantiin.

72 72 PREPOSITIOILMAUKSIA I Choose the correct preposition. 1. The powerboat was coming towards us with/at/in full speed. 2. It had hit Alistair's canoe on/by/with purpose. 3. I whispered to Tara with/on/in a low voice, "Keep your head down." 4. I was going to sink the villains' boat and get rid of them by/for/in good. 5. Oh no, swerving the boat I dopped my bazooka in the water by/for/in accident. 6. For/To/In all that, we had the upper hand. 7. For/To/At my surprise, after a while the criminals gave up the chase. 8. All was calm and there was no danger at/in/on sight. 9. We could reach the headquarters on/by/in land. 10. When I woke up, I thought that, by/in/on the whole, it had been a wonderfully refreshing dream! II Fill in the missing phrases. 1. Please not now,. (minulla on kiire) 2. But listen. The new cinema is giving tickets to the first 100 customers. (ilmaiseksi) 3. And the pop corn,, only costs 20p. (esimerkiksi) 4. we could try and see what it's like. (ainakin) 5. Okay, let's go then,. (kaikin mokomin) 6. It'll be fun to spend the evening without the kids. (kerrankin) 7. How often do we go out anyway? Twice a month,. (keskimäärin) 8. Oh look, the cottage across the street is. (myytävänä) 9. It's a bit run-down but still charming. (tavallaan) 10. Many buyers will be interested in it. (varmasti)

73 73 III Fill in the missing prepositions according to the clues in Finnish. 1. Stone Age (kivikaudella) 2. Easter (pääsiäisenä) 3. ridiculous prices (naurettavilla hinnoilla) 4. the coast (rannikon edustalla) 5. the ground floor (pohjakerroksessa) 6. the 2nd of April (huhtikuun toisena) 7. that moment (sillä hetkellä) 8. the cold (kylmyydestä huolimatta) 9. my sources (lähteideni mukaan) 10. lying (valehtelemisen sijasta) 11. the mosquitoes (lukuunottamatta hyttysiä) 12. the contrary (päinvastoin) 13. the famine (nälänhädän aikana) 14. the 16th century (1500-luvulla) 15. my delight (ilokseni) VERBIT + PREPOSITIO, ADJEKTIIVI + PREPOSITIO, SUBSTANTIIVI + PREPOSITIO I Fill in the prepositions where needed. 1. Some people seem to succeed everything they do. 2. They focus important issues and aim goals that matter. 3. They believe themselves and complain nothing. 4. Successful people enjoy life, marry their best friend and join the local country club. 5. They cope disappointments and recover setbacks in no time at all. 6. Their charm appeals the opposite sex, and they participate all kinds of exciting activities. 7. They never suffer loneliness, and ageing doesn't affect their good looks. 8. They can rely other people's support, and they develop skilful judges of character. 9. People vote them in elections, and they never have to resort foul play. 10. Okay. Just answer this question: do such individuals actually exist?

74 74 II Fill in the missing prepositions. 1. Anne Geddes has been interested photography for over 35 years. 2. She got accustomed hard work when growing up on a cattle ranch in Australia. 3. Geddes wasn't aware her exceptional gift until she started taking photos of her own kids, using her husband's 35 mm Pentax K1000 camera. 4. She is responsible all those hundreds of greetings cards where babies are sitting on flowers or sleeping in shoes. 5. She's become famous her very unusual poses, and her photos are familiar people all over the world. 6. Babies aren't too keen being models so you have to take their photos fast, Geddes says. 7. They get bored their surroundings and aren't always ready posing for a strange photographer. 8. They get tired sitting still and aren't too crazy new toys either. 9. But Anne Geddes is good what she's doing and very patient her tiny "models". 10. She's proud her work, and not in the least anxious finding good-looking kids for the photo sessions. - All babies are beautiful, she says. III Choose the correct prepositions. 1. I'll never forget my visit to / in / on Catalonia. 2. Previously, I'd had no interest about / of / in architecture but, wow, Barcelona totally changed my attitude on / to / of buildings and their beauty. 3. Gaudí's works had a powerful effect to / into / on all of us students. 4. Since I started doing research into / about / for Antoni Gaudí, I've had much more respect towards / for / in architecture in general. 5. My ignorance of / on / in such wonderful designs as Casa Milá and Casa Batlió is now a thing of the past. 6. I'm making preparations to / for / at another journey to Barcelona. 7. If only I didn't have such a chronic shortage in / on / of money! 8. Visitors express a lot of admiration to / for / in the great Catholic temple Sagrada Familia, and there certainly will be cause to / for / of celebration when this wonderful masterpiece is finally completed (within the next 10 years?) 9. My arrival to / on / in Barcelona was an eye-opener for me in many respects. 10. I fell in love with Gaudí, and I don't think there's cure to / for / on this love.

75 75 OIKEINKIRJOITUS I Fill in the missing letters. 1.hallitus o e m e n t 2. ympäristö n i o m e n t 3. kumpi, mikä w h 4. luultavasti p r o a l y 5. hullu r z y 6. pettynyt d i s n t e d 7. paitsi e p t 8. vaikuttaa f e c t 9. menestyvä s u e 10. mahdollisuus c h n e 11. välttämättä n e e a r l y 12. kaunis b e 13. olut b r 14. ekstaasi e t a y 15. vaikka a II Correct the mistakes in the sentences. Each sentence has two errors. 1. Do you now who's suitcase this is? 2. Could you came whit me, please? 3. Show me witch is you're room. 4. Look at he's car: it's tyres have been slashed. 5. I needed to stop but my breaks did'nt work. 6. The greengrocer was selling apple's and cherry's. 7. This effects all of us - do you here me? 8. Why do you allways try to advice other people? 9. We wear not aloud to go out. 10. I though Jack the Ripper was a cereal killer. 11. So you thing we'll have ice-cream for desert? 12. You wan't to watch what your saying. 13. I had to except the fact that I was going to loose. 14. Suprise! Suprise!

76 76 IDIOMIT Here is a collection of popular idioms. Your task is to choose the right English word to match the Finnish equivalent. You might have heard these phrases in films and TV shows, so get cracking! 1. as fit as a figure/fiddle/film star erinomaisessa fyysisessä kunnossa 7. as white as a ghost/milk/a bone valkoinen kuin lakana 2. as poor as dirt/dust/dung rutiköyhä 8. as right as rock/rain/race täysin kunnossa 3. as hard as nails/bones/stones kova kuin kivi 9. as clean as a baby's bottom/a dove/a whistle putipuhdas 4. as thick as thingies/thistles/thieves kuin paita ja peppu 10. as old as Moses/the oceans/the hills ikivanha 5. as cool as a cooper/cucumber/cup cake tyyni kuin viilipytty 11. as busy as a bird/a bee/a beetle ahkera kuin muurahainen 6. as ugly as mud/a pig/sin ruma kuin piru 12. as sound as a bell/a bull/a ball terve kuin pukki N.B. In speech and writing, the first "as" is often omitted. II This time your job is to figure out which word the English would use to complete each phrase. Sometimes it's easier than you think! 1. as pretty as a kuvankaunis 2. as clear as päivänselvä 3. as thin as a laiha kuin tikku 4. as steady as a vakaa kuin kallio 5. as quick as a salamannopea 6. as pale as kalmankalpea 7. as light as a höyhenenkevyt 8. as heavy as lyijynraskas 9. as flat as a litteä kuin pannukakku 10. as cunning as a ovela kuin kettu

77 77 III Choose the right definition. 1. If you answer the call of nature, you A. act naturally B. go to the toilet C. become a conservationist 2. If you add fuel to the flames, you A. fall in love with an old friend B. improve the atmosphere in a room C. say or do something that makes things worse 3. If you bark up the wrong tree, you A. blame someone mistakenly B. waste your money C. try to persuade someone by flattery 4. If you bury the hatchet, you A. refuse to face reality B. forget a quarrel and become friends again C. have secrets you don't want to reveal 5. If you come apart at the seams, you A. are expecting a baby B. are separated from your wife or husband C. are under severe mental stress 6. If you do a good turn to someone, you A. come to the right place at the right time B. act in a helpful way C. try to see them in a positive light 7. If you ask people to pardon your French, you A. apologise for using swear words B. are sorry for being 15 minutes late C. leave without saying goodbye 8. If you fall over backwards to get a job, you A. decide to change your mind and apply after all B. will do anything to impress the employer at the job interview C. ask friends and relatives to speak favourably of you 9. If you give someone the cold shoulder, you A. help them to give up their drug addiction B. cook them a simple meal C. ignore them deliberately 10. If you go through the motions, you A. do something because you must, but without enthusiasm B. sit at home and watch movies all night long C. experience great changes in life 11. If you hold the fort, you A. keep fighting for something until you win B. look after the business while the boss is away C. don't say anything even though you want to 12. If you mind your Ps and Qs, you A. are very being careful B. dress well C. keep your distance 13. If you are paid peanuts, you A. have been deceived B. have received a compliment C. have got a very low salary 14. If you say "perish the thought", you A. hope something won't happen B. just forgot what you were going to say C. ask someone to see things from your perspective 15. If you take the mickey out of someone, you A. make them pay the bill B. tell them lies C. are making fun of them

78 78 READING COMPREHENSION 1 1 ST YEAR Choose the best alternative answer. Extraordinary stories A. Some time ago a tornado touched down in Oklahoma, reducing the town of Monroe to rubble. Homes were destroyed, families separated and 24 people killed. In other words, it was a catastrophe and, within hours, news sites were awash with images of misery, devastation and more misery. Because this is the internet age after all, the most-shared photo quickly became one of a mournful collie standing watch over a demolished house. The story went that Susie was guarding her owner s body, and our hearts collectively broke like a bunch of hormonal tweens watching a weepy and touching film. By any sane reckoning, that image was sadness personified: where would the adorable little mutt go now? How about home to her owner? In the sort of twist that would be sickeningly sentimental in a Spielberg movie but is awesome in real life, it turned out Susie s owner was not only alive he was searching throughout the devastated town, desperate to find his dog. Because sometimes the internet really does have its uses, his sister spotted Susie s picture on Facebook and alerted the sheriff. This led to an emotive reunion. If that wasn t enough awww factor for one entry, there s proof that Susie and her owner weren t the only ones. 1. What happened after the tornado hit Monroe? A. New building sites were quickly found for the homeless B. Houses collapsed and flood waters washed the streets C. Family members helped locate their loved ones 2. What was in the most-shared photo? A. A badly injured dog pulled out of the rubble B. A sad-looking dog guarding a ruined house C. A collie that wouldn't leave its injured master 3. How did people feel about the picture? A. It made them as emotional as pre-teenage girls B. Many people promptly offered to adopt the collie C. The dog's owner had to be found a new home 4. What brought the dog and its owner together? A. The owner posted a notice on Facebook B. The local sheriff recognized the dog and its owner C. A relative saw the photo online and called the police 5. Why would people say "awww"? A. The disaster was so tragic and horrible B. There were more than one "happy end" C. They didn't believe the stories were true

79 79 B. When Jim Wilson s father died in Natal, South Africa, in April 1967, both Jim, living in England, and his sister Muriel, living in Holland, were informed. Muriel contacted her husband who was on business in Portugal, and he flew to South Africa right away. Changing planes at Las Palmas airport in the Canary Islands, he bought a postcard showing holidaymakers on Margate Beach, Natal, and sent it to Muriel. It was she who noticed that the photograph showed her father walking up the beach. 6. Who informed Jim and Muriel about their father's death? A. Muriel's husband B. English and Dutch authorities C. We are not told 7. Where did Muriel's husband buy the postcard? A. In South Africa B. In the Canary Islands C. In Portugal 8. What was special about the photograph? A. It proved that their father was actually alive B. It showed their father visiting the Canary Islands C. To see their father in it was a strange coincidence C. An English girl called Laura Buxton released a helium filled balloon during celebrations for her grandparents gold wedding anniversary in Blurton, Staffordshire, in June Attached to the balloon was her name and address and a note asking the finder to write back. A fornight or so later she received a reply. The balloon had been found by another Laura Buxton in the garden hedge of her home in Pewsey, Wiltshire, 140 miles away. Both Lauras were ages 10 and both had three-year-old black Labradors, a guinea pig and a rabbit. 9. What were the Buxton family celebrating? A. Her grandparents' long marriage B. Laura's mum and dad's 50th anniversary C. The birthday of Laura's grandparents 10. What happened with the balloon? A. Laura pretended that her make-believe friend had found it B. A girl by the same name contacted the Buxtons about it C. After a long time it was discovered in a near-by garden

80 80 D. The name really says it all. At the Happy Guest Hotel in Warrington, UK, the staff just wants to please their guests. They are willing to go the extra mile to make that happen, even if it means accommodating the lonely customer. The management provides clients with a unique service a sleeping partner in the form of a goldfish. Guests who opt for this scaly company are charged 5, and a goldfish named Happy is placed in their rooms. The hotel s website boasts that the world-famous goldfish provides guests with company for the evening and instills a sense of joy in the client, one that creates a truly interesting environment. Guests making a reservation online can book Happy ahead of time to ensure that their little buddy will be waiting in their room upon arrival. So why a goldfish? Well, the hotel s owner believes that this little fish provides a sense of comfort, a sounding board, and unconditional love to the guest after a hard day. The owner states that clients may even find themselves missing Happy between stays. Never fear, though. Happy or his stand-in will be available for your next stay. 11. What are the staff at the Happy Guest Hotel prepared to do? A. Walk a mile to fetch a fish from a pet shop B. Make sure their guest doesn't feel lonesome C. Provide a sleeping partner of their guest's choice 12. What is the goldfish supposed to do? A. Remind the visitor of their home B. Make the guest appreciate nature C. Keep company and give joy 13. What does the hotel's owner think? A. Customers will want to see Happy again B. Clients won't notice if Happy has been replaced C. People prefer pets that don't make any sounds E. We are all familiar with packing in a hurry and forgetting some of the most essential items for a marvellous holiday, like a bathing suit. To avoid taking a dip in your birthday suit or heading over to the hotel gift shop which so often stocks less than stylish options, the Standard Hotel chain has come up with a rather innovative solution a bathing suit dispenser. The vending machine offers big name brands like Quiksilver and style options for both men and women. Available in an array of different sizes and colours, the designs are inspired by the look and feel of the hotel chain.the machine even prints local hot spots on the waistband so that guests can hit the town after their dip in the pool. The trunks and two-piece suits are not bargain-priced, however. Expect to spend quite a bit if you forget your suit. 14. What have we all noticed? A. Before a trip, there just isn't enough time to go shopping B. It doesn't matter if you forget to pack a swimsuit for a vacation C. How hard it is to remember to pack all you need on a holiday 15. What does "taking a dip in your birthday suit" mean? A. Digging into your pockets to find money B. Going for a swim naked C. Borrowing money from a bank

81 What are the usual gift shop bathing suits often like? A. Elegant but expensive B. Non-existent or the wrong size C. Ugly 17. What else does the swimsuit vending machine give? A. Printed leaflets advertising local bars and cafés B. A wristband which entitles you to a free drink at a club C. Details of local attractions printed on the actual suit 18. What is true of the hotel chain's swimsuits? A. They aren't exactly cheap B. There is a certain waiting time C. They all tend to look the same F. The Best Man for Hire service at South Carolina s Wild Dunes Resort ensures that the groom will not be without a companion on the big day. The hotel insists that the groom must be looked after and receive the attention that the bride traditionally gets on her special day. Thus, the Best Man for Hire package aims at providing the ultimate wingman. This pseudo best man will not disappoint his customer, handling everything from delivering the perfect best man speech to administering CPR on a wedding guest in trouble. Obviously, a couple who employs this best man is doing so with a sense of humour and deep pockets because his services are certainly not cheap. The groom can expect to pay $150 per hour, $650 for a half day, $1000 for a full day, and $2000 for a weekend. 19. What is one of the jobs of the hired Best Man? A. Find a suitable bride for a rich bachelor B. Help the bridegroom to write his speech C. Assist a guest with a heart or breathing problem 20. What is expected of the groom? A. He must not tell anyone about the deal B. He must have quite a lot of money C. He must not make jokes at the wedding

82 82 READING COMPREHENSION 2 1 ST YEAR Choose the best alternative answer. Sports and stuff A. Kip Keino, the famous Kenyan runner, was orphaned as a child and often had to run back and forth from school four times each day. It s no surprise that in the face of great adversity, he would step up to the challenge. While competing in the 1968 Olympics in his first event, the 10,000-metre run, he collapsed in pain from gallstones, but he got up and completed the race. Even though doctors ordered him not to compete, he told his teammates he wouldn't withdraw him from the 1,500-metre race. So, he sneaked out and took a bus to the race. After the bus got stuck in traffic, he ran all the way to the track, reaching it just in time to start. What is amazing is that he set an Olympic record that day, beating his opponent by a handy 20 metres, the biggest margin ever at that time. 1. What do we learn about Kip Keino's childhood? A. He was a member of his school's running team B. His father made him train many times a day C. He had lost both of his parents 2. Why was he in pain in the 1968 Olympics? A. He had hurt himself on some stones B. He was suffering from a medical condition C. He was pushed over by fellow competitors 3. Why did Kip nearly miss the 1,500-metre race? A. He was given medication that pretty much knocked him out B. His teammates wanted him to withdraw from the race C. The vehicle he was riding on got caught in a traffic jam 4. How did the race go for him? A. He was narrowly beaten B. He was by far the best C. He almost broke the Olympic record B. Aki Ra was a very young boy when he was chosen by the Khmer Rouge to become a child soldier. He laid thousands of mines and fought for the Khmer Rouge until Later he received landmine clearance training with the United Nations and heard his true calling. Without any demining tools, he started to illegally clear and defuse mines and UXOs (unexploded military supplies) in the areas he had fought with nothing but a knife, Leatherman and a stick. As his name and work became known, tourists flocked to his home to see the collection of defused artillery. Charging a dollar per person the Cambodia Landmine Museum came into being. To open the museum, Aki Ra had to cease his illegal clearing of the mines, but was able to establish a NGO (non-governmental organisation) Cambodian Self Help Demining (CSHD) and he is now certified to do his life s work. Over the course of time, Aki Ra also adopted many of the injured and abandoned children he found in the villages he visited, and today 29 children live at the Cambodia Landmine Relief Center.

