Laurea tutkii ja kehittää 2/2008. Laurea Research & Development

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1 Laurea tutkii ja kehittää 2/2008 Laurea Research & Development Meet Laurea Peer to Peer Ammattikorkeakoulut tukemassa pk-yritysten kansainvälistymistä Multiculturalism at work place Renderfarm.fi Leveling the table for 3D artists Kehittäjä 1

2 3 Pääkirjoitus / Leader 4 WMDSS Providing interesting findings for stakeholders 7 Meet Laurea Peer to Peer The new age learning environment Vastaava päätoimittaja / Executive editor Petteri Ikonen Päätoimittaja / Editor-in-chief Minna Mattila Toimitussihteeri / Sub-editor Bojko Ivanov, Laurea P2P-opiskelija, liiketalous Toimittajat / Reporters Maria Elomaa, Laurea P2P-opiskelija, liiketalous Hilla-Maria Häkkinen, Laurea P2P-opiskelija, liiketalous Jaakko Puuronen, Laurea P2P-opiskelija, liiketalous Kansikuva / Cover photo Bojko Ivanov Kansainvälisyyden silta yhdistää Laurean ja sidosryhmät Taitto / Layout Toni Enström Toimitusneuvosto / Editorial Board Petteri Ikonen (pj.) Harri Haapaniemi Armi Jyrkkiö Ritva Jäättelä Päivi Korhonen Paula Lehto Tarja Meristö 10 Shared expertise in practise Innovative Leadership as part of Health Promotion Programme 11 Multiculturalism at work place 14 Building knowledge transfer gateways How can HEI s international networking benefit local stakeholders? 16 The effect of User s Informational-Based Readiness on innovation acceptance 17 Philips and VTT Technical Research Centre in co-operation with Well Life Center 18 Renderfarm.fi Leveling the table for 3D artists 20 Universities: spaces and places for interaction 22 Yhteistoimintatahoja haetaan: Monikulttuurinen multisensorinen tila 23 Voivatko ammattikorkeakoulut tukea pk-yritysten kansainvälistymistä? 24 Partnership agreement between four Universities of Applied Sciences 25 Henkilöstövalintoja Laureassa 26 Yrityksen ja opiskelijan osaaminen karttuu osana hankkeistettua opinnäytetyöprosessia Praxis-kisan palkinto Laurean opiskelijoille 27 Laurealähtöisiä kansainvälisiä puheenvuoroja 28 Ajankohtaista laurealaista hankeosaamista 29 News / Uutissivut 34 Yrityskolumni: When content matters Building user-centric service concept 35 Alumnikolumni: Mikä maa, mikä valuutta? 36 Yhteystiedot Suorapostituksen osoitteet / Posting addresses Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulun sidosryhmärekisteri Osoitteenmuutokset / Changes of address Julkaisija / Publisher Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulu Laurea University of Applied Sciences Ratatie 22, FI Vantaa, Finland Painopaikka / Printed by Lönnberg Print & Promo ISNN Kehittäjä

3 Pääkirjoitus / Leader Laurea tarjoaa kansainvälisen toimintaympäristön Kehittäjä-lehtemme käsittelee tässä numerossa laajalti tutkimus- ja kehittämistyön kansainvälistä ulottuvuutta. Opetusministeriössä valmisteilla oleva korkeakoulujen kansainvälistymisstrategia määrittää suomalaisille korkeakouluille kovat kansainvälistymistavoitteet. Kansainvälinen toiminta ei ole tänä päivänä pelkästään opiskelija- ja henkilöstövaihtoa, vaan yhä enenevässä määrin hankkeita ja työskentelyä yhteisissä tutkimusohjelmissa. Kansainvälisyys on kiinteä osa Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulun uskottavaa t&k-toimintaa. Laurea on osoittautunut mielenkiintoiseksi kumppaniksi ulkomaisille korkeakouluille ja yrityksille tarjoten kansainvälisen toimintaympäristön hankkeiden ja projektien kautta opiskelijoille ja yrityksille. Toimiminen kansainvälisissä hankkeissa ja verkostoissa antaa opiskelijoillemme huomattavan lisäarvon heidän työllistyessään opintojen jälkeen. Samoin henkilöstön osaaminen syvenee kansainvälisen toiminnan myötä. Laurean strategisena, toimintaa ohjaavana tahtotilana on olla täysivaltainen ja kansainvälinen innovaatiotoiminnan ammattikorkeakoulu vuonna Tähän tavoitteeseen päästään vain yhteistyössä toimintaympäristömme yritysten ja organisaatioiden kanssa niin kansallisesti kuin kansainvälisesti. Petteri Ikonen, TaT Vastaava päätoimittaja, tutkimusjohtaja Laurea as international operational environment Current issue of Laurea s Primer Mover magazine covers widely international dimension of research & development. Ministry of Education in Finland is preparing new internationalisation strategy for Finnish Higher education institutions which will set ambitious goals for future internationalisation of higher education. International cooperation is part and parcel of Laurea s activities and it is more than mere international student and staff exchange. Laurea is also an interesting partner for other research organisations, universities and enterprises in international r&d projects. Laurea offers its students and partners international operational environment through international projects and networks. International experience is highly regarded when students seek job opportunities after graduation. For staff international cooperation provides possibilities to deepen their expertise. Laurea s strategic intent for 2010 is to be a fully authorised and international university of applied sciences focused on innovation. Laurea will reach this goal in cooperation with partners, nationally and internationally. Petteri Ikonen, DA Executive editor, Research Director Kehittäjä 3