83 83 5. What was Aki Ra's job until 1983? A. He worked in the mines B. He served in the military C. He rescued child soldiers 6. What was his "true calling"? A. To deactivate dangerous weapons B. To campaign for the peace movement C. To make a career in the United Nations 7. Who assisted him? A. Illegal organisations B. Volunteering tourists C. In practice, no one 8. How did the Cambodia Landmine Museum come into being? A. Cambodians donated one dollar per person to finance the museum B. Aki showed visitors the weapons he had defused for a small fee C. Aki promised the government he'd stop his illegal activities, so they gave him the money 9. What else has Aki Ra done for his country? A. He has found adoptive parents for Cambodian children abroad B. He has appealed to many institutions to help victims of war C. He has personally taken care of many suffering children C. Matthias Sindelar is one of the greatest Austrian footballers of all time. Known as the Paper Man for his slight build, Sindelar earned his greatest professional success as captain of the Austrian national team during the 1934 World Cup. Austria qualified again for the 1938 World Cup, but there was a problem. By that time, Nazi Germany had already invaded and annexed Austria. On April 3, 1938, Austria played one last football match against Germany before the Austrian team was dissolved and the players incorporated into the German team. It was meant to be a celebration match marking Anschluss, the return of Austria to the fatherland. However, Sindelar saw it as the perfect opportunity to show how he really felt. First, he insisted that the team wear their red-and-white kits, Austria s national colours, instead of the traditional white-andblack. There have always been rumours that Austria was told to lose the match or play to a draw. According to eyewitnesses, the Austrian team appeared to miss several shots on purpose. However, toward the end of the game, they had a change of heart and beat Germany 2 0. Sindelar scored the first goal and then celebrated in front of a VIP box filled with high-ranking Nazi officials. Afterward, Sindelar refused to join the German national team, saying he wanted to retire due to old age and injury. Less than a year later, he was dead of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning, although many have questioned whether it was truly an accident. 10. Why was Sindelar nicknamed "Paper Man"? A. His body was thin and small B. He thought he was better than he really was C. He was interested in academic studies 11. What was the problem in 1938? A. Sindelar had to choose whether to play for Germany or for Austria B. Whether Austria could be considered a sovereign country C. Nazi Germany had not qualified to play in the World Cup

84 What was to be celebrated? A. Austria's acceptance of the rules of peace B. Germany and Austria becoming one again C. The birth of Europe's strongest football team 13. How did Austria play at the beginning of the game? A. They deliberately avoided scoring B. The team played better than ever C. Their best players never showed up 14. What reason did Sindelar give for not playing for Germany? A. He was not fit enough anymore B. He didn't like Nazi officials C. He was deeply hurt 15. How did he die? A. As a result of a conspiracy B. He inhaled toxic gas C. In a fire D. Forrest Mars, a young American, had a fight with his dad, so he decided to move to Europe. Unfortunately, he picked Europe in the early 1930s. While stopping in Spain, he ran into soldiers during their civil war. Now the Spanish Civil War is mostly considered a prequel to the far more disastrous World War II, but it still left half a million people dead and ushered in decades of Fascist rule. On his visit, Mars saw soldiers eating their rations. Able to withstand the heat and easily portable, their candies were encased in hard, sugary shells. Mars decided to market a similar candy in the US for the summer. That is why M&M S, as their slogan says, melts in your mouth, not in your hand. Mars needed help getting his project off the ground. But due to World War II, there was a ration on chocolate. So he teamed up with Bruce Murrie, the son of Hershey Chocolate Company s president William Murrie. Hershey had a monopoly on chocolate, and to use less of the precious stuff, Murrie and Mars decided to put a peanut inside every M&M. The two partners, who only met due to World War II, named their product after themselves: M(ars)&M(urrie) S chocolate. Together, they started selling tubes of the product to US soldiers. After the war was over, the soldiers remained loyal and the candy became a hit. 16. Why did Forrest Mars travel to Europe? A. To fight in the Spanish Civil War B. To expand a family business C. To get away from a quarrel 17. What did the Spanish Civil War bring about? A. It started off the Second World War B. The death of millions of innocent people C. Fascist rule in Spain for tens of years 18. What was special about Spanish soldiers' rations? A. Their sweets made no mess even in the heat B. They carried their foods in special coolers C. They ate a lot of sugary stuff to get energy

85 What was the problem in America? A. It was hard to find sponsors who'd believe in Mars's idea B. There was a limited supply of chocolate available C. Hershey had no interest in investing in the project 20. How did the product become a hit? A. It had a catchy name and a nice package B. It reminded people of the victory of WWII C. Returning military men kept buying M&Ms

86 86 READING COMPREHENSION 1 2 ND YEAR Choose the right alternative based on the text. Celebrities A. Olivia Newton-John, who grew up to be a successful singer and actress, was born to Brin Newton-John and Irene Born. Olivia s maternal grandfather was Nobel Prize-winning atomic physicist Max Born, but his family was forced to flee Germany during the 1930s because of their Jewish heritage. After settling in England, Irene married Brin. Since he spoke German, Brin spent World War II decoding German messages for the top secret RAF organisation Ultra. At one point, he helped translate Germany s plans for the Battle of El Alamein. Brin also questioned captured Nazis, but instead of standard interrogation techniques, he often gathered information by wining and dining them. In May 1941, Brin questioned a witness who saw a plane crash in Scotland. The pilot of the plane turned out to be Deputy Fuhrer Rudolf Hess, who was subsequently captured. 1. What do we know about Max Born? A. He was a German linguist and doctor B. He was little known in the science world C. He was Olivia Newton-John's mother's father 2. What did Max Born do in the 1930s? A. He escaped from his native country B. He inherited money from his Jewish family C. He won the Nobel Prize for physics 3. What was Ultra? A. An exceptionally difficult code to break B. A secret German operative in England C. A body of breaking encrypted messages 4. How did Brin Newton-John treat captured Nazis? A. He used exceptionally harsh techniques B. He questioned them over a good meal C. He interrogated them in his own home 5. What is said of Rudolf Hess? A. He was one of the Nazis who Brin interrogated B. He was later condemned to death for war crimes C. He was taken prisoner after landing in Scotland B. Hugh Laurie is best known for playing the role of Dr Gregory House, the title character on the television medical drama House. That seems appropriate, since his father, Ran Laurie, worked as a physician. However, Ran achieved his greatest fame in the field of rowing. Ran captured numerous rowing titles throughout the 1930s and represented Great Britain on their eight-person rowing team at the 1936 Olympics. The team missed a medal by placing fourth. Ran yearned for another opportunity at an Olympic medal, but World War II forced the cancellation of the Games in 1940 and Finally, in 1948, Ran and

87 87 his partner, Jack Wilson, competed in the coxless pairs event at the Olympics in London. They wound up winning gold in front of their home country. Decades later, Hugh Laurie followed in his father s footsteps by rowing for the University of Cambridge. 6. Why is it appropriate that Hugh Laurie should act the role of Gregory House? A. His father had studied physics at Cambridge B. Ran Laurie was a doctor by profession C. His father's character was very complicated 7. What is said of Ran Laurie and the Olympics? A. He participated in the Olympic games four times B. His team was disqualified in the 1936 Olympics C. He and Jack Wilson were the top dogs in Did Hugh take after his father? A. Yes, he too was good at rowing B. Yes, he even surpassed his father's achievements C. No, he tried rowing at uni but didn't succeed C. Few Hollywood actresses were more iconic than Katharine Hepburn. She inherited her success from a mother who was way ahead of her time. During the early 20th century, Katharine Houghton Hepburn was one of the biggest advocates of the suffrage movement and served as president of the Connecticut Woman Suffrage Association. She attained another victory for women s rights after joining forces with activist Margaret Sanger. Hepburn and Sanger believed women had the right to experience sex without fear of conception and launched the birth control movement. Together, they cofounded the American Birth Control League, and Hepburn was elected chair of the National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control. She often appeared before committees and legislatures to advocate the annulment of anti-birth control laws. Today, we know the American Birth Control League as Planned Parenthood. 9. What is true of actress Katharine Hepburn, according to the text? A. Many Hollywood stars were more memorable than her B. She had as splendid a career as an actress as her mother C. She was born to a modern and liberal-minded woman 10. What was one of the issues Katharine Houghton Hepburn campaigned for? A. A woman's right to give birth to another woman's baby B. A universal right to vote C. Women's right to join the military 11. What did Hepburn and Sanger hope to achieve? A. Make it possible for women to have sex without fear of getting pregnant B. Make it legal to terminate an unwanted pregnancy C. Make contraceptive pills available and free for anyone 12. What was Hepburn's attitude towards anti-birth control laws? A. Those laws should be overthrown B. Such laws should be made stricter C. Laws like that protected women's rights

88 88 D. Jim Morrison is one of the most recognizable rock musicians of all time. Given his wild persona, you might be surprised to learn that his father, George Stephen Morrison, served in the United States Navy for four decades. Jim rebelled against his family s lifestyle and practically disowned them after he found fame. During his decorated career, the elder Morrison fought in three wars and was present at Pearl Harbor in 1941 when it was attacked. In August 1964, Admiral Morrison was in command of the US naval fleet during the infamous Gulf of Tonkin incident, where an American destroyer and three North Vietnamese vessels allegedly attacked each other. Although Morrison s flagship carrier, the Bon Homme Richard, had no direct involvement, the incident prompted the US to escalate the Vietnam War. 13. Which of the following adjectives best describes Jim Morrison, in the light of the text? A. Talented B. Rebellious C. Unbalanced 14. Where did George Morrison do most of his fighting? A. On land B. In the air C. At sea 15. How did Jim Morrison feel about his father's achievements? A. He never quite realized how famous his father was B. He was in direct opposition and denounced his father's values C. He looked up to his father and sought to become as famous, only in a different way 16. What happened in 1964? A. Admiral Morrison's destroyer sank three North Vietnamese ships B. An incident at sea made the USA start the Vietnam War C. There was a conflict between US and Vietnamese vessels E. The late Tupac Shakur is one of the most celebrated and controversial rap superstars of all time, but his family was just as controversial. Tupac s mother, Alice Williams, changed her name to Afeni after joining the Black Panther Party. While pregnant with her son, Afeni and 20 other Black Panthers were rounded up by the New York police. In what became known as the Panther 21 case, the defendants were slapped with 156 charges, including conspiracy to carry out bombings. In May 1971, just one month before Tupac was born, Afeni and the rest of the Black Panthers had all charges against them dismissed. Afeni soon married Mutulu Shakur, who raised Tupac even though he was not his biological father. Years later, Mutulu was added to the FBI s 10 Most Wanted Fugitives list for participating in the robbery of a Brinks armored truck. He was captured and is currently incarcerated. 17. What is true of Tupac Shakur? A. He became famous late in life B. He didn't start off as a rapper C. He is not alive anymore 18. What is said of his mother? A. She was a performing artist B. She got involved in politics C. She was beaten by the police

89 What happened in 1971? A. Political activists committed acts of terror B. 20 Black Panthers were sentenced to prison C. Charges against Tupac's mum were dropped 20. What happened with Mutulu? A. He admitted he was Tupac's father B. He was taken captive and is still inside C. He escaped and hasn't been caught

90 90 READING COMPREHENSION 2 2 ND YEAR Choose the best alternative answer. From the cinema to sports arenas A. Paul Simon was in Europe when he heard the news of John F. Kennedy s assassination. Heartbroken, he decided to write a song about his alienation and sadness. This song became The Sound of Silence. Three years later, the song reached number one on the charts. It remains one of the most popular songs by the band and is strangely influential on movie sound tracks. Until the late sixties, movies used original scores and not pop songs. All that changed with The Graduate. The Graduate was intended to have an original score like other films, but director Mike Nichols kept listening to Simon and Garfunkel s The Sound of Silence in the shower. The song got stuck in his head, and he decided to insert it into the movie clips while they were working on a score.the song was mostly just a time marker until they could find a better song. But he soon realized that the song captured Benjamin Braddock s feelings better than any other song could. That same inner turmoil that Paul Simon experienced trying to come to grips with the assassination inspired Mike Nichols to overturn decades of cinematic convention. This paved the way for classic movie sound tracks like The Bodyguard, Dirty Dancing, Purple Rain, Saturday Night Fever and Forrest Gump. 1. How did "The Sound of Silence" come into being? A. Paul Simon was asked to write a song for a film B. John Kennedy's death influenced the songwriter C. A girl back home had broken Paul Simon's heart 2. What happened with "The Sound of Silence"? A. It became a number one best-selling hit immediately B. It has been used on countless movie sound tracks ever since C. The director of The Graduate decided to use it in his film 3. Who was Benjamin Braddock? A. A character in Mike Nichols' movie B. The guy who persuaded Simon and Garfunkel to record the score C. The screenwriter of The Graduate 4. How was cinematic convention changed? A. Other directors started using pop songs in their movies B. Better original scores began to be written for films C. More and more classical music was used by film makers B. Godzilla is one of the most iconic creations of Japanese cinema. He is beloved by filmgoers and people who like to see stuff blow up. His destructive powers are essential to his identity. With his feet or atomic breath, he can level a city. That is very much intended because Godzilla was created as a protest of nuclear weapons. The original 1954 movie begins with Godzilla destroying a fishing boat. This was modeled after a tragic event that occurred at the time. On March 1, 1954, the crew members of the Lucky Dragon 5 were too close to one of the largest explosions in human history. The fishing boat had drifted into the waters of the Bikini Atoll where the US was dropping the first hydrogen bomb.

91 91 The passengers aboard the vessel survived the heat blast but were exposed to high levels of radiation. All 23 crew members were quarantined. One member, Aikichi Kuboyama, died. Ishiro Honda, the film s creator, was inspired to make a movie that showed how damaging atomic warfare can be. That is why his monster can knock down buildings and has charred, raised skin like the keloids of Hiroshima victims. Godzilla s origin is manifest in the original cut of the film. Godzilla awakens inside the Earth after hearing the bombs drop on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. His massive size is due to radiation from the continual bombings over the Marshall Islands. In Japan, Godzilla was synonymous with nuclear protest. However, in the US, those scenes were cut. 5. What do filmgoers love about Godzilla movies? A. The Japanese sense of humour B. Their serious message C. The explosions 6. Why are Godzilla's feet important? A. He is identified by them B. They symbolise destructive weapons C. They ooze out poisonous gases 7. What did the crew of the Lucky Dragon 5 do? A. They wanted to ptotest against US nuclear tests B. They got involved in an accident at sea by chance C. They were observing the Bikini Atoll explosions 8. What was the outcome of the Lucky Dragon's voyage? A. The passengers were intact but the crew got sick B. Everyone aboard the vessel was isolated for safety's sake C. The boat got destroyed but the people were rescued 9. How is Godzilla similar to Hiroshima victims? A. He has lost all his hair B. His reproductive system is damaged C. His skin is badly scarred 10. How do American films portray Godzilla? A. Just another scary mutant monster B. A reminder of the horror of nuclear warfare C. An instrument of revenge created by the Japanese C. Many stadiums will have a ghost or two roaming their stands, but the Ibrox Stadium in Glasgow must have more than its fair share, having been witness to two major disasters during the 20th century. On April 5, 1902, during a football game between England and Scotland, a stand collapsed under the weight of the fans, killing 25 people and injuring over 500. It had rained heavily the night before the game, and the recently built wooden stand was weakened considerably. The incident took place five minutes into the second half of the contest. The game itself was continued to the end for fear that stopping and cancelling the match would lead to a mass exit by the fans, potentially causing further injury or worse. The incident is regarded as the first disaster of its kind in British football. Almost 70 years later in 1971, another major incident occurred when 66 fans were crushed to death on Stairway 13 as they exited the stadium. It appeared that a young child fell, which instantly caused a pileup on the stairway. More than 200 people

92 92 were also injured. To make matters worse, two people died the same way on the same stairway in Despite continuing concerns being raised, they were not addressed until the tragedy in What is special about the Ibrox Stadium in Glasgow? A. Many people have witnessed ghosts haunting the place B. More fans have died there than in any other stadium C. It has been the scene of disaster on several occasions 12. Why did the accident of 1902 occur? A. The stand was old and badly built B. The stand collapsed because it was soaked C. English hooligans started a riot 13. Why was the match continued after the accident? A. Scotland vs England was such an important event B. To avoid mass hysteria amidst panicking fans C. No one realised how serious the accident was 14. What caused the disaster of 1971 at the same stadium? A. One of the stairways collapsed under the weight of the fans B. One of the exits got blocked as someone had fallen C. A false alarm caused panic as people were leaving the stadium 15. What had happened ten years earlier? A. People began to question the safety of Stairway 13 B. Several people were trampled on and died C. 200 were injured in a similar incident D. As a reserve marathon runner thrust into the 1960 Olympic spotlight in Rome because of a teammate s last-minute injury, Abebe Bikila wasn t taken seriously by anyone. The relatively unknown marathon runner claimed a personal best that was faster than the world record, but he was ridiculed. It probably didn t help that after his only pair of running shoes wore out during training, he decided to run the marathon barefoot, to more ridicule. Bikila came from a humble background. He was the son of a shepherd and had only begun running at the age of 24, training barefoot in the Ethiopian highlands. But he did shine during the marathon. After being among the leaders early in the race, he overtook his final competitor just after passing the Axum obelisk, smashing the world record and even doing a little dance at the finish line while many of his competitors were too tired to do more than lie down. Four years later, Bikila would win another gold medal and set another world record at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics. During civil unrest in Addis in 1969, Abebe was driving his Volkswagen Beetle when he had to swerve to avoid a group of protesting students. He lost control of his car and it landed in a ditch, trapping him. He was freed out of the car but the accident left him paralyzed. His coach Onni Niskanen convinced him to compete in archery competitions for athletes in wheelchairs and Abebe joked that he would win the next Olympic marathon in a wheelchair.

93 Why didn't people believe in Abebe Bikila's chances? A. He had an injury just before the Olympic games started B. He wasn't actually meant to be running the marathon C. He boasted of his talent as a runner but there was no proof 17. Why did he run barefoot? A. His shoes had vanished B. Shoes cramped his style C. His shoes were in poor shape 18. What did his father do? A. He paid for Bikila's high altitude training B. He had the boy race from an early age C. He made his living by keeping animals 19. How did the 1960 marathon go for Abebe Bikila? A. He was leading the race from start to finish B. He was very happy to win but very tired afterwards C. He did better than anyone could have expected 20. Why was the year 1969 memorable? A. After that Bikila would never walk again B. Bikila won a gold medal in archery C. Bikila was attacked by Ethiopian students

94 94 RAKENNE- JA SANASTOMONIVALINTA 1 1ST YEAR Choose the best alternative. Autistic defender Walker Aurand, like so many young men (1) started playing hockey when they were (2) high, spent chilly Saturday mornings being dragged to practice (3) bleary-eyed parents. Eventually he would live out his dream playing for a college team, his childhood, and teen years having been shaped by the game. 1. A. - B. whose C. who 2. A. knee B. fire extinguisher C. garden gnome 3. A. of B. from C. by But hockey would do something else for Aurand as well: help him tackle autism. Many of Aurand s Davenport University teammates had (4) idea he had autism, a developmental disorder that can impair communication and social interaction, until he penned a first-person piece that ran on local hockey blog MiHockey over the summer. That (5) autism wasn t obvious is a testament not only to intervention, but also to the positive (6) hockey has had on Aurand. 4. A. any B. no C. a little 5. A. he's B. him C. his 6. A. affection B. impact C. press "Autism and the severity of autism, (7) varies, Aurand tells GOOD. I have a milder form of autism now... and that s due to the fact that when I was younger I got put through (8) hours of therapy. Both of Aurand s parents were proactive in making sure he got the help he needed, and it didn t (9) that his mother is a speech pathologist. That was sort of an advantage really that my mother knew what kind of therapies to get me, he says. Including ice time. 7. A. they B. those C. it 8. A. umpteen B. hundreds C. few 9. A. matter B. help C. hurt When I m on the ice, any learning differences or autistic feelings that I have all just go right out the window, the 20-year-old defenseman says. The rink is a place where I m able to kind of feel (10). I don t think (11) the struggles that I ve had or any of the challenges that I ve faced. Hockey is where I feel like I can be myself and (12) have to worry about anything. 10. A. hole B. holy C. whole 11. A. - B. about C. on 12. A. no one B. doesn't C. not

95 95 And it s been that way for (13) long as he can remember, which impressively enough, goes all the way back to when the Michigan native was just two years old and his parents took him to a rink (14) first time. My dad came on the ice with me. We originally (15) he would skate with me, Aurand says. After about five minutes, I looked at him and said, I ll do it by myself, Dad. The kid has been on the ice ever since. 13. A. so B. as C. almost 14. A. at B. for the C A. though B. taught C. thought After playing for his high school team and spending a year with the Minnesota Junior Hockey League s Dells Ducks, Aurand (16) a spot with the American Collegiate Hockey Association Division 1 Davenport hockey team in Grand Rapids, Michigan, just 15 minutes from home, allowing his parents to (17) his home games. Here Aurand simply thinks of (18) as a college sophomore and hockey player, not necessarily a college sophomore and hockey player with autism. 16. A. earned B. were given C. gotten 17. A. watching B. be with C. attend 18. A. him B. himself C. themselves Aurand s isn t the only example of participation in athletics being beneficial for autistic (19). There are the heartwarming highlight clips of youngsters with more severe cases who have done very (20) in high school basketball, youth baseball, or bowling, for instance, but there are also instances where the integration - socially and athletically - is even more seamless. Brick, N.J., high school kicker Anthony Starego, former Michigan State basketball player turned anti-bullying advocate Anthony Ianni, and former Olympic swimming hopeful Devin Ross come to mind. Aurand s feeling of inclusion as a college (21) perhaps is more in the vein of those three examples. 19. A. children's B. peoples C. kids 20. A. well B. good C. best 21. A. athletic B. athletics C. athlete That does not mean Aurand doesn t still face difficulties, and certain (22) others might take for granted he s had to learn through experience. Understanding sarcasm, for example, was something he once had trouble (23). I used to be awful at it, he laughs. If someone would say something to me and had a dry sense of humor and said it with a straight face, I d have no idea if they were joking or not. The interactions, particularly with teammates, allowed Aurand to become more familiar with the humor so that now he more easily (24) jokes and sarcasm. 22. A. thinks B. things C. thoughts 23. A. with B. himself C A. comprehend B. realizes C. recognizes

96 96 "But if there s ever a time where I can t figure it out, he says, my teammates are great enough guys where I can ask them, Hey, he was joking right? Dealing well with (25) is something else he is happy to have conquered. The year he spent playing with the Dells Ducks, which happened to be the first time he lived away from home, Aurand struggled not to take his coach s intensity too personally. He was one of the best coaches (26) that I ve ever had in my entire life, but he got intense sometimes and that was hard, Aurand says. I had to learn that he wasn t yelling (27) because he thinks less of you as a person, he was doing it because he wants you to become a better hockey player and he realizes how much potential you have. 25. A. critic B. criticism C. criticizes 26. A. so far B. by far C. far out 27. A. at you B. to you C. you These days, Aurand wants feedback. He d rather receive constructive criticism than (28) for having done a good job. I m kind of a perfectionist and I always want to do better, he says. Even in youth hockey he wanted to do better, but that s not always easy for a child to process, especially when autism is (29). Aurand would cry and throw fits when the other team won or even scored a goal. And while he s grown out of that, he still can struggle with the disappointment of a loss, such as during last season s national semifinals. The disappointment was the greatest Aurand ever remembered experiencing - especially due to his desire for the graduating seniors who had made his first year on the team an amazing experience to end their college careers with that trophy. I wanted it more for them (30) I wanted it for myself, he says. That took a little bit of time to get over, for sure. But I know it s hockey and not everything goes your way sometimes." 28. A. price B. prize C. praise 29. A. questioned B. involved C. participated 30. A. as B. then C. than

97 97 RAKENNE- JA SANASTOMONIVALINTA 2 1ST YEAR Choose the best alternative. Travel stories Here are a few true stories from the world of travel for you to enjoy. This happened at Luton airport, England. I was waiting at the luggage carousel (1) my suitcase to arrive. The conveyor belt was made up from crescent-shaped interlocking pieces of (2) - old tyres, actually - and it entered the arrivals area through a small door with plastic strips to keep out the weather, looped around a bit and then (3) similarly. The area was very crowded and I (4) see my cases, but I thought it best to wait until there'd be fewer people and more room for me to get my luggage. One guy, who was rather tall and thin in build, decided he couldn't wait and elbowed himself (5) the crowd, jamming himself in between the people waiting right next to the belt. His case arrived (a large, heavy-looking suitcase) and he grabbed it by the handle, but because he was (6) with his feet together, he was immediately pulled off balance. The sensible thing would (7) to let go of the case, regain your balance and wait for it to come around again, but (8) some reason, he clung to it for dear life. The case continued to move along the conveyor and he (9) pulled over, but he couldn't actually move through the crowd, so he sort of flopped over onto his back on the conveyor, still clinging to the case handle with one hand, unable to right himself as he passed under the plastic flaps and out of sight into the loading area. I'd love to know what (10) next, but at this point, my case came around again and I left. 1. A. - B. for C. on 2. A. rubber B. wood C. metal 3. A. excited B. exciting C. exited 4. A. can B. could C. wanted 5. A. through B. across C. over 6. A. stood B. standing C. having stood 7. A. have been B. had been C. of being 8. A. by B. out of C. for 9. A. were B. was C. should 10. A. will happen B. happened C. happens (11) having married a German woman, my dad never did understand more than a few words of German. Once when we were visiting our relatives in Germany, my mum sent him across the street to the corner

98 98 shop to get some bottles of beer for the guests who (12) the next day. He found the beer just fine but when the shop assistant (13) him something, my dad just answered "ja, ja" like he usually did, without understanding a word except "bier." He (14) when the clerk whipped out a bottle opener and popped the caps off of every bottle in a flash. He (15) just said "ja, ja" again but from then on one of us kids had to go shopping with him. 11. A. Despite B. Because of C. Thanks to 12. A. was coming B. had arrived C. were expected 13. A. says B. asked C. were telling 14. A. surprised B. was surprised C. gets a surprise 15. A. always B. sometimes C. never My flight was delayed in Houston. Since the gate was needed for (16) flight, our aircraft was backed away from the terminal, and we (17) directed to a new gate. We all found the new gate, only to discover a third gate had been designated for our (18). Finally, everyone got on board the right plane, and the flight attendant announced: We apologize for the gate (19). This flight is going to Washington, D.C. If your destination is not Washington, D.C., you should get off now. A moment later a red-faced pilot came out of the cockpit, (20) his bags. Sorry, he said, wrong plane. 16. A. the other B. another C. other 17. A. - B. had C. were 18. A. plane B. fly C. airport 19. A. chance B. change C. charter 20. A. carried B. carrying C. was carrying A man on holiday in Spain thought he would his sister back in England. But he made a typo (typing error), so (21) sending it to Joan Foster, he sent it to Jean Foster, the wife of a priest who (22) recently died. When she (23) it, she fainted. It read: Arrived safely, but it sure is hot down here. 21. A. instead of B. in spite of C. because of 22. A. was B. had C. has 23. A. reads B. reading C. read

99 99 Doing the rounds of his barns in a remote (24) area, a farmer came across a parachutist who had landed in hay. What happened? asked the farmer. My chute failed to open, (25) the parachutist. Ah, well, if you (26) the locals before making your jump, you would ve known that nothing around here opens on a Sunday. 24. A. country B. urban C. industrial 25. A. answer B. replied C. inquired 26. A. 'd have asked B. asked C. 'd asked The husband and wife were travelling (27) holiday in Scotland. As they (28) Kirkcudbright, they started arguing about the pronunciation of the town's name. The argument raged until they stopped for lunch. As they stood in the restaurant, the husband asked the guy behind the counter: Can you please settle an argument between me and (29) wife? How do you (30) where we are in? The guy leaned over the counter and said: Burrr gerrr kiiing. 27. A. on B. in C. along 28. A. arrived B. approached C. attended 29. A. our B. mine C. my 30. A. says B. pronounce C. spell

100 100 RAKENNE- JA SANASTOMONIVALINTA 1 2ND YEAR Choose the best alternative. The significant other? The Swedes have created a list of new and useful words to describe how relationship statuses work nowadays. Modern dating is a minefield (1) the best of times, and it only seems to be getting more (2). Are you someone's roommate, friends with benefits or a booty call? (3) English language just doesn t have the scope required to accommodate such variable romantic situations. 1. A. at B. on C. for 2. A. straightforward B. uniform C. complex 3. A. - B. The C. An Referring to someone as your girlfriend or boyfriend after 12 solid years of going out seems infantile but calling (4) your partner would feel equally unfitting. Luckily, the (5) have got it all figured out. 4. A. him B. he or she C. them 5. A. Swedish B. Swedes C. Swede If you re fully committed to someone and have moved far beyond seeing (6) for a few months but don t live together you can now refer to them as "särbo". Sambo is one for (7) who hate the idea of unwed cohabitation, which fuses "samman", meaning together, and "boende", meaning accommodation. (8) sambo explains that you re at a greater stage in your relationship and that you live together but aren t married. Interestingly, this term (9) since the 1800s when women would live with men without (10) them as a loophole to greater financial security. 6. A. one and the other B. one another's C. each other 9. A. have existed B. has used C. has been around 7. A. those B. them C. peoples 10. A. married to B. marrying C. to get married to 8. A. Words like B. Expression C. Saying

101 101 If, like a huge majority of people in (11) 20s and 30s, you live at home with your parents you can avoid (12) about why you re still shacked up with your mum by using the term mambo, (13) is used to describe a person who lives with a parent. Lastly, the Swedes have (14) a term for that truly intimate relationship the English so eloquently describe as co-tenants. Calling the person you share your (15) life with platonically as a "roomie" seems to cheapen the relationship. (16), refer to them as your kombo ; a combination of "kompis", meaning friend, and "mambo", a person who lives with a parent. 11. A. the B. they're C. their 12. A. to talk B. conversations C. revealing 13. A. who B. which C A. come up with B. got on with C. put up with 15. A. hole B. entire C. total 16. A. Instead B. Moreover C. Consequently Watch your weight in a new way Fitness fanatics and weight watchers alike (17) conditioned to believe that it s bad to eat carbs (18) the evening - until now. Bodybuilder Nate Miyaki, from San Francisco, drew up the (19) plan that means you only need to watch what you eat for just half the day. The athlete wrote on his website: "(20) how easy it would be to diet for just half a day. And doesn t that make so much more (21)? Because your ancestors spent the day (22) for food, they 'dieted' only half the day while they (23) at night." 17. A. will be B. aren't C. have been 18. A. at B. in C. by 19. A. nutritional B. nourishing C. nurture 20. A. Ignore B. Picture C. Overlook 21. A. sense B. scents C. cents 22. A. forbidding B. forging C. foraging 23. A. fasted B. feasted C. fastened

102 102 Munching on protein and green-based meals during daylight and eating a carb-rich meal before bed, Miyaki claims that the Half Day diet (24) on the back of research from the Obesity Journal in In the study, researchers had a test group place most of their carbohydrates at dinner, (25) all throughout the day like the control group. The results showed that the night-time carb eaters showed (26) greater losses in total body weight, body fat and waist (27). Of course, there is a catch. (28) you can eat carbs doesn t mean you can gorge on all your favourite starchy foods - it s important to remember that (29) total calorie intake will also a play a part as well as regular exercise. Also, keep in mind that the quality of your carbohydrates matter: while the occasional trip to the chippy (30), as a rule opt for sweet potatoes, rice, quinoa and oatmeal. 24. A. created B. were created C. was created 25. A. whereas B. as opposed to C. instead 26. A. far B. more C. a much 27. A. roundabout B. diameter C. circumference 28. A. Provided that B. Just because C. In order that 29. A. once B. you're C. your 30. A. is able to forgive B. must have been forgiven C. can be forgiven

103 103 RAKENNE- JA SANASTOMONIVALINTA 2 2ND YEAR Choose the best alternative. What the rest of the world should learn from Germany The world s most advanced economies could be better off to the tune of hundreds of billions of dollars (1) a year if they (2) by Germany s example when dealing with young workers, a new study has claimed. The Young Workers Index 2016 said that if every other OECD country reduced its level of youth unemployment to (3) Germany, the world would be around $1.1 trillion (4). 1. A. - B. in C. per 2. A. learn B. learned C. would learn 3. A. - B. that of C. such as 4. A. in debt B. richer C. poorer Produced by PricewaterhouseCoopers and based on eight different key measures, the index actually named Switzerland as the best country in the world (5) a young worker. But in terms of NEET levels - the number of young people not in education, (6) or training - Germany was among the best in the world. Just 10.1 per cent of (7) aged between 20 and 24 were in this NEET category for Germany. That compares to 17 per cent in (8) UK, and 17.5 per cent in the US. 5. A. being B. having been C. to be 6. A. employment B. employee C. employing 7. A. young B. them C. those 8. A. - B. the C. an Switzerland and Germany have succeeded (9) what the report terms a dual education system, where students are placed into vocational or academic streams depending (10) their skills, without particular social status bestowed on one option or (11). These countries have also been successful at encouraging employers to get involved in the education system. Around a third of companies in Switzerland (12) in apprenticeship training programmes, and Germany s Vocational Training Act has provided the framework for 500,000 company-based training (13) annually. 9. A. to produce B. and produce C. in producing 12. A. involve B. engage C. deal 10. A. of B. on C. from 13. A. contacts B. concerns C. contracts 11. A. the other B. others C. other