4 Hung-Yeh (Frank) Sun Planning Engineer FIND Research Center Innovative Digitech-Enabled Applications & Services Institute (IDEAS) Institute for Information Industry Taiwan WMDSS project began as WMIS with three member countries of Korea, Japan and Hong Kong in Tokyo in The picture is from the entrance of Meiji Jingu Shrine, Tokyo, Japan. Photo: Minna Mattila. WMDSS Providing interesting findings for stakeholders Text: Elizabeth Fife, Aihua Zhang, Hung-Yeh Sun, Wei Fan, Minna Mattila The Worldwide Mobile Data Services Study (WMDSS) is a loosely organised consortium of universities and research institutions located around the world. The study offers an interesting cross-section of the mobile phone user preferences, habits, and use patterns in close to 20 international markets for mobile data services. The WMDSS conducts an annual standardised survey, which specifically examines mobile phone use of data services rather than data accessed through a laptop, or PC. The only Finnish delegate in WMDSS consortium is Laurea University of Applied Sciences. The 2008 survey represents the 7th time this survey has been administered. Current consortium participants for this yearly survey of mobile phone users in Asia, Northern America, and Europe include Australia, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Sweden, Taiwan, the U.S., Germany, Spain, Singapore, Sri Lanka, New Zealand and Hungary. The Laurea students majoring in Business Studies have successfully collected the Finnish data for WMDSS purposes already two times. The first WMDSS implementation in Laurea was supervised by Senior Lecturer, Ms Tuula Perätalo from Laurea Kerava. In autumn 2008, the WMDSS data was collected by Laurea Peer to Peer first year students under the guidance of Senior Lecturer, Mr Kari Halme. Prime Mover has the privilege of bringing to the attention of Laurea s stakeholders the most novel and comparative WMDSS findings from Finland, China, Taiwan, and the U.S. In autumn 2008, Taiwan collected survey responses through an online survey platform, which is a recruited panel of over sixty thousands members. China finished its WMDSS survey data collection in 2008 with respondents by using a multi- 4 Kehittäjä

5 stage sampling method. Finnish team consisting of Laurea Peer to Peer students and faculty members collected 726 structured interview responses applying a so-called snowball effect to the data collection also in autumn Data for 2008 is still in process of being collected and analysed for the U.S. According to the Taiwanese survey results, 90.7 per cent of Taiwanese respondents have used mobile data services, of which 96.3 per cent have used the data services for communication purposes. The proportion of the Taiwanese respondents who have used the communicating data services is relatively higher than the proportion of those who have used purchasing (24.3%), information (58.8%), or entertainment (63.3%) services. If we compare this research result to the Finnish findings, we notice that the Finnish people seem to be less eager to use mobile data services as only 71.1 per cent of the Finnish WMDSS 2008 respondents report of having ever used mobile data services. Purchasing, information and entertainment services were found to be equally unattractive to Finnish respondents whilst 95.7 per cent had used mobile data services for communication purposes at least some time. According to the Chinese findings, two of the use characteristics that stand out from this year s survey, are the emphasis on communications (firstly voice and secondly texting), and the price sensitivity of the respondents. Among the Chinese WMDSS respondents, communication services are the most often used service (often or very often 44%) while mobile commerce appears to be the least used type of mobile data service. In Chinese markets, information-related data services are used more often than entertainment related services. If we go through all kinds of communicating services such as , SMS, MMS, mo- Finnish WMDSS 2008 Using SMS per week Number of sent SMS bile chat and video calling, SMS seems to be the most popular data services