104 104 PWC s analysis modelled how (14) of the 35 OECD countries would improve its economy if its NEET level dropped to that of Germany. Based on 2015 estimates, it said the United Kingdom would (15) its GDP by 2.3 per cent - more than what it currently spends on the defence budget - which is some $65 billion a year. The US, with its much larger economy, would stand to (16) more than $460 billion if it could bring down youth unemployment. 14. A. everyone B. each and every C. each 15. A. increase B. diminish C. grown 16. A. gain B. waste C. squander And Italy, which (17) last in the index with 35 per cent of 20 to 24-year-olds unemployed, would boost its GDP by a staggering 8.4 per cent if it could (18) match Germany. The PWC project to create this year s index was led, somewhat appropriately, by 23-year-old David Tran, who graduated (19) University College London in We have nothing to lose but everything to gain from sharing our experiences over (20) works and (20) doesn t, he said. 17. A. come in B. ranked C. placed 18. A. somehow B. sometimes C. somewhere 19. A. out B. off C. from 20. A. which B. what C. whoever Healthier ice-cream An Italian cardiologist and ice-cream enthusiast has created a gelato which he says will make you live longer and run faster. Prof Valerio Sanguigni, from the University of Rome Tor Vegata, has patented a recipe for ice- cream which has antioxidant properties. The exact recipe is secret but it (21) dark cocoa powder, hazelnut, and green tea extracts. They re known (22) antioxidant properties, which can help to improve heart health and prevent certain diseases. 21. A. releases B. contains C. ingredients 22. A. they have B. to have C. having had Tests on human subjects at his university showed a marked improvement in the performance of those who ate it. Participants had blood tests taken before and after sampling the gelato, and were asked to (23) as fast as they could on an exercise bike. A standard chocolate ice cream (24) as a placebo on some of the participants. 23. A. run B. step C. pedal 24. A. was used B. influencing C. utilized

105 105 The tests found that vascular function was improved in participants who had eaten the new ice cream, (25) no changes were observed in those who ate the placebo. The results were published in the scientific journal Nutrition. 25. A. although B. while C. since Prof Sanguigni s research document concluded: To our knowledge, this is the first study to (26) that a natural ice cream rich in polyphenols acutely improved vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals through a reduction in oxidative stress. He said low, controlled temperatures are the best way to conserve the antioxidant properties of foods, (27) is why he chose to add them to gelato. 26. A. demonstrate B. proof C. conceal 27. A. that B. which C. the reason "There is talk of red berries, pomegranates, goji berries having antioxidant properties. But I found that many foods from farm to our table lose their properties. The foods that best preserve these (28) are precisely dried fruit, cocoa beans and green tea, especially at low, controlled temperatures." He added: Who says that health foods (29) to taste bad? If the findings are confirmed, gelato could be added to the pantheon of Italian foods with antioxidant properties.they include red wine, extra virgin olive oil and tomatoes, which are all thought to contribute to the (30) of Italians. The number of centenarians has tripled in less than 15 years. 28. A. substances B. phenomena C. criterion 29. A. got B. are necessary C. have 30. A. longevity B. durability C. survival

106 106 AIHEPIIRISANASTOT IHMISSUHTEET adoptiovanhempi äitipuoli anoppi appi asumusero avioehto avioero avioliiton ulkopuolinen avioliitto avoliitto elatusapu erota hedelmöityshoito holhooja homoliitto homopari huoltajuus huostaanotto isäpuoli isosetä isotäti isovanhemmat isyyden tunnustaminen jälkeläiset kaksoset kihlattu kihlaus kirkkohäät koeputkihedelmöitys kolmoset kosinta kummisetä/ -täti kumppani lapsenlapsi maistraatti mennä kihloihin mennä naimisiin miniä neloset perhesuunnittelu pikkuserkku puoliso puolison sukulaiset raskaus sijaisperhe adoptive parent stepmother mother-in-law father-in-law separation prenuptial agreement divorce extramarital marriage, matrimony living together, cohabitation, domestic partnership alimony, child support get divorced infertility treatment guardian same-sex marriage/ partnership same-sex couple custody custody stepfather great-uncle great-aunt grandparents ackowledgement (of paternity) offspring twins fiancée (nainen), fiancé (mies) engagement white wedding IVF, in vitro fertilization triplets proposal godfather/ godmother partner grandchild Registry Office get engaged to sb get married to sb, marry daughter-in-law quadruplets family planning second cousin spouse in-laws pregnancy foster family

107 107 sijaissynnyttäjä sisaren-/veljenpoika sisaren-/veljentytär sisarus siviilivihkiminen suhde suku sukulainen uskottomuus uusperhe vävy ydinperhe yhteishuoltajuus yksinhuoltaja surrogate mother nephew niece sibling civil ceremony affair extended family relative adultery blended family son-in-law nuclear family, immediate family joint custody single parent I Choose the right word. 1. When Oscar, 75, decided to divorce/marry/separate from Daphne, 21, his lawyer advised him to make an extended/ an extra-marital/ a prenuptial agreement as he was a rich guy and she was probably a gold digger. 2. Larry and his daughter moved in with Chantelle and her two sons, and they expect to live happily ever after in their nuclear/blended/immediate family. 3. Jason and Pippa had been trying to start a family for a long time, and finally they decided to resort to infertility treatment/adoptive parents/registry Office. 4. Jenny and Phil's divorce was amicable; they settled on joint child support/custody/acknowledgement of their children. 5. My granny's sister, that's my greatgrandmother/second cousin/great-aunt, has gradually become demented. 6. If two men who are a same-sex couple/single parents/stepfathers wish to have a baby together, they need to find a mother-in-law/surrogate mother/foster mother. 7. Tilly got engaged to/with/for her old classmate Alec. 8. Alec's civil ceremony/fiancé/proposal couldn't have been more romantic: he went down on his knee and presented Tilly with a diamond ring. 9. Naturally, Tilly will want a domestic partnership/a white wedding/an IVF, walking down the isle to organ music, the whole works. 10. If they ever have a baby, I'm probably going to be asked to be its godmother/guardian/sister-in-law as Alec is my brother.

108 108 II Fill in the crossword Across 3. legal right to take care of a child 5. living together 7. end of a marriage 9. extra marital affair 12. marriage Down 1. not living together anymore 2. sister or brother 4. husband or wife 6. three children born at one birth 8. your sister's or brother's son 9. allowance paid to your ex 10. your son s or daughter's offspring 11. your sister's or brother's daughter

109 109 KOULUTUS abiturientti alakoulu ammatti ammattikorkeakoulu ammattiopisto arvosana elitistinen erottaa koulusta esikoulu etäopetus jakso jättää koulu kesken kasvatuksellinen koe kurssi kurssitarjotin lukio lukujärjestys lukukausi lukukausimaksu luokaton luokka-aste läksyt läpäistä, suorittaa opetus opetussuunnitelma opinto-ohjaus opintopiste opisto oppilaskunta oppisopimus oppilasvaihto oppitunti pakollinen peruskoulu pinnata päivänavaus päntätä pätevyys päättötodistus rehtori reputtaa, saada hylätty sisäoppilaitos todistus tutkinto (yliopisto-) vaihto-oppilas valinnainen valmistua senior student (Am), final-year student, school leaver (Br) elementary school, grade school, primary school profession (akateeminen), occupation/trade (muu) university of applied sciences, polytechnic vocational school grade (Am), mark (Br) elitist expel preschool distance learning period drop out educational exam, examination, test course syllabus upper secondary school, (senior) high school, sixth form (Br) schedule (Am), timetable (Br) semester (Am), term (Br) tuition fee non-graded grade (Am), form (Br), year homework, assignments pass tuition curriculum guidance counselling study credit college student body apprenticeship contract student exchange period (Am), class, lesson (Br) compulsory, obligatory, mandatory, required comprehensive school cut classes, skip lessons, play hookey, play truant morning assembly cram qualification certificate, diploma principal (Am), head teacher, head(master/mistress) (Br) fail, flunk boarding school report degree exchange student optional, elective graduate, finish school

110 110 välitunti recess (Am), break (Br) yläkoulu junior high, secondary school yliopisto university, college ylioppilas high school graduate ylioppilaskirjoitukset, päättökokeet matriculation examination, school-leaving exam, A-levels (Br) I Replace the underlined American terms with the British equivalents. 1. I was jealous of my sister as she always got good grades at school. 2. She used to cram even during recesses, for God's sake! 3. When they had math periods, she was shining like a star. 4. The principal would encourage her to participate in science projects. 5. Last semester she travelled to study particle physics at CERN in Switzerland. 6. I myself try to keep my schedule less busy to allow time for my hobbies. 7. When I was in the first grade, I joined a circus club and have been a member ever since. 8. I haven't decided yet whether I'll go on to senior high school as I'm not academically-minded. II Write the sentences in English. 1. Oletko harkinnut oppisopimusta? 2. Ammattikorkeakoulu voisi olla parempi vaihtoehto. 3. Aion hakea kansainväliseen opiskelijavaihtoon. 4. Tiesitkö, että "public school" on elitistinen, kallis sisäoppilaitos ja kaikkea muuta kuin "julkinen"? 5. Etäopetus sopii minulle parhaiten, koska voin tehdä läksyt milloin minua huvittaa.

111 111 TYÖELÄMÄ akateeminen ammatti ammatinvalinnanohjaus ammatti ammattiyhdistys ansaita elantonsa ansioluettelo avoin työpaikka edut eläke eläkkeelle jääminen erota etätyö hakea paikkaa hakemus harjoittelija henkilökunta irtisanoa kokopäivätyö lakkoilla liukuva työaika lomauttaa oppisopimus osa-aikainen palkankorotus palkka palvelualat pätkätyö pätkätyöläinen suositus, työtodistus työaika työhaastattelu työharjoittelu työkaveri työllistää työnantaja työntekijä työtarjous työttömyyskorvaus työtön työvoimatoimisto työvuorolista ura vakituinen vapaaehtoistyö vuorotyö ylennys ylityön tekeminen yritys yrittäjä profession career counseling occupation, profession trade union earn your living curriculum vitae (CV), résumé vacancy fringe benefits, perks pension retirement resign, quit, give your notice working from home apply for a job application trainee, apprentice personnel, staff fire, sack, dismiss, lay off, let go full-time job go on strike flexitime, flexible hours make redundant apprenticeship part-time pay rise pay, salary (kuukausi-), wages (viikko-) service industries short-term contract, temporary job temp reference working hours job interview practice, internship, on-the-job training colleague employ employer employee, worker job offer unemployment benefit, dole (money) unemployed, jobless, out of work, between jobs job centre rota career permanent volunteering, volunteer work shift work promotion working overtime company, business, enterprise entrepreneur, self-employed person

112 112 I Match the pairs. 1. employee A. staff 2. résumé B. unemployment benefit 3. perk C. self-employed 4. dismiss D. fringe benefit 5. jobless E. CV 6. dole money F. let go 7. enterprise G. on-the-job training 8. personnel H. business 9. internship I. worker 10. enterpreneur J. out of work 11. trainee K. quit 12. resign L. apprentice

113 113 II Fill in the crossword Across 2. advancement in rank or position, moving higher in the work hierarchy 4. sometimes you work by day, sometimes at night 6. a life's work 7. the money a retired person lives on 8. workmate 9. salary or wages Down 1. you send in yours hoping to get to a job interview 3. a job opening 4. stopping or refusing to work 5. the opposite of permanent

114 114 ASUMINEN alue, kaupunginosa asukas (talon) asukas (kaupungin) asumus asuntola asuntolaina asuntovaunu esikaupunki huoneisto hökkeli hökkelikylä infrastruktuuri kaksio, kolmio kartano kattohuoneisto kaupungin vuokratalo kaupunkiasuminen kaupunkilainen kellarikerros kerrostalo kiinteisto va litta ja kodinhoitohuone kortteli kuisti kämppä kämppäkaveri maalaisomakotitalo osakehuoneisto palju, kylpytynnyri paritalo poreallas rakennustyömaa rakennuttaja rivitalo sosiaalinen asuntotuotanto terassi (puinen) tilukset tontti tyo huone tyo matkalainen ullakko vaja viljelypalsta viinikellari virka-asunto vuokraema nta, -isa nta vuokralainen yhteiso area, neighbourhood resident citizen, inhabitant dwelling, abode dormitory, dorm mortgage caravan, trailer, camper suburb flat, apartment shack shanty town infrastructure one-bedroom flat, two-bedroom flat mansion penthouse council house urban living city dweller basement block of flats, apartment building estate agent, realtor utility room block porch, veranda(h) place roommate rural (detached) house condo(minium) hot tub semi-detached house, duplex jacuzzi building site developer terraced house council housing deck estate lot study, office commuter attic shed allotment wine cellar residence landlady, landlord tenant community

115 115 yksio I Fill in the right words. bedsit, studio 1. you keep your firewood in it s 2. the place for old junk c 3. one travels to and from work every day o r 4. you share a flat with one o a 5. outside the city centre s b 6. two houses joined x 7. you pay your rent to her l d y 8. the opposite of urban u 9. the Prime Minister lives in one r n 10. a person who rents a flat from someone e a II Choose the right word. 1. Treasury Holdings is one of the country's most successful property inhabitants/developers/communities. 2. You can apply for a utility room/condominium/council house if you are over 18, are homeless or live in cramped conditions. 3. This block of flats is meant for seniors. You have to be 55+ to qualify as a citizen/resident/realtor. 4. My parents had a deck/hot tub/shack built in their garden and bought a bistro set, so now they can have a nice cup of tea outdoors in the sunshine. 5. Luke hates the idea of living in a remote area; he's always been an estate agent/a city dweller/a landlord. 6. Welcome to my humble abode/mansion/penthouse! 7. So you think you're living in a slum. You should see the shanty towns/detatched houses/mortgages in South Africa. 8. The main building dates back to the 15th century. The gardens on the building site/block/estate are simply beautiful. 9. You're lucky to have a proper bedroom in your flat. I can only afford a porch/studio/terraced house. 10. In the old days most students lived in allotments/trailer parks/dormitories on the campus.

116 116 LIIKENNE ajokortti ajoneuvo autokoulu etuajo-oikeus ilmailu jalankulkija jalkakäytävä julkinen liikenne kadun reunakivi kaista katsastus katukivetys, päällyste kehätie keskikoroke ketjukolari kiertoliittymä kolari kolaroida liikennemerkki liikennerikkomus liikennesääntö liikenneturvallisuus matkustaja metro nokkakolari nopeusrajoitus ohittaa ohituskaista parkkipaikka puhalluskoe pysäköinninvalvoja pyörätie ramppi rattijuoppo reitti risteys ruuhka ruuhka-aika sakko suojatie taajama taajamajuna tankata tavarajuna tietyö tutka vakuutus ylinopeus driving licence (Br), driver's license (Am) vehicle driving school right-of-way aviation pedestrian pavement (Br), sidewalk (Am) public transport curb lane inspection paving ring road traffic island pile-up roundabout (Br), traffic circle (Am) collision, crash collide with traffic sign traffic violation traffic regulation road safety passenger underground (Br), subway (Am), the Tube (Lontoossa) head-on collision speed limit overtake (Br), pass (Am) fast lane car park (Br), parking lot (Am) breathalyzer test traffic warden cycling lane ramp, exit drunk driver route intersection, junction, crossroads traffic jam, congestion rush hour fine, ticket pedestrian crossing, zebra crossing, crosswalk (Am) built-up area regional/ commuter train refuel freight train roadworks radar insurance speeding

117 117 I Solve the anagrams, in other words rearrange the letters so that you get the word which matches the definition. 1. SILICON LO (crash) 2. A PRESIDENT (walks on foot) 3. KOREA VET (go past) 4. ACNE RUINS (gives protection and security) 5. MAP EVENT (sidewalk) 6. GREEN PASS (a person who rides in a vehicle) 7. ODD RERUN GNU (subway) 8. NOTICE SONG (traffic jam) 9. PRAM (exit) 10. EEL FUR (fill the petrol tank) II Write the questions in English. Then interview your classmates. Ask each person a different question. (Don't ask one person more than one question.) 1. Mikä olisi oikea ikä hankkia ajokortti? 2. Oletko kiinnostunut ilmailusta? 3. Kuinka rattijuoppoja pitäisi rangaista? 4. Mikä olisi sopiva nopeusrajoitus taajamissa (built-up areas)? 5. Mitä sinun täytyy tehdä ennen kuin vaihdat kaistaa? 6. Kenellä on etuajo-oikeus risteyksessä? 7. Pitäisikö pyöräkaistoja olla kaupungeissa enemmän? 8. Mitkä ovat pahimpia liikennerikkomuksia sinun mielestäsi?

118 118 SOSIAALITURVA alaikäinen anoa anomus/ hakemus asumistuki avustus elintaso eläkeläinen elättää erityislapsi huoltaja, edunvalvoja huollettava hyvinvointivaltio ikääntyminen isyysloma jäädä eläkkeelle kansalainen kansalaisuus kansallisuus kunta kuukausitulot köyhyys lainsäädäntö laitos lapsilisä maahanmuuttaja maahanmuutto nuorisotilat oleskelulupa opintoraha ottaa huostaan päivähoito sosiaaliturva syntymätodistus syrjintä syrjäytyminen tasa-arvo terveydenhoito terveyskeskus tulot työlupa työttömyyskorvaus vamma vammainen vanhainkoti vanhus varhaiseläke viranomaiset äitiysloma minor (substantiivi), underage (adjektiivi) apply for application housing benefit/ housing allowance benefit standard of living pensioner, retiree, OAP (old age pensioner) provide maintenance for child with special needs guardian dependent welfare state ageing, aging paternity leave retire citizen citizenship nationality municipality, local council monthly earnings poverty legislation institution, home (hoitolaitos) child benefit/ allowance immigrant immigration youth centre residence permit student grant take into custody day care social security birth certificate discrimination alienation equality, equal opportunity health care health centre income work permit unemployment benefit disability individual with special needs nursing home senior citizen early retirement authorities maternity leave

119 119 I Write the sentences in English. 1. Me suomalaiset elämme hyvinvointivaltiossa. 2. Me uskomme tasa-arvoon. 3. Ongelmiakin toki on, esimerkiksi ikääntyminen ja syrjäytyminen. 4. Kukaan ei haluaisi olla riippuvainen avustuksista. 5. Syrjintä ja köyhyys kulkevat usein käsi kädessä. II Answer the questions in English. 1. What benefit can you apply for if your income is low and your rent is high? 2. What do we call the time a father takes off work to look after his baby? 3. What document is needed to prove who you are, where and when you were born and to who? 4. What must an immigrant apply for if they want to live and work in this country? 5. What happens to minors who are abused or neglected by their parents? 6. How does society support parents who have underage dependents? 7. What benefit are you entitled to if you are jobless? 8. If the police give you a fine, what is the sum you have to pay based on? 9. If an old person gets demented, who is appointed to look after their money matters?

120 120 TERVEYDENHOITO apteekki ehkäisyväline elvytys ensiapu fyysinen kunto haava hoito huonontua hyvänlaatuinen hätätapaus ihottuma jänne kainalosauvat kasvain keuhkot kipsi kipu kipulääke kirurgi kurkkukipu kuume laastari laihtua leikkaus leikkaussali liikalihavuus lihoa lääke lääkemääräys, -resepti lääkitys mielialalääke mustelma nukutus närästys oire oksentaa osasto (sairaalassa) pahanlaatuinen pahoinvointi parannuskeino parantaa potilas rasittaa rauhoittava lääke ripuli rokotus ruoansulatusvaiva ruokavalio chemist s (Br), drugstore (Am), pharmacy contraceptive (device) CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) first aid physical fitness wound, cut treatment deteriorate benign emergency rash, eczema tendon crutches tumor lungs plaster, cast ache, pain painkiller surgeon sore throat temperature, fever band aid, (sticking) plaster lose wieght operation, surgery operating theatre obesity put on weight medicine, drug (Am) prescription medication antidepressant bruise general anaesthesia heartburn symptom be sick, throw up, vomit ward malignant nausea cure, remedy cure, heal patient strain sedative diarrhea vaccination indigestion diet

121 121 sairaus illness, sickness, disease, malady suolisto intestines sydänkohtaus heart attack, cardiac arrest (sydänpysähdys) tarttuva contagious, infectious tikit stiches toipuminen recovery tulehdus infection, inflammation ummetus constipation vamma (esim. urheilu-) injury venähdys strain verenpaine BP, blood pressure vilustua catch a cold, get the flu vieroitus, kuntoutus rehab(ilitation) yleislääkäri GP (General Practitioner ) yliannostus OD (overdose) ylipainoinen overweight, obese (sairaalloisen lihava) yskiä, yskä cough I Match the pairs. 1. operation A. disease 2. temperature B. vomit 3. infection C. eczema 4. cure D. cut 5. band aid F. surgery 6. illness H. drug 7. medicine I. fever 8. be sick J. heal 9. wound K. sticking plaster 10. rash L. inflammation II Write the questions in English and then ask and answer with your partner. 1. Mitkä oireet ovat tyypillisiä ruuansulatusvaivoille? 2. Osaatko antaa ensiapua tai elvyttää? 3. Onko sinulla koskaan ollut käsi tai jalka kipsissä? Jos on, niin miksi? 4. Pitäisikö nuorten saada ehkäisyvälineet ilmaiseksi? 5. Millaisia vammoja urheilu voi aiheuttaa?

122 122 YLIMÄÄRÄISIÄ SANOJA: IHMINEN kallo skull otsa forehead ohimo temple silmäkuoppa eye socket verkkokalvo retina linssi lens sierain nostril poskiontelot sinuses leukaperät jaws ikenet gums kitalaki hard palate canine tooth kulmahammas molar poskihammas viisaudenhammas wisdom tooth korvanipukka earlobe keskikorva middle ear tärykalvo eardrum rintakehä pakarat selkäydin luuydin selkäranka solisluu rintalasta kylkiluu lantio nikama häntäluu aataminomena nielu kurkunpää äänihuulet nänni pallea maha napa nivel jänne nivelside yläraaja olkapää kainalokuoppa kyynärpää käsivarsi ranne peukalo etusormi keskisormi nimetön pikkusormi chest buttocks spinal cord bone marrow spine collar bone breastbone rib pelvis vertebra coccyx Adam's apple pharynx larynx vocal chords nipple diaphragm abdomen navel joint tendon ligament upper limb shoulder armpit elbow forerm wrist thumb index finder, forefinger middle finger ring finger little finger

123 123 kämmen alaraaja reisi polvilumpio pohje sääri nilkka jalkapohja kantapää varpaankynsi hermosto virtsatie sisäelin keuhko henkitorvi keuhkoputki ruokatorvi sappirakko maksa ohutsuoli paksusuoli munuainen virtsarakko spleen aortta valtimo vein hiussuoni verisuoni imuneste verenkierto rauhanen haima kilpirauhanen aivolisäke sukuelimet hedelmöitys raskaus alkio sikiö synnytys munasarja kives ruumiin nesteet valkosolu ruaansulatusneste sappineste lima sylki hiki virtsa palm lower limb thigh knee cap calf shin ankle sole heel toenail nervous system urinary tract internal organ lung trachea bronchi esophagus gall bladder liver small intestine large intestine kidney bladder perna aorta artery laskimo capillary blood vessel lymph blood circulation gland pancreas thyroid gland pituitary reproductive organs conception pregnancy embryo fetus, foetus childbirth ovary testicle body fluids white blood cell gastric juice bile mucus saliva sweat urine

124 124 sperma ihoärsytys turvotus arkuus kutina finni paise rakkula, rakko palovamma arpi naarmu känsä syylä ihottuma hilse likinäköisyys kaukonäköisyys kieroon katsominen kaihi näärännäppy nenäverenvuoto vuotava nenä tukkoinen nenä heinänuha poskiontelontulehdus angiina kurkunpääntulehdus keuhkoputkentulehdus keuhkokuume astma verenpaine korkea verenpaine sydänvika sydänkohtaus sydämenpysähdys sydämentahdistin suonikohjut verenvuoto (sisäinen) migreeni huimaus aivokalvontulehdus kouristus halvaus CP-vamma muistisairaus vitamiinipuutos liikalihavuus ruuansulatusvaiva ripuli pahoinvointi oksentaminen mahakatarri mahahaava semen skin irritation swelling tenderness itching pimple, spot boil blister burn scar scratch corn, callus wart rash, eczema dandruff nearsightedness farsightedness crossed eyes cataract sty nosebleed runny nose stuffy nose hay fever sinusitits tonsillitis laryngitis bronchitis pneumonia asthma blood pressure, BP hypertension, high blood pressure heart disease/ condition heart attack cardiac arrest pacemaker varicose veins hemorrhage, internal bleeding migraine dizziness, giddiness meningitis convulsion, seizure stroke, paralysis cerebral palsy dementia vitamin deficiency obesity indigestion diarrhea nausea vomiting gastritis ulcer

125 125 ummetus umpilisäkkeentulehdus umpilisäke peräpukamat hepatiitti keltaisuus kirroosi sappikivet virtsarakko rakkotulehdus nivelreuma lihaskipu, -kouristus kramppi tyrä aivotärähdys murtuma välilevyn luiskahdus sijoiltaan meno nyrjähdys venähdys katkennut käsivarsi jäykkäkouristus vesikauhu lavantauti isorokko pernarutto spitaali tuhkarokko vihurirokko sikotauti hinkuyskä kurkkumätä vesirokko tulirokko lapamato kihomato täit kirppu punkki satiainen ihosyöpä rintasyöpä kasvain, hyvänlaatuinen kasvain, pahanlaatuinen kantasolu constipation appendicitis appendix hemorrhoids, piles hepatitis jaundice cirrhosis gallstones (urinary) bladder cystitis arthritis muscle spasm muscle cramp hernia concussion fructure slipped disc dislocation sprain pulled muscle broken arm tetanus rabies typhoid smallpox anthrax leprosy measles rubella, German measles mumps whooping cough diphtheria chicken pox scarlet fever tapeworm pinworm lice flea tick crab skin cancer breast cancer benign tumor malignant tumor stem cell

126 126 PUOLUSTUS antautua, antautuminen armeija, puolustusvoimat aseistariisunta aselaji aselepo hävittäjä ilmatorjunta ilmavoimat jalkaväki joukot julistaa sota kaupunkisota käydä armeija laivasto laskuvarjojääkärit liikekannallepano liittolainen lähettää (joukkoja) miehittämätön ilma-alus ohjus omien tulitus pelote puolustaa purkaa (pommi tms) raja rannikkovartiosto rauhanneuvottelut rauhansopimus rauhanturvajoukot sotilasarvo sinko sisällissota sissi siviilipalvelus sodankäynti sotavanki sotilastukikohta sovittelija tappio tappiot, mieshukka tukialus tulitauko tunkeutua, hyökätä tykistö ulkonaliikkumiskielto upseeri vastarintaliike vetäytyä voittaa vihollinen värvätä surrender the Armed Forces, the Defence Forces disarmament branch of service truce destroyer anti-aircraft defence the Air Force infantry troops declare war on a country urban warfare do your national service, do your military service the Navy paratroopers mobilization ally deploy unmanned aerial vehicle, drone missile friendly fire deterrent defend defuse border coast guard peace negotiations peace treaty peace-keeping forces rank bazooka civil war guerrilla non-military service warfare prisoner of war (POW) military base mediator defeat casualties carrier ceasefire invade artillery curfew officer resistance movement retreat, withdraw beat/defeat the enemy recruit

127 127 I Solve the anagrams. The first letter is given. 1. A small and fast military ship that protects bigger ships D DEER STORY 2. the opposite of victory D AD FEET 3. a member of an unofficial military group G RAIL GLUE 4. something to make people scared D TREE TREND 5. an agreement to stop fighting for a period of time C CARIES FEE 6. remove the part of an explosive that makes it explode D FEED US 7. withdraw R ART TREE 8. person who negotiates agreement M DAME TRIO 9. frontier B BRO RED 10. a body of soldiers T SPORTO II Fill in the missing words. 1. Sean to Iraq with his battalion. (lähetettiin) 2. He is. (tottunut kaupunkisotaan) 3. Lee has a dual citizenship, Finnish and American. He in Finland. (on käynyt armeijan) 4. After the Second World War in Porkkala, Finland. (Neuvostoliitolla oli sotilastukikohta) 5. Which was your father's, or? (aselaji, tykistö, jalkaväki) 6. Were Syria's actually? (liittolaiset, kiinnostuneita rauhanneuvotteluista)

128 128 KIRJALLISUUS antikvariaatti, divari arvostelija arvostelu dekkari elämäkerta fantasiakirjallisuus henkilöhahmo julkaista juoni jännitysromaani kansi kappale kauhutarina kaunokirjallisuus kerronta kertoja kielikuva, vertaus kiertoilmaus kirja, joka täytyy lukea kirjailija kirjan nimi kirjasto kovakantinen kirja kustantaja kuvitus loppusointu, riimi laji luku matkakirja muistelmat myyntimenestys naiskirjallisuus novelli omaelämäkerta ote painos pokkari proosa päähenkilö rakkausromaani rikosromaani romaani runo runoilija runous salanimi sisältö symboloida säe second hand bookshop literary critic, reviewer review detective novel biography fantasy literature character publish plot thriller cover paragraph horror story fiction narrative narrator metaphor euphemism must-read writer, author title library hardback publisher illustration rhyme genre chapter travel guide, travel book memoirs best-seller chick lit short story autobiography extract edition paperback prose protagonist romance crime novel novel poem poet poetry pseudonym, pen-name contents symbolise line

129 129 säkeistö takakannen teksti tapahtumapaikka tieteiskirjallisuus tietokirjallisuus vertauskuvallisuus verse blurb setting sci-fi, science fiction non-fiction symbolism I Write the questions in English. 1. Miksi ihmiset lukevat niin paljon matkakirjoja? 2. Miltä vanhat kirjat divareissa tuoksuvat? 3. Minkä kirjallisuudenlajin edustaja Tuntematon sotilas on? 4. Mitä uni symboloi runoissa? 5. Ovat rap-artistien riimit sinun mielestäsi nerokkaita?

130 130 II Fill in the crossword Across 2. a pen name 3. the name of a publication 5. a person who writes poetry 6. a love story 8. an author 9. Don't judge a book by its a person who writes reviews Down 1. the pictures in a book 2. writing that is not poetry 4. a place where you can borrow books 7. the story of a real person's life written by themselves

131 131 MEDIA aikakauslehti, kuvalehti arvostelu dokumenttiohjelma draamasarja erikoisartikkeli etusivun uutinen ilmoitus, mainos ilmoitustulot iltapäivälehti julkaisu juontaja keskusteluohjelma kiiltävä painopaperi kirjeenvaihtaja kolumnisti kotimaan uutiset kuuluttaja kuvateksti lehtikioski lehdistönvapaus lehdistötiedote levikki lähde lähettää ohjelmaa mainos numero (lehden) ohjelma, lähetys otsikko päivälehti pääkirjoitus päätoimittaja reaaliaikainen saippuasarja sananvapaus sensaatiouutinen säätiedotus tekstitys tietokilpailu, visailu tilaaja (lehden) tilannekomedia tilata lehti tilaus toimittaja tosi-tv ulkomaan uutiset uusinta uutiset, tuoreimmat uutisankkuri verkkolehti magazine review documentary drama series feature (article) front page news ad, advert, advertisement advertising revenue tabloid publication presenter, host talk show glossy paper correspondent columnist domestic news announcer caption newsagent s freedom of the press press release circulation source broadcast, broadcast, broadcast commercial copy, issue program(me), show headline daily (paper) editorial, leader editor-in-chief realtime soap opera freedom of speech scoop weather forecast subtitles quiz show subscriber sitcom subscribe to a magazine subscription reporter, journalist reality TV world news rerun breaking news news anchor, newscaster, newsreader online newspaper

132 132 viikkolehti yleisönosastokirjoitus weekly letter to the editor I Write the sentences in English. Then write an X if you disagree with the statement, a Y if you agree and a Z if you can't decide. Compare your answers to your fellow student's answers. 1. Vain vanhat ihmiset katsovat reaaliaikaisia TV-ohjelmia. 2. Päivälehdet ovat menettäneet suurimman osan ilmoitustuloistaan muille medioille. 3. Toimittajien pitää voida suojata lähteitään. 4. Sananvapaus on tärkeimpiä ihmisoikeuksia. 5. Nuoret ovat verkossa lähes koko ajan eivätkä lue esimerkiksi kiiltäväkantisia aikakauslehtiä. 6. En voi kuvitella, että tilaisin mitään viikkolehtiä. 7. "Vanhaan hyvään aikaan" lukijat kirjoittivat yleisönosastokirjoituksia, mutta nykyään useimmat tviittaavat tai postaavat kommentteja.