in Taiwan. Almost 90 per cent of the respondents, who have used mobile data services, have also used SMS and almost half of them use SMS weekly or even daily. In fact, SMS appears to be the only popular mobile data service in Taiwan. The average time of using mobile data services in Taiwanese markets is close to 31 minutes per week. Furthermore, an average Taiwanese SMS user sends close to 14 SMS per week. % of respondents more than WMDSS Consortium Goals To provide more reliable statistics about mobile phone users than are currently available To measure cross-cultural differences in mobile data service usage Similar findings were recorded in China and Finland, of which Finland is clearly leading the SMS use statistics. One fifth of the Finnish respondents use SMS daily and an additional 38.8 per cent use SMS several times a day. One third uses MMS occasionally and less than 10 per cent on a weekly basis. There is a minority of mobile heavy users amongst the Finnish respondents with 7 per cent using mobile several times a day whereas close to 60 per cent have never tried using mobile . This finding may be related to the demographic profile of Finnish respondents, who were mostly students (42.8%) in an age category of years of age (46.4%). The most popular data service among the Chinese respondents is SMS for 42 per cent, the second To demonstrate business implications for new services development based upon unbiased data most used service is MMS with a 17 per cent, and the third is news services with 12 per cent. As for SMS, most Chinese respondents send more than 10 text messages per week. Only 5 per cent of the Chinese respondents do not send text messages while 19 per cent send 1-10 text messages a week. Compared to data services, voice still remains the most common use of the mobile phone; 67 per cent of the Chinese respondents talk more than 250 minutes a month on the mobile phone. In China, nearly 80 per cent of the respondents are willing to pay a monthly fee of 1-7 RMB (7 RMB equals 0.65 Euros) for mobile data services. The pricing of mobile data services might very well be the most important factor affecting the use and interest towards adopting mobile data services. The Chinese WMDSS survey shows that 24 per cent of their respondents are most likely to change to another carrier in search for lower prices for voice whereas 21 per cent of respondents thought it was very likely that they would change to another carrier due to lower prices for data services. The pricing of voice services was found to be the most likely reason for switching carriers in Chinese markets. The price related switching behaviour figures reported among Finnish respondents were much higher than those of the Chinese. Better price for voice services was found as a likely or very likely reason to change carrier among 73.3 per cent of Finnish respondents, and in the case of lower priced mobile data services, 69.5 per cent indicated a willingness to change carrier. One might conclude that Finnish respondents appear to be even more price sensitive than the Chinese. The network coverage related reasons to carrier was a very likely reason for 27.6 per cent and a likely reason for 25.9 per cent of the Finnish respondents. Promotions as such, though, were not found significantly tempting among Finnish respondents to start using mobile data services. The network quality, coverage, and access to easi- Kehittäjä 5

6 WMIS Annual Spring Meeting in Seoul, South Korea. Photo: WMIS Consortium Archives. er mobile data services rated all on an equal level of importance in order to facilitate mobile data service adoption. The per centage from moderate to great importance was around 70 among the non-adopter segments for all the mentioned categories. When the American respondents were asked about factors that decrease their interest towards mobile data services, they too cited cost as the number one factor. Besides a perception that services are too expensive, respondents also found that quality was not high enough, and that they simply did not see the value. One fifth of the Finnish respondents were willing to pay Euros for monthly mobile data services and 26.4 per cent were willing to pay Euros a month. These respondent expectations seem quite unrealistic, though, considering the current national carrier subscription rates. The U.S. team has noticed signs of growth in mobile data use between 2005 and 2007 among all age groups. In 2005, the majority of American survey respondents (over 70%) did not use mobile data services at all, while in 2007 this number dropped to around 22 per cent. The bulk of this use is texting and , mobile commerce being the least used