133 133 II Fill in the crossword Across 2. Iltasanomat or Iltalehti 4. a copy of a paper or magazine 6. average number of copies distributed in a set period 9. a type of film which presents facts objectively Down 1. a short text under a picture 3. to show a TV programme again 5. a humorous TV drama involving the same characters in funny situations 7. employed by media to send in stories or articles, often from abroad 8. a host in a TV show

134 134 KUVATAIDE akvarelli alkuperäiskappale arkkitehtuuri asetelma asettaa näytteille esittää galleria graafikko hiilipiirros juliste jäljennös kehys, kehykset kokoelma kultainen leikkaus kullattu kuvanveistäjä kuvanveisto, vesitos kuvata kuvataide kuvaukset linssi luonnos, luonnostella maalausteline maisemamaalaus malli muotoilija muotokuva nykytaide näyttely näyttelyesine omakuva painokuva patsas pienoismalli piirustus pohjakangas poseerata restauroida, entistää savi seinämaalaus sivellin sommittelu sävy taidekriitikko taidemaalari taideteos taiteentuntija taltta watercolour original architecture still life exhibit depict, portray gallery graphic artist charcoal drawing poster reproduction frame collection golden section gilded sculptor sculpture depict, portray visual arts photo session, shoot lens sketch easel landscape sitter designer portrait modern art, contemporary art exhibition exhibit self-portrait print statue miniature drawing canvas pose restore clay mural brush composition shade, tone art critic painter work of art, artwork connoisseur chisel

135 135 valokuvaus varjo väärennös öljyvärityö photography shade forgery, fake oil painting I Write the questions in English. Then turn around and interview the person sitting behind you. 1. Millainen veistos sopisi oppilaitoksemme aulaan (lobby)? Mitä se esittäisi? 2. Milloin kävit viimeksi taidenäyttelyssä? Kenen maalauksia näit siellä? 3. Mitä välineitä taiteilija tarvitsee? Mainitse ainakin kolme. 4. Mitä pidät julistetaiteesta? Millaisia taide-esineitä kodissasi on? 5. Kummasta pidät enemmän, nykytaiteesta vai klassisesta taiteesta? Kuka on lempimaalarisi? II Fill in the missing letters. 1. a group of interesting paintings brought together c l l n 2. a person who creates a new style or product d g e 3. a person who knows a lot about art c n n s s 4. something falsely copied o e y 5. to return to an earlier condition by cleaning or repairing e t e 6. a wooden structure around a painting f m 7. slight darkness s e 8. a quick, rough drawing s t 9. a very small picture m i r 10. a painting done directly on the surface of a wall u a

136 136 ELOKUVA JA TEATTERI arvioida arvostelu asettaa ehdolle dokumenttielokuva dubbaus eeppinen, kertova elokuva elokuva elokuvan katsoja elokuvan musiikki elokuvateatteri ennakkomainos ensiesiintyminen ensi-ilta epäonnistunut elokuva erikoistehosteet esirippu esittää pääosaa esittää roolia harjoitella jatko-osa julkaista elokuva juoni juonitiivistelmä jännityselokuva kassamagneetti katastrofielokuva kauhuelokuva kenraaliharjoitus koe-esiintyminen kohtaus kokoillan elokuva komedia kriitikko kuvata elokuva kuvauspaikka käsikirjoittaja käsikirjoitus lavastaja lavastus lajityyppi leikkaaja lopputekstit lännenelokuva murhenäytelmä mykkäelokuva näytellä näytelmä näytelmäkirjailija näyttelijä rate, review review nominate documentary dubbing epic film (Br), movie (Am), motion picture moviegoer, viewer soundtrack, score cinema (Br), movie theater (Am) trailer debut premiere, first night flop special effects curtain star play a role rehearse sequel release plot synopsis thriller blockbuster, box office hit disaster movie horror movie dress rehearsal audition scene feature film comedy critic shoot location screenwriter, scriptwriter screenplay, script set designer scenery, setting genre film editor credits western tragedy silent movie act play playwright, dramatist actor/actress

137 137 näyttämö stage ohjaaja director Oscar-ehdokas Oscar nominee Oscar-palkinto Academy Award, Oscar puvustus costumes, wardrobe päähenkilö protagonist pääosa leading role rakkauselokuva romance roolittaa, osajako cast sankari/ sankaritar hero/ heroine sijaisnäyttelijä stunt (toimintakohtauksissa) sijaisnäyttelijä stand-in, double sivuosa supporting role statisti extra suosionosoitukset applause suosionosoitukset seisaallaan standing ovation taputtaa applaud tekstitys subtitles toimintaelokuva action movie trilogia trilogy tuotemainonta elokuvassa product placement tuottaja producer valkokangas silver screen, big screen vuorosanat lines väliaika interval yleisö audience I Match the words that refer to the same thing. 1. premiere A. viewer 2. soundtrack B. Oscar 3. Academy Award C. box-office hit 4. motion picure D. setting 5. playwright E. first night 6. moviegoer F. film 7. scenery G. double 8. costumes H. score 9. stand-in I. dramatist 10. blockbuster J. wardrobe

138 138 II Take it in turns with your partner to explain the meaning of the following words in English. You can pick any word you like until there is nothing more to explain. 1. trailer 2. dubbing 3. debut 4. flop 5. sequel 6. synopsis 7. audition 8. genre 9. silent movie 10. review 11. protagonist 12. applaud 13. standing ovation 14. extras 15. subtitles 16. location

139 139 MUSIIKKI akustinen acoustic baletti ballet basso bass duuri major esitys performance harjoitella rehearse, practise jousisoittimet strings julkaista levy release an album kaiutin loudspeaker kapellimestari conductor katusoittaja busker keikka gig kertosäe chorus, refrain kiertue tour koe-esiintyminen audition konsertti concert konserttisali concert hall koreografia choreography kosketinsoittimet keyboards kuoro choir kuulokkeet headphones, headset laulaa stemmoja sing in harmony laulaja singer, vocalist laulun sanat lyrics lava stage levyttää record levy-yhtiö record label lukea nuotteja read music lyömäsoittimet percussion molli minor muusikko musician nuotit music, sheets of music, score nuotti note puupuhaltimet woodwind roudari roadie rytmi rhythm sointu chord soitin musical instrument soittolista charts sovitus arrangement suosionosoitukset applause suosionosoitukset seisaaltaan standing ovation säestää accompany sävellaji key sävellys composition sävelmä tune säveltäjä composer tahti tempo, beat tapahtumapaikka venue

140 140 vahvistin vaskipuhaltimet virittää väliaika yleisö ylimääräinen numero äänenkorkeus äänensävy amplifier brass tune interval, intermission audience encore pitch tone I What word in the music glossary do the following terms point to? 1. synthesizer, piano, organ -> 2. flute, clarinet, oboe, bassoon -> 3. violin, viola, cello, double bass -> 4. marimba, bongos, kettle drums -> 5. trumpet, tuba, trombone, horn -> 6. Gm, A7, Dm7, C, E7 -> 7. sopranos, altos, tenors, bass voices -> 8. Sibelius, Vivaldi, Mozart, Bach -> 9. roadie, amplifiers, loudspeakers -> 10. choreography, arabesque, ballerina -> II Write the statements in English and then decide if you (A) agree or (D) disagree with them. Compare your opinions with someone else. 1. Akustisessa kitarassa on kauniimpi ääni kuin sähkökitarassa. 2. Huippumuusikon pitää harjoitella ensin ainakin tuntia. 3. Minä olen surkea laulaja. Onnistun (manage) aina laulamaan väärässä sävellajissa. 4. Suomalaiset kapellimestarit tunnetaan kaikkialla maailmassa. 5. Minun on vaikea muistaa laulujen sanoja, mutta pystyn yleensä laulamaan kertosäkeen.

141 141 OIKEUS asianajaja asianomistaja ehdollinen tuomio ehdonalainen vapaus haastaa oikeuteen kaappaus kiristys kuolemanrangaistus kuolemantuottamus lahjus lähestymiskielto murha murto nuorisorikollinen näpistys oikeudenkäynti oikeusjuttu pahoinpitely petos pidättää puolustus raiskaus rikoksentekijä rikoksenuusija rikos ryöstö sakko syyllinen syyte syytetty syyttää syyttäjä takuu tappo tehdä rikos todistaa todistaja tuhopoltto tuomari tuomio tunnustaa valamiehistö vankeus vanki vankila varkaus vedota, vetoomus väkivaltainen väärennös yhdyskuntapalvelus solicitor, lawyer complainant suspended sentence parole, probation sue hijacking blackmail, extortion capital punishment, death penalty negligent homicide, manslaughter bribe restraining order murder, homicide burglary, breaking and entering juvenile delinquent, young offender petty theft trial court case assault, mugging fraud arrest, detain defence rape perpetrator repeat offender crime, offence (rikkomus), aggravated felony (törkeä rikos) robbery fine, ticket, penalty guilty charge defendant charge prosecutor bail (involuntary) manslaughter commit a crime give testimony, testify witness arson judge verdict, sentence confess jury imprisonment convict, prisoner jail, prison theft appeal violent forgery community service

142 142 I Name the crime. 1. You accidentally kill someone 2. You wilfully set fire to a building 3. You steal something 4. Act of deception 5. A premeditated homicide 6. Breaking and entering 7. Aggressively attacking someone 8. Payment extorted by threats 9. Stealing merchandise 10. Unlawful sexual intercourse II Fill in the missing words. 1. You exceeded the speed limit by 20 kilomeres per hour. We will take the matter to the. (syyttäjä) 2. You can get legal advice from your. (asianajaja) 3. What is the for riding on a local bus without a valid ticket? (rangaistussakko) 4. In corrupted societies, there are judges who don't hesitate to take. (lahjuksia) 5. are often given. (nuoret rikoksentekijät, ehdollisia tuomioita) 6. Have you ever been asked to in a court of law? (todistaa) 7. If you are not satisfied with the, you can to a higher court. (tuomio, vedota) 8. The police told me they had to me at the police station a little longer to ask me a few questions. (pidättää) 9. Imprisonment is not always the best punishment. For many offenders, can be a better alternative. (yhdyskuntapalvelu) 10. What happens if someone on is convicted of another crime? (ehdonalainen vapaus)

143 143 POLITIIKKA demokratia eduskunta, parlamentti eduskuntavaalit ehdokas enemmistö epäluottamuslause eurokansanedustaja Euroopan Unioni hajottaa hallinto hallitus kansanedustaja kansanäänestys konservatiivi kuningaskunta kunnallisvaalit kunta lainsäädäntö lakiehdotus laki luottamuslause ministeriö monen puolueen hallitus oikeisto oikeuslaitos olla ehdolla ovensuukysely oppositio perustuslaki puhemies puolue puoluepolitiikka puolustusministeri pääministeri sisäministeri sisäpolitiikka suhteellinen vaalitapa tasavalta toimeenpaneva työväenpuolue (Br) ulkoministeri ulkopolitiikka vaalihuoneisto vaalikampanja vaalipiiri valiokunta valtion päämies democracy Parliament general elections candidate majority vote of no-confidence, motion of no confidence (Br) Member of the European Parliament (MEP) the European Union dissolve administration the government Member of Parliament (MP), representative referendum Conservative monarchy municipal elections municipality, local council legislation bill Act vote of confidence ministry, Office (Br), Department (USA) coalition government the Right, the right wing judiciary, judicial system stand for (Br), run for (Am) exit poll opposition constitution Speaker party party politics Minister of Defence, Defense Secretary (USA) Prime Minister, PM, Premier Minister of the Interior, Home Secretary (Br), Secretary of State for the Home Department (USA) domestic policy proportional representation republic executive the Labour Party Foreign Minister, Foreign Secretary (Br), Secretary of State (USA) foreign policy polling station election campaign constituency committee head of state

144 144 valtiovarainministeri varapresidentti vasemmisto virkakausi väestönlaskenta vähemmistö äänestää, ääni äänioikeus Minister of Finance, Chancellor of the Exchequer (Br), Secretary of the Treasury (USA) Vice-President the Left, the left wing term (of office) census minority vote universal suffrage, right to vote I Fill in the missing letters. 1. right to vote f f 2. a country ruled by a king or a queen o a y 3. Premier i e M i e 4. a public vote on a particular issue r e e u 5. residents in an electoral district c o n i u e 6. a person who is trying to be elected a d d 7. laws made by a government e i a i o n 8. the place where people vote in elections o i n g s i o n 9. counting the number of people in a country n s s 10. the opposite of minority a o y II Translate the underlined words into Finnish. 1. Who is the Home Secretary in Britain at the moment? 2. Did the Indian Prime Minister lose a vote of confidence in Parliament? 3. At one point, Hillary Clinton served as Secretary of State in Obama's administration. 4. Finland typically has a coalition government. 5. How influential an office is that of Chancellor of the Exchequer in the British government? 6. What are the advantages and the disadvantages of proportionate representation? 7. Legislative and executive powers should always be separated. 8. Our local councils sometimes make decisions that affect us more than some of the bills passed in Parliament. 9. I've heard that there is no written Constitution in Great Britain. Is it true? 10. Do you think that exit polls are a useful tool in predicting the outcome of an election?

145 145 KANSAINVÄLISYYS aliravitsemus malnourishment avustustyöntekijä aid worker, relief worker elinolosuhteet living conditions elintaso standard of living ennakkoluulo prejudice epäoikeudenmukaisuus injustice etninen ethnic hirmuteko atrocity hyvinvointivaltio welfare state hyväntekeväisyys(järjestö) charity hätäapu humanitarian aid, relief aid ihmiskauppa human trafficking kansalaisjärjestö NGO (non-govermental organization) kansalaisuus citizenship kansallisuus nationality kansanmurha genocide karkotus deportation kehittyvä maa developing country kiintiö quota kotoperäinen indigenous kotimaahan palauttaminen repatriation kotouttaminen integration kulkutauti, epidemia epidemic lahjoittaa donate lahjomattomuus integrity lapsikuolleisuus infant mortality luku - ja kirjoitustaidoton illiterate luku- ja kirjoitustaito literacy lähetystö embassy maahanmuuttaja immigrant monikulttuurinen multicultural myöntää viisumi grant/issue a visa nälänhätä famine, starvation odotettu elinikä life expectancy oikeudenmukaisuus justice oleskelulupa residence permit pakolainen refugee puute lack, shortage rahallinen apu monetary aid rahoittaa fund, finance rajavalvonta border control rasismi, rotuviha racism rasisti, rasistinen racist reilu kauppa fair trade slummi urban ghetto, slum suvaitsevainen tolerant suvaitsevaisuus tolerance syrjintä discrimination toisinajattelija dissident

146 146 turvapaikka vastaanottokeskus vähemmistö väkivallattomuus asylum (immigration) detention/reception centre minority non-violence I Write the underlined words into Finnish. 1. The State of Mississippi had the highest infant mortality rate in the USA - and the lowest life expectancy - in Developing countries may be hit by many natural disasters, such as drought or famine, but the real tragedy is women's illiteracy. 3. Refugees fleeing from bombed cities in war zones rely on the support of international relief workers. 4. Several charities and NGOs struggle to alleviate human suffering in intolerable living conditions. 5. We mustn't forget the plight of many dissidents seeking political asylum to avoid oppression and persecution in their native country. 6. Detention centres can be grim places for those who have been waiting for months to hear whether they are granted a residence permit or not. II Match the definitions and the given words. 1. the quality of being honest and fair 2. not having enough healthy food to eat 3. shortage 4. finance 5. living and existing naturally in a particular region 6. the deliberate and systematic killing of a racial, political or ethnic group 7. to give money, clothes etc to help a person or an organization 8. the removal from a country of an alien whose presence is unlawful 9. a specific amount or number of people that are allowed 10. shockingly cruel action A. donate B. fund C. integrity D. lack E. atrocity F. quota G. malnourishment H. deportation I. genocide J. indigenous

147 147 TIEDE aine alkuaine analyysi antaa aihetta olettaa asteikko empiirinen fysiikka fyysikko haihtua happi havainnoida hiili hyötysuhde johtopäätös keksintö kemia keskiarvo kiinteä kitka kokeilla koehenkilö kysely laboratorio laite, väline liuotin luokittelu luonnontieteet luotettava lähde lämpötila löytö, löydös massa matemaatikko menetelmä mitta, mitata mittayksikkö muuttuja nero nerokas neste Nobelin palkinto nopeus näyte olettamus ominaisuus paine painovoima pystysuora rakenne matter element analysis suggest scale empirical physics physicist evaporate oxygen observe carbon efficiency conclusion invention chemistry mean, average solid friction experiment subject, testee survey lab, laboratory device, instrument, appliance solvent classification natural sciences reliable source temperature discovery mass mathematician method, technique measure unit of measurement variable genius ingeniuous liquid Nobel prize velocity, speed sample, specimen hypothesis property pressure gravity vertical structure

148 148 seos solu sähkövaraus sähkövirta säteily taajuus taulukko tieteellinen tietokanta tiheys tilasto tilavuus tutkia tutkija tutkimus typpi vaakasuora vastus vety virtapiiri ydin yhdiste yritys ja erehdys mixture cell charge electric current radiation frequency table, graph, chart scientific database density statistics volume study, research scientist research, study nitrogen horizontal resistance hydrogen circuit nucleus compound trial and error I Write the names of the following elements in English. The first four were included in the science glossary. 1. O 2. H 3. N 4. C 5. Fe 6. Cu 7. Ag 8. Au 9. Ca 10. S

149 149 II Fill in the missing words. 1. Artturi Ilmari Virtanen was a Finnish chemist and recipient of the 1945 in Chemistry. 2. Chemists work in amidst all those test tubes and burners in their white coats. 3. The wheel must be one of the cleverest in history. 4. If the matter is not solid, it is either or gas. 5. Before starting their research, a scientist must have some kind of, an idea or theory which is not proven but which leads to further study. 6. A medical company is looking for voluntary on whom to test their new drug. 7. Physicists use all kinds of appliances, devices and in their experiments. 8. Unfortunately, Einstein's teachers didn't realize that he was actually a. 9. When researchers interview and ask people questions, face to face or online, this type of research is called a. 10. The opposite of vertical is.

150 150 TALOUS alennus discount, reduction arvonlisävero value added tax (VAT) avoimuus transparency bruttokansantuote gross national product (GNP) budjettivaje budget deficit edistää myyntiä promote sales eräpäivä due date kannattamaton unprofitable kannustin incentive kauppatavara merchandise konkurssi bankruptcy korko interest kulut expenses kuluttaja consumer kulutus consumption kustannustehokkuus cost effectiveness kysyntä demand käsiraha deposit, down payment käteinen cash lainata jollekin lend, lent, lent lainata joltakin borrow laina loan lama recession lasku bill, invoice leikkaus cut liikevaihto turnover luottokortti credit card massatuotanto mass production netto net nosto (tililtä) withdrawal nousukausi boom, time of economic growth olla velkaa owe, be in debt osake share osamaksulla by instalments, on hire purchase pankkisiirto bank transfer pääoma capital pankkiautomaatti cash point, cash dispenser (Br), ATM (Am) pankkikortti debit card pikavippi instant loan pörssi stock market, stock exchange rahoittaa finance, fund sijoitus investment suuryritys corporation taantuma recession, slump, downturn taloudellinen, säästäväinen economical talous-, taloudellinen economic tarjonta supply teollisuus industry tili account

151 151 toimitusjohtaja tuki(ainen) tulovero tuonti tuottava valmistaja valuutta velka velkakirja velkoja veloittaa verot veronpalautus verotulot vienti viitenumero voitto ylijäämä yrittäjä yritys CEO subsidy income tax import(s) profitable, lucrative manufacturer currency debt IOU creditor charge taxes tax return tax revenue export(s) reference number profit, proceeds surplus entrepreneur, self-employed company, business, firm, enterprise I Write the underlined words in Finnish. 1. In many European countries, we favour a system of government supports, incentives and subsidies. 2. Cuba took possession of all foreign-owned corporations after its revolution in Who is the current CEO of Apple Inc.? Is it still Tim Cook? 4. Which country had the highest GNP in the world in 2015? The USA, of course. Finland ranked 43rd. 5. We are being very economical in our business; look at the fairly big budget surplus we had last year. 6. Like every budding entrepreneur knows, cost effectiveness and profitable investments are the key elements of success. 7. In times of recession many consumers resort to instant loans, which may lead to serious trouble. II Choose the right alternative. 1. If a firm spends more money than it makes, they will have a down payment/budget deficit/downturn. 2. If you buy something and pay by instalments, it's called buying on hire purchase/cash dispenser/due date. 3. If you want to make a withdrawal from your bank account, you got to the IOU/VAT/ATM. 4. Business has picked up, so we'll witness a turnover/boom/slump in economy. 5. You can pay the rest later but you must make a down payment first, in other words pay a deposit/an interest/a discount. 6. Business largely depends on the laws of supply and consumption/merchandise/demand. 7. Which is more profitable, to use US dollars or euros as a charge/currency/revenue when trading with foreign companies? 8. I had to lend/borrow/fund some money to Aidan, and he still debts/owes/credits me five pounds.

152 152 YMPÄRISTÖ aavikoituminen biodiversiteetti biohajoava ekologinen elinalue eroosio Golf-virta hedelmällinen hirmumyrsky hyökyaalto ilmaston lämpeneminen ilmastonmuutos jätevesi jätteenpolttolaitos jätteet kaatopaikka kastelu kasvihuoneilmiö kestävä kierrätys kuivuus kuolla sukupuuttoon laji lannoite leveysaste lumimyrsky lumivyöry luomu luonnonkatastrofi luonnonsuojelija luonnonsuojelu luonnonvarat lämpöaalto maanjäristys maanvyöry maaperä maisema maanosa mantere merivirta metsien häviäminen myrkyllinen niemimaa otsonikerros pato pyörremyrsky rankkasade reilu kauppa saaristo desertification biodiversity biodegradable ecological habitat erosion the Gulf Stream fertile tropical storm, hurricane, cyclone, typhoon tsunami global warming climate change sewage waste incinerator refuse, waste landfill, waste tip, refuse dump irrigation greenhouse effect sustainable recycling drought die out, become extinct species fertilizer latitude blizzard avalanche organic natural disaster, natural catastrophe environmentalist, conservationist conservation natural resources heat wave earthquake landslide, mudslide soil landscape, scenery continent mainland ocean current deforestation toxic peninsula ozone layer dam tornado, twister torrential rain fair trade archipelago

153 153 saastuminen saastunut saastuttava aine sademäärä sato sinilevä sukupuuttoon kuoleminen suo tuholaismyrkky tulivuorenpurkaus tulivuori tulva, tulvia uhanalainen uusiutuva viemäri viljelyyn sopimaton vuorovesi väestö ympäristöystävällinen pollution, contamination polluted, contaminated pollutant precipitation crops blue-green alga extinction swamp, bog, marshland pesticide volcanic eruption volcano flood endangered renewable sewer, drain non-arable tide population environmentally friendly, ecological I Fill in the missing letters. 1. very hard rainfall o e i rain 2. die out become x t 3. sudden hot temperatures h w 4. a very dry period r 5. poisonous t i 6. waste dump a d i 7. environmentally friendly o o i a 8. tornado w s r 9. catastrophe d a e 10. a large group of islands r i e a II Define the following words in English. 1. the Gulf Stream 2. irrigation 3. sewers 4. habitat 5. fertilizer 6. blizzard 7. conservationist 8. deforestation 9. pesticide 10. non-arable

154 154 RATKAISUT SUBSTANTIIVIT Key I 1. men, women, children 2. sheep, oxen, geese 3. media, phenomena, lice 4. feet, teeth, crises 5. people/ individuals, lives, victims Key II 1. heroes 2. hobbies 3. criteria 4. salmon 5. moose, elk 6. thieves 7. spacecraft 8. equipment was 9. advice 10. baggage/luggage, money 11. jewellery, furniture 12. police officer/ policewoman, is/ comes the good news ARTIKKELIT Key I 1. Let's play a game of - chess. 2. After an hour, we can have - dinner. 3. The sky is an unusual colour tonight. 4. The sun is about to set and the colour of the clouds over the sea is constantly changing. 5. The more I think about - nature conservation the worse I feel. 6. Would you say that - most people are not concerned about the state of the environment? 7. One of the cutest creatures in the world must be the giant panda. 8. A few panda bears came to Finland by - plane from China. 9. Should - animals born in the wild be taken to live in - zoos? 10. In the 1990s when I went to - school, the government dramatically cut down the number of the lessons in - biology. KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

155 155 Key II Here are a couple of jokes. (If one of your parents happens to be a lawyer, we hope they have a great sense of humour.) 1. Question: What's the difference between a jellyfish and a lawyer? 2. Answer: One is a spineless, poisonous blob; the other is a form of - sea life. 3. A woman and her little girl were visiting the grave of the little girl's grandmother. 4. On their way through the cemetery back to the car, the girl asked, 5. "Mummy, do they ever bury two people in the same grave?" 6. "Of course not, dear," replied the mother. "Why would you think that?" 7. "The/ A tombstone back there said 'Here lies a lawyer and an honest man. 8. Santa Claus, the tooth fairy, an honest lawyer and an old drunk are walking down the street together when they simultaneously spot a hundred-dollar bill. Who gets it? 9. The old drunk, of course; the other three are - fantasy creatures. Key III 1. too expensive a gift/ present 2. so young an actor / such a young actor 3. quite a surprise / rather a surprise 4. just as good an alternative 5. However a difficult problem / No matter how difficult a problem 6. half (of) the world 7. double the sum / twice the amount 8. What awful weather! 9. an extremely talented pianist 10. How experienced a teacher ERISNIMET JA ARTIKKELIT Key I 1. the English Channel 2. the Baltic (Sea) 3. the Canary Islands 4. eastern Lapland 5. South America 6. the Cape (of Good Hope) 7. Central Europe 8. the Roman Empire 9. the Isle of Man 10. Gatwick Airport Key II 1. the Blue Nile 2. the Netherlands 3. the US, the USA 4. the United Kingdom, the UK 5. the Great Lakes KEY 6. the Equator 7. the Pacific Ocean 8. Lake Ladoga 9. wealthy/ rich Switzerland 10. the Pope Suomen englanninopettajat ry

156 156 Key III 1. the South Pole 2. the Mediterranean 3. Queen Victoria 4. the Danube 5. the Gulf of Finland 7. the Arctic Circle 8. the Moscow of my youth 9. Trafalgar Square 10. Tower Bridge 6. fascinating / enchanting Austria Key IV 1. the Black Sea 2. the Andes 3. the Middle East 4. the Strait of Gibraltar 5. the Gobi Desert 6. the Isle of Wight 7. the Hague 8. the Orient Express 9. the North Pole 10. the Republic of Ireland/ the Irish Republic GENETIIVI Key I 1. the name of that church 2. St Paul's (Cathedral) 3. the largest churches in the world / the world's largest churches 4. London's museums 5. our son's college 6. an hour's drive 7. our friends' new house 8. a hairdresser's 9. Kate and Liam's baby 10. trouser pocket 11. the Finnish flag Key II 1. men's shoes 2. boys' socks 3. butcher's (shop) 4. Rose and Peter's lunch 5. the end of the month 6. A week's holiday / vacation 7. Dublin's sights/ attractions 8. The price of the trip 9. the Irish government 10. the future of the young / young people's future KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

157 157 PERSOONAPRONOMINIT Key II 1. that boyfriend of hers 2. made himself at home 3. He, his 4. defend themselves 5. They, their, all its losers 7. I, our, she, of her own 8. She, us, all her life. 9. we, behave ourselves 10. him feel 6. you, yourself RELATIIVIPRONOMINIT Key I 1. who/ that 2. which 3. whose 4. who 5. What, which 6. that 7. that 8. which/ that 9. who 10. What, which INDEFINIITTIPRONOMINIT Key II 1. one, the other 2. each other's / one another's 3. neither 4. some, others 5. some, another 6. which, either 7. on (the) one hand, on the other hand 8. someone/ somebody else 9. one way or another 10. every second/ other time KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

158 158 NUMERAALIT Key I 1. hundreds of times 2. an hour and a half / one and a half hours 3. zero tolerance 4. half a dozen, at (the) most / (at the) maximum 5. eleven thirty / half past eleven / half eleven 6. in their eighties 7. in the 20th century 8. a thousand and one/ one thousand and one 9. in the late 70s 10. twenty-third Key II 1. 1,300 tuhatkolmesataa 2..5 nolla pilkku viisi 3. the 53rd viideskymmeneskolmas = 2 yksi plus yksi on kaksi 5. kolme potenssiin kolme : 4 kuusikymmentä jaettuna neljällä 7. kahdeksan korotettuna toiseen potenssiin 8. yhdeksän potenssiin viisi 9. neliöjuuri sadasta luku pm puoli yhdeksän illalla :00 kello yhdeksäntoista months puolitoista vuotta, vuosi ja kuusi kuukautta h kaksi vuorokautta am varttia vaille kaksi aamuyöllä ADJEKTIIVIT JA ADVERBIT Key I 1. the best, the worst 2. the bold/ the brave 3. as strong as, weakest 4. Better... than 5. least 6. deep 7. the most boring 8. more and more tired 9. fast asleep 10. interesting enough Key II 1. the unknown 2. a young person, the old / old people 3. the most optimistic 4. a lot / much / way heavier than 5. worse or more tragic 6. similar to 7. such a happy face / so happy a face 8. by far the thinnest 9. the sooner, the better 10. the good old days/ times KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

159 159 Key III 1. pretty little head 2. an area famous for its wine 3. the number of the filthy rich / of the very rich 4. at its worst 5. inferior to 6. exceptionally mild 7. more and more popular 8. the same age as 9. the latter half, happier than 10. twelve-year-olds Adverbit Key I 1. earlier than usual 2. very well / so well 3. automatically 4. briefly 5. really hard 6. possibly 7. so fast 8. clearly enough 9. happily 10. much worse Key II 1. long ago / a long time ago 2. still don't understand 3. even as a child 4. farther / further 5. more carefully than 6. probably, possibly 7. as hard as 8. quietly / softly 9. briefly 10. in a friendly way / kindly AIKAMUODOT Key I 1. hurries 2. stopped, felt 3. was, had landed 4. isn't happening, thought 5. was examining 6. were smiling 7. will happen, wondered/ was wondering 8. heard, has anyone seen, flew 9. have been, will take, has been looking 10. wasn't, saw, am I losing KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

160 160 Key III 1. fell 2. had fallen 3. had driven, hit 4. lay, came 5. said, had broken 6. didn't lose, bled/ was bleeding 7. had also bitten/ bit 8. thought, would be, had 9. caught, fought 10. swore, keep/ go, was Key IV 1. bore 2. knew 3. had chosen 4. lost, flung/ threw, strode 5. hid, had forgotten, shone, beat 6. rose / got up, sought / strove / tried 7. blew, spat 8. had forbidden, stood, shook 9. had taught, had won 10. had slain, took, would become LIITEKYSYMYKSET Key I 1. will they 2. hasn't he 3. is she 4. doesn't it 5. didn't we 6. are there 7. don't they 8. won't you 9. is it 10. shall we EHTOLAUSEET Key I 1. could choose; wouldn't start 2. could have become/ been; had encouraged 3. leave; won't understand 4. followed; would be 5. didn't like; wouldn't force 6. doesn't come; will get worried 7. hadn't gone; would have helped 8. wasn't/ weren't; could still do 9. will I react; phones, says 10. had remained/ had stayed; wouldn't be KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

161 161 PASSIIVI Key I 1. is used 2. was hung 3. were buried 4. can be told 5. is pronounced, are removed 6. is... stolen 7. has never been seen 8. were being built 9. is conceived 10. It has been calculated/ reckoned Key II 1. Are you being take care of / Are you being looked after? 2. I wasn't being listened to. 3. The matter has been deal with / The matter has been taken care of. 4. We were being stared at. 5. You are being laughed at. 6. I don't like to be nagged at. 7. What am I being accused of? 8. Harry's behaviour has been complained about. 9. It's something I don't want to be reminded of. 10. What is this idea based on? Key III 1. must be visited / has to be visited 2. can be seen 3. was signed 4. is located / is situated 5. is visited 6. were formed 7. have been photographed / have been taken photos of, was opened 8. is also known 9. was cut / was carved 10. were (being) driven 11. are not allowed 12. was destroyed 13. is said to be INFINITIIVI JA ING Key I 1.b. 2.c. 3.a. 4.b. 5.a. 6.a. 7.c. 8.c. 9.a. 10.a. 11.b. 12.b. 13.c. 14.b. 15.a Key II 1. run 2. drop 3. to do 4. take 5. complaining KEY 6. to have found 7. sharing 8. to talk about 9. not to gossip 10. you ought to be told / you should be told Suomen englanninopettajat ry

162 162 APUVERBIT Key I 1. to be able to play 2. have been allowed to practise 3. had to save, could buy/ was able to buy 4. may make 5. could have chosen 6. have had to do, have been able to record 7. have always been allowed to try 8. haven't had to ask 9. doesn't have to cost 10. can't have been Key III 1. are born 2. were you born 3. was ashamed of 4. was afraid / was scared 5. am not afraid / am not scared. 6. had his car washed 7. So does Charlie. 8. Neither / Nor do we 9. Were you about to say 10. was to die FRAASIVERBIT Key I 1. down 2. up 3. out 4. up to 5. up with 6. up 7. off 8. in 9. out 10. out 11. out of 12. off 13. up 14. away with 15. off Key II 1. b 2. a 3.c 4. a 5. c 6.b 7.a 8. b 9. c 10. b KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

163 163 IT JA THERE Key I 1. It is 2. there are 3. There has been 4. It would be 5. there aren't 6. There are 7. It is 8. It is 9. There will be 10. it won't be SANAJÄRJESTYS Key I 1. You should never have given up your dreams. 2. Always trust your instincts. 3. Have I ever told you about my old classmate Fabian? 4. Fabian was often late for appointments. 5. But he became a top model in Italy a few years ago. 6. I sometimes watch his fashion vlogs on his channel. 7. I must say he dresses smartly even in his free time. 8. Fabian's sister Laura admires her big brother very much. 9. Their long lost American aunt left a lot of money to them in her will. 10. I thought things like that only happened in storybooks. Key II 1. have you taken 2. I could have helped you 3. can I 4. told me the truth 5. could we build 6. you bought 7. he says 8. if I paid 9. to come 10. not to worry KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

164 164 EPÄSUORA KERRONTA Key III 1. she liked indie pop 2. to join their band 3. if I was ready for it 4. she had heard me play my guitar 5. they would ask Tommy to play the drums 6. we would practise/ we would be practising 7. the band had been playing together 8. not to take things / matters so seriously 9. if Tommy's girlfriend knew about the plan 10. I will regret my decision KONJUNKTIOT JA SIDESANAT Key I 1. so (that) 2. in case 3. both... and 4. even if 5. now that 6. while / whilst 7. either... or 8. whenever 9. although / though / even though 10. whereas / while / whilst Key II 1.b 2.a 3.c 4.b 5.a 6.a. 7.b 8.c 9b 10.c LAUSEENVASTIKKEET Key II 1. Books written in English have a much wider market than those written in Finnish. 2. Kids reading a lot usually become good writers themselves. 3. Do you know the girl always sitting by the window? 4. No, but I know the guy taking photos of her a while ago. 5. If approached by a fundraiser, do you give them money? 6. You should answer when (being) spoken to. 7. Patrick was the first colleague to congratulate me. 8. What happens to the drinks confiscated by the police? 9. Food otherwise going to waste should be given to those needing it. 10. Who was the last person to see Abigail? KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

165 165 Key III 1. Before you sign a contract, As you've bought an expensive gadget, Items that/ which are sold at sales Beware of con artists who/ that sell non-existent stuff online. 5. An object that/ which costs a lot less than After you've paid for your purchase, If you find fault with your purchase, When you return a faulty object to the shop, Although it is tiresome, As/ Since I don't wish to upset you,... PREPOSITIOT Ajan ilmaukset Key I 1. at 2. on 3. in 4. at 5. at, in 6. on 7. at, on, at 8. in, at 9. in 10. on Key II 1. for two months 2. since last year 3. during the war 4. in his early thirties 5. til / until the end of November 6. by the end of the/this week 7. within / in five days 8. in the past 9. in the late 17th century / in the late 1600s 10. at present / at the moment Paikan ilmaukset KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

166 166 Paikan ilmaukset Key I 1. across this field 2. by the river 3. against the red sky 4. beyond the horizon 5. opposite the church 6. in front of the doors 7. towards the cemetery/ graveyard 8. in New Orleans 9. among(st) / amidst / in the crowd 10. through 11. out of their cars 12. in the middle of the road Prepositioilmauksia Key I 1. at 2. on 3. in 4. for 5. by 6. for 7. to 8. in 9. by on Key II 1. I'm in a hrry / I'm busy 2. for free 3. for example / for instance 4. at least 5. by all means 6. for once 7. on average 8. for sale 9. in a way 10. for sure / for certain Key III 1. in 2. at 3. at 4. off 5. on 6. on 7. at 8. in spite of / despite 9. according to 10. instead of 11. apart from 12. on 13. during 14. in 15. to KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

167 167 Verbit + prepositio, adjektiivit + prepositio, substantiivi + prepositio Key I 1. in 2. on, at 3. in, about 4. -, -, - 5. with, from 6. to, in 7. from, - 8. on, into 9. for, to Key II 1. in 2. to 3. of 4. for 5. for, to 6. on 7. with, for 8. of, about 9. at, with 10. of, about Key III 1. to 2. in, to 3. on 4. into, for 5. of 6. for 7. of 8. for, for 9. in 10. for OIKEINKIRJOITUS Key I 1. government 2. environment 3. which 4. probably 5. crazy 6. disappointed 7. except 8. affect 9. successful 10. chance 11. necessarily 12. beautiful 13. beer 14. ecstacy 15. although KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

168 168 Key II 1. Do you know whose suitcase this is? 2. Could you come with me, please? 3. Show me which is your room. 4. Look at his car: its tyres have been slashed. 5. I needed to stop but my brakes didn't work. 6. The greengrocer was selling apples and cherries. 7. This affects all of us - do you hear me? 8. Why do you always try to advise other people? 9. We were not allowed to go out. 10. I thought Jack the Ripper was a serial killer. 11. So you think we'll have ice-cream for dessert? 12. You want to watch what you're saying. 13. I had to accept the fact that I was going to lose. 14. Surprise! Surprise! IDIOMS Key I 1. as fit as a fiddle 2. as poor as dirt 3. as hard as nails 4. as thick as thieves 5. as cool as a cucumber 6. as ugly as sin 8. as right as rain 9. as clean as a whistle 10. as old as the hills 11. as busy as a bee 12. as sound as a bell 7. as white a ghost Key II 1. picture 2. day 3. stick 4. rock 5. flash 6. death 7. feather 8. lead 9. pancake 10. fox Key III 1.B 2.C. 3.A. 4.B. 5.C. 6.B. 7.A. 8.B. 9.C. 10.A. 11.B. 12.A. 13.C. 14.A. 15.C KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

169 169 READING COMPREHENSION Key I Extraordinary stories 1.c. 2.b. 3.a. 4.c 5.b. 6.c. 7.b. 8.c. 9.a. 10.b. 11.b. 12.c. 13.a. 14.c. 15.b. 16.c. 17.c. 18.a. 19.c. 20.b. Key 2 Sports and stuff 1.c. 2.b. 3.c. 4.b. 5.b. 6.a. 7.c. 8.b. 9.c. 10.a. 11.b. 12.b. 13.a. 14.a. 15.b. 16.c. 17.c. 18.a. 19.b. 20.c Key 3 Celebrities 1.C 2.A 3.C 4.B 5.C. 6.B 7.C 8.A 9.C 10.B 11.A. 12.A 13.B 14.C 15.B 16.C 17.C 18.B 19.C 20.B Key 4 From the cinema to sports arenas 1.b. 2.c. 3.a. 4.a. 5.c. 6.b. 7.b. 8.c. 9.c. 10.a. 11.c. 12.b. 13.b. 14.b. 15.a. 16.b. 17.c. 18.c. 19.c. 20.a RAKENNE JA SANASTOMONIVALINTA Key: Autistic defender,1st year 1.C 2.A 3.C 4.B 5.C 6.B 7.C 8.A 9.C 10.A 11.C 12.C 13.B 14.B 15.C 16.A 17.C 18.B 19.C 20.A 21.C 22.B 23.A 24.C 25.B 26.B 27.A 28.C 29.B 30.C Key: Travel stories, 1st year 1.B 2.A 3.C 4.B 5.A 6.B 7.A 8.C 9.B 10.B 11.A 12.C 13.B 14.B 15.C 16.B 17.C 18.A 19.B 20.B 21.A 22.B 23.C 24.A 25.B 26.C 27.A 28.B 29.C 30.B Key: Significant other and weight watching, 2nd year 1.A 2.C 3.B 4.C 5.B 6.C 7.A 8.C 9.C 10.B 11.C 12.B 13.B 14.A 15.B 16.A 17.C 18.B 19.A 20.B 21.A 22.C 23.B 24.C 25.B 26.A 27.C 28.B 29.C 30.C Key: Germany and ice-cream, 2nd year 1.A 2.B 3.B 4.B 5.C 6.A 7.C 8.B 9.C 10.B 11.A 12.B 13.C 14.C 15.A 16.A 17.B 18.A 19.C 20.B 21.B 22.B 23.C 24.A 25.B 26.A 27.B 28.A 29.C 30.A KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

170 170 AIHEPIIRISANASTOT PERHESUHTEET Key I 1. marry, prenuptial 2. blended 3. infertility treatment 4. custody 5. great-aunt 6. same-sex couple, surrogate mother 7. to 8. proposal 9. a white wedding 10. godmother Key II Across 3. custody 5. cohabitation 7. divorce 9. adultery 12. matrimony Down 1. separation 2. sibling 4. spouse 6. triplets 8. nephew 9. alimony 10. grandchild 11. niece KOULUTUS Key I 1. marks 2. breaks 3. maths lessons 4. head(master/ mistress) 5. term 6. timetable 7. form 8. the sixth form Key II 1. Have you considered an apprenticeship contract? 2. A university of applied sciences might/could be a better alternative/option. 3. I'm going to apply for international student exchange. 4. Did you know that "public school" is an elitist, expensive boarding school and anything but "public"? 5. Distance learning suits me best as/because/since I can do my homework/assignments when I feel like it. KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

171 171 TYÖELÄMÄ Key I 1.I 2.E 3.D 4.F 5.J 6.B 7.H 8.A 9.G 10.C 11.L 12.K Key II Across 2. promotion 4. shift 6. career 7. pension 8. colleague 9. pay Down 1. application 3. vacancy 4. strike 5. temporary ASUMINEN Key I 1. shed 2. attic 3. commuter 4. roommate 5. suburb 6. duplex 7. landlady 8. rural 9. residence 10. tenant Key II 1. developers 2. council house 3. resident 4. deck 5. a city dweller 6. abode 7. shanty towns 8. estate 9. studio 10. dormitories KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

172 172 LIIKENNE Key I 1. collision 2. pedestrian 3. overtake 4. insurance 5. pavement 6. passenger 7. underground 8. congestion 9. ramp 10. refuel Key II 1. What would be the right age to get a driving licence? 2. Are you interested in aviation? 3. How should drunk drivers be punished? 4. What would a suitable speed limit in built-up areas? 5. What must you do before you switch lanes? 6. Who has the right of way at crossroads? 7. Should there be more cycle lanes in towns? 8. What are the worst traffic violations in your opinion? SOSIAALITURVA Key I 1. We Finns live in a welfare state. 2. We believe in equal opportunity. 3. Of course there are problems, too, for example ageing (population) and alienation. 4. Nobody/ No one would like to be dependent on benefits. 5. Discrimination and poverty often go hand in hand. Key II 1. housing allowance 2. paternity leave 3. birth certificate 4. residence permit and work permit 5. They are taken into custody. 6. They get child benefits/allowances. 7. unemployment benefit 8. average monthly earnings (and number of dependents) 9. a guardian KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

173 173 TERVEYDENHOITO Key I 1.F 2.I 3.L 4.J 5.K 6.A 7.H 8.B 9.D 10.C Key II 1. What symptoms are typical of indigestion? (heartburn, constipation, gas, diarrhea, pain in the stomach) 2. Do you know how to give first aid or CPR? 3. Have you ever had an arm or a leg in a cast/ plaster? If yes, why/ how come? 4. Should young people get/ be given contraceptives for free? 5. What kind of injuries can sports cause? PUOLUSTUS Key I 1. destroyer 2. defeat 3. guerilla 4. deterrent 5. ceasefire 6. defuse 7. retreat 8. mediator 9. border 10. troops Key II 1. was deployed 2. used to urban warfare 3. has done his national/ military service 4. The Soviet Union had a military base 5. branch or service, artillery, infantry 6. allies, interested in peace negotiations KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

174 174 KIRJALLISUUS Key I 1. Why do people so many read travel books/ Why do people read travel books so much? 2. What do books in second-hand bookshops smell like? 3. What genre is The Unknown Soldier a representative of? / What genre does The Unknown Soldier belong to? 4. What does sleep symbolise in poems? 5. Are rap artists' rhymes ingenious in your opinion? Key II Across 2. pseudonym 3. title 5. poet 6. romance 8. writer 9. cover 10. critic Down 1. illustration 2. prose 4. library 7. autobiography MEDIA Key I 1. Only old people watch realtime TV shows/programmes. 2. Dailies/ daily papers have lost most of their advertising revenue to other media. 3. Journalists must be able to protect their sources. 4. Freedom of speech is one of the most important human rights. 5. Young people are online almost all the time and don't read glossy magazines, for example. 6. I can't imagine I would subscribe to any weeklies. 7. In the good old days/ times readers wrote letters to the editor, but nowadays most people tweet or post comments. Key II Across 2. tabloid 4. issue 6. circulation 9. documentary Down 1. caption 3. rerun 5. sitcom 7. correspondent 8. presenter KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

175 175 KUVATAIDE Key I 1. What kind of sculpture/ statue would suit the lobby of our school/ our school's lobby? What would it depict/ portray? 2. When did you last go to an art exhibition/ visit an art exhibition? Whose paintings did you see there? 3. What tools does an artist need? Mention at least three. 4. What do you think about/ How do you like poster art? What kind of artworks are there/ do you have in your home? 5. Which do you prefer / Which do you like better/ more, contemporary art or classical art? Who is your favourite painter? Key II 1. collection 2. designer 3. connoisseur 4. forgery 5. restore 6. frame 7. shade 8. sketch 9. miniature 10. mural ELOKUVAT Key I 1.E 2.H 3.B 4.F 5.I 6.A 7.D 8.J 9.G 10.C Key II 1. a selected group of scenes that are shown to advertise a movie 2. replacing the original speech in a movie with speech in another language 3. the first time an actor performs in public 4. a complete failure 5. a film that continues a story begun in another film 6. a short description of a film's plot, in other words a summary of events in a movie 7. a short performance to show the talents of someone who is trying to get a role in a movie/ play or a position in an orchestra 8. a particular type or category of film or literature 9. a film without any recorded sound 10. what a critic says about a film or how they rate it KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

176 the main character in a film 12. to clap your hands after a performance 13. the audience stand on their feet and applaud 14. persons hired to act in a group scene in a movie (they have no lines) 15. translations of what the actors are saying that appear on the screen 16. the place where a film is being shot MUSIIKKI Key I 1. keyboards 2. woodwind 3. strings 4. percussion 5. brass 6. chords 7. choir 8. composers 9. gig 10. ballet Key II 1. An acoustic guitar has a more beautiful sound than an electric guitar. 2. A top musician must first practise/ rehearse at least 10,000 hours. 3. I am a lousy singer/ I'm bad at singing. I always manage to sing in the wrong key. 4. Finnish conductors are known all over the world. 5. It is difficult for me to remember the lyrics (of songs) but I can usually sing the chorus/ refrain. OIKEUS Key I 1. negligent homicide, involuntary manslaughter 2. arson 3. theft 4. fraud 5. murder 6. burglary 7. assault / mugging 8. blackmail, extortion 9. shoplifting 10. rape Key II 1. prosecutor 2. solicitor, lawyer 3. penalty 4. bribes 5. young offenders, suspended sentences 6. testify, give testimony 7. verdict, appeal 8. detain 9. community service 10. probation, parole KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

177 177 POLITIIKKA Key I 1. suffrage 2. monarchy 3. Prime Minister 4. referendum 5. constituency 6. candidate 7. legislation 8. polling station 9. census 10. majority Key II 1. sisäministeri 2. luottamuslauseäänestys 3. ulkoministeri 4. monen puolueen muodostama hallitus 5. valtiovarainministeri 6. suhteellinen vaalitapa 7. toimeenpano- 8. kunnanvaltuusto / kaupunginvaltuusto 9. perustuslaki 10. ovensuukyselyt KANSAINVÄLISYYS Key I 1. lapsikuolleisuus, eliniänodote 2. nälänhätä, luku- ja kirjoitustaidottomuus 3. pakolaiset, avustustyöntekijät 4. hyväntekeväisyysjärjestöt, kansalaisjärjestöt, elinolot 5. toisinajattelijat, poliittinen turvapaikka 6. vastaanottokeskukset, myöntää oleskelulupa Key II 1.C 2.G 3.D 4.B 5.J 6.I 7.A 8.H 9.F 10.E KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

178 178 TIEDE Key I 1. oxygen (happi) 2. hydrogen (vety) 3. nitrogen (typpi) 4. carbon (hiili) 5. iron (rauta) 6. copper (kupari) 7. silver (hopea) 8. gold (kulta) 9. calcium (kalsium) 10. sulphur (rikki) Key II 1. Nobel Prize 2. labs/laboratories 3. inventions 4. liquid 5. hypothesis 6. testees, (test) subjects 7. instruments/ techniques/ methods 8. genius 9. survey 10. horizontal TALOUS Key I 1. kannustin, tuki(ainen)/ valtionapu 2. suuryritys 3. toimitusjohtaja 4. bruttokansantuote 5. säästäväinen/ taloudellinen, budjettiylijäämä 6. yrittäjä, kustannustehokkuus, tuottoisat sijoitukset 7. taantuma/ lama, pikavippi Key II 1. budget deficit 2. hire purchase 3. ATM 4. boom 5. deposit 6. demand 7. currency 8. lend, owes KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

179 179 YMPÄRISTÖ Key I 1. torrential rain 2. become extinct 3. heat wave 4. drought 5. toxic 6. landfill 7. ecological 8. twister 9. disaster 10. archipelago Key II 1. an oceam current which warms up the climate in the North Atlantic 2. a man-made system of watering dry areas 3. drains which carry waste water 4. living area 5. makes the soil grow bigger and better crops 6. snow storm 7. environmentalist, a person who protects nature and the environment 8. disappearance of forests and woods 9. poison which kills insects 10. soil which is not suited for farming KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

180 180 QUIZLETS AND GAMES ihminen liikenne terveydenhoito työelämä sosiaaliturva asuminen KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

181 181 koulutus media ihmissuhteet kuvataide puolustus elokuva ja teatteri kirjallisuus musiikki KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

182 182 oikeus talous politiikka ympäristö kansainvälisyys tiede KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

183 183 CLASSTOOLS.NET: PACMAN, ARCADE, ASTEROIDS, WORDSHOOT, MANIC MINER, PONG ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS POLITICS ECONOMY JUSTICE SCIENCE MUSIC KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

184 184 CINEMA AND THEATRE DEFENCE ART HUMAN RELATIONS MEDIA EDUCATION LITERATURE LIVING KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry

185 185 WORK HUMAN BODY TRAFFIC SOCIAL SECURITY HEALTH CARE KEY Suomen englanninopettajat ry