type of mobile data service in the American markets. In the case of the U.S., the qualities that people value in terms of their handset are ease of use (simplicity) and good performance. When the U.S. team asked respondents what factors they consider important when buying a new phone, performance ranked the highest (75%), followed by simplicity (54%). Entertainment related features such as games functionality and music and video downloading capabilities were rated as the least important of all characteristics. This finding suggests that the American phone users are oriented to value and utility to a much greater extent than they are to services associated with enjoyment or killing time. On the contrary, simplicity in use played only marginal role among the Finnish respondents when talking about the importance of factors affecting the new mobile phone buying decision. Features related to handset appearance were found to dominate the buying decision at the expense of operational features: 65.5 per cent of the Finnish WMDSS respondents rated the weight and size of a handset as important or very important factor, which they will consider when buying a new mobile phone. More modern outlook was also found to be an important or very important factor (38.4%) together with touch-operated screen (36.8%) and new design (54.0%). Faster connectivity was valued as an important or very important feature of a new phone by 55.0 per cent and memory capacity by 43.6 per cent of the Finnish respondents. Among the American respondents, mobile phone is viewed as a tool that allows people to organize daily life more conveniently and that helps support relationships with family, friends and work. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, mobile data services were used mainly (27.2%) or exlusively (21.4%) for personal activities also among the Finnish respondents. However, this finding is in line with the Finnish respondents demographic profile as only little over one third of them were fulltime employed. Less than one sixth of the Finnish respondents held an academic degree but over one third were high school graduates. The gender division between Finnish respondents was almost equal between female and male respondents. Contacts: Dr Elizabeth Fife, WMDSS Coordinator for , Principal Researcher at CTM: Ideas, People and Knowledge for Networked Digital Industry, Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California, marshall.usc.edu, Dr Aihua Zhang, Associate Professor, Economics & Management School, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Mr Hung-Yeh Sun, Planning Engineer, FIND Research Center, Innovative Digitech-Enabled Applications & Services Institute (IDEAS), Institute for Information Industry, Mr Kari Halme, Senior Lecturer, Laurea Peer to Peer, Laurea University of Applied Sciences, 6 Kehittäjä

7 Meet Laurea Peer to Peer The new age learning environment Text: Maria Elomaa, Minna Mattila, Bojko Ivanov Logo: Bojko Ivanov Laurea University of Applied Sciences launched a new learning environment called Laurea Peer to Peer on two campuses in September 2008 (http:// Close to 100 learners, educators, and practitioners from the field of Business Studies were provided office-like facilities to cocreate innovative solutions in the spirit of mutual learning. Future learning environment can be used as product development platform as well as a recruitment tool. While the application of peer education to higher academic education is not completely novel, a comprehensive implementation of peer education following the Triple Helix principles is new. The students are expected to complete all their studies under joint-projects conducted together with relevant stakeholders such as companies of different sizes and orientations, public sector bodies, and international institutional partners. While peer in most institutions may refer only to other students, at Laurea it refers also to educators and practitioners in relation to students, who are often called younger colleagues. In many respect, Laurea Peer to Peer is a medium, through which learners, educators, and other stakeholders can establish a two-way relationship. Bridging the worlds of academia and industry has proved to lead towards productive partnerships providing real context bringing the knowledge alive. As the landscape of employment is changing, acquisition of the key competencies must begin early in the education life cycle. Laurea Peer to Peer students will follow a competence-based academic curriculum compiled with up-to-date readings. Furthermore, over the course of their studies, the students get familiar with the stateof-the-art technologies and become proficient in at least two foreign languages. Laurea Peer to Peer is designed to facilitate the intelligence transfer from one type to another for example from economic intelligence to social intelligence, which should be encouraged in order to achieve higher level of intelligence and meta-thinking. Furthermore, as a blended learning approach Laurea Peer to Peer offers a great potential for meeting both individual and organisational needs, and acquiring also non-critical competences for assisting students future employability. Learning style in Laurea Peer to Peer is a combination of head, heart, and hands following the so-called Venn diagramme depicting constituents of the TSL pedagogy. The positive tacit knowledge from practitioners as integral part of Laurea Peer to Peer context is expected to support the development of students leadership skills. In Laurea Peer to Peer the traditional way of structuring education, where students start with a generic study of basic skills and then continue towards intermediate and advanced level studies, has been replaced with a flexible model of conducting one s studies in the most feasible order in relation to learning in practitioner-oriented projects. While the more traditional approach has been found to be useful in developing rational and instrumental knowledge, it is not very useful in developing holistic understanding and knowledge of complex systems such as creativity and innovation. (Based on Mattila, M. Designing Immersion Programme, Final Thesis in Pedagogical Studies. Hämeenlinna Unpublished.) Kehittäjä 7

8 Extracts from the Laurea Peer to Peer students blogs Feels very nice so far. On Monday we went to Puhjonranta, which was the very first thing we did in this P2P. I guess the idea was to get to know each other and this whole system. We visited also Sampo Bank. The weather certainly wasn t on our side but it was a successful trip anyways. On Wednesday we got to see the places and got tons of new information too. We got all sorts of nice stuff such as laptops! The rest of the week went getting to know everybody and just being excited towards this new thing. Very nice first week indeed and I m looking forward challenges and doing things together with our team Laurea Peer to Peer student, Ms Emilia Papinoja After 13 years in working life, it s back to school for me. We re working on the project plans and trying to ideate them further. Can t complain about not having enough to do, when you have four projects running simultaneously. There s this consumer behaviour observation thing, survey study, working on websites and in one project I m the Project Manager. Together with a great team we gave a presentation in front of Laurea s Regional Advisory Board describing P2P with our own eyes, talked about our projects and feelings so far. Had an incredible excitement prior to the presentation but afterwards the vibs were simply the best!=) Laurea Peer to Peer student, Mr Milko Holmström This school feels challenging enough and I believe I will learn a lot more with this new method than I would in mainstream. Time will tell how studying feels let s say after a year or so. I don t recall that weeks in studying would have passed this fast ever before :) On Monday we met again our company collaborator and updated stuff. This week there s twice as much other things to do than last week because of reading books and language studies. On Wednesday we tested one game simulation. Quite an interesting system once you get. In the afternoon we analysed the data we collected during a project. Next week it s off to preparing a presentation. Laurea Peer to Peer student, Ms Anna Jaara Photo: Valtteri Iivanainen 8 Kehittäjä

9 Selected readings from Laurea Peer to Peer literature digest Richardson, W Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and Other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms Surowiecki, J The Wisdom of Crowds. Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few de Mello, A Awareness Parantainen, J Tuotteistaminen: rakenna palvelusta tuote 10 päivässä Heiskanen, E., Hyvönen, K. Repo, P. & Saastamoinen, M Käyttäjät tuotekehittäjinä. Teknologiakatsaus 216/2007. TEKES. Tubbs, S A Systems Approach to Small Group Interaction Csikszentmihalyi, M Good Business: Leadership, Flow, and the Making of Meaning Turban, E., King, D., McKay, J., Marshall, P., Lee, J. & Viehland, D Electronic Commerce. A Managerial Perspective Goldberg, N Writing Down the Bones. Freeing the Writer Within Ball, D., McCulloch, W., Geringer, M., Minor, M. & McNett, J International Business. The Challenge of Global Competition. Harvard Business Review on The Innovative Enterprise 2003 Malhotra, N Marketing Research. An Applied Orientation Different views on Laurea Peer to Peer In Laurea Peer to Peer, companies commit themselves in a long-term research and development projects together with the students and faculty members., Director, Dr Ari Palenius, says. According to his view, collaborating organisations will benefit from students new and creative ideas. Companies get a chance to know their potential future employees more deeply through project participation, which makes the actual recruitment easier and builds up the corporate image., he continues. A company gets fresh views and perspectives regarding their line of business through project collaboration. It is essential that there is a possibility to locate talented young people and provide them information on the company, for which they may start working for after finishing their studies., says Development Director, Mr Jukka Photo: Bojko Ivanov Ahtikari from Logica. Logica is one of the organisations involved in Laurea Peer to Peer collaboration. Commercial and industrial life wants to employ people who have gained working experience while studying. It goes without saying that working experience helps to get employed. In Laurea Peer to Peer, both students and companies have an opportunity to work together for the sake of this mutual interest., Director Mr Hannu Paju from the Employment and Economic Development Centre says. I hope that people in managerial positions would think of expanding this way of educating students even wider. It has been said that companies and higher education institutions should collaborate more closely. Laurea Peer to Peer is a good example of how to make this happen in practise. Kehittäjä 9

10 Shared expertise in practise Innovative Leadership as part of Master of Health Promotion Programme Text: Jorma Sonninen, Wise/Lead Oy The very first Master s Degree Programme in Health Promotion, Family Health Care, was launched in Laurea Otaniemi in autumn I describe in this article my role as a teacher in these studies. My purpose here is to share my ideas and experience in order to encourage other non-certified teachers to take up on the challenge of stepping outside their personal comfort zone. The class The course of Innovative Leadership (25 ECTS credits) belongs in the curriculum of Master s Degree Programme in Health Promotion curriculum. As I am an experienced, professional leadership consultant, I was asked to teach in this course. I guess Laurea was looking for an inspirational knowledge transfer between their long-term partner and students. Our company happens to be conveniently located in Well Life Center together with Laurea Otanniemi. The content of the course was described as 1) empowering leadership 2) innovations in health promotion 3) service innovations in business management 4) change as concept, change as a theory and process from the personal, organisational, and social perspectives, and 5) future-oriented tools for quality and leadership. Not an easy task to meet and master such a challenging content. However, that didn t stop me from embracing the given opportunity to teach for this class. The heterogeneous group of enrolled students consisted of 17 experienced health care experts from several countries representing a variety of cultural backgrounds. I found working with such a multicultural group intriguing and a definite learning experience for myself also. I was given a heads-up by the preceding teachers, who characterised this group as determined and capable of adopting new ways of thinking and doing. The learning process While working closely with many experts of Laurea, I have learned at least a bit about the concept of Learning by Developing (LbD). Laurea s operating model of LbD refers to learning that takes place in genuine projects that develop the world of work. My opinion is that LbD is the core of Laurea expertise and the key to the door between learning at school and learning at work. That door is all too often closed. With that belief in mind, I decided to challenge the group to learn by developing their own theories of innovative leadership. They were anxious to take up on this challenge and so we started the most interesting and rewarding learning process together. In fact, I would dare to call it a joint venture not only between the students and myself but also with two innovative organisations: Lyhty ry (http://www.lyhty.net/) and FysioSporttis Oy (http://www.fysiosporttis.fi/). The process had four stages: 1) examining the leadership and management theories, 2) planning the visit (shadowing) to target organisations, 3) shadowing and discussions in target organisations and 4) reflection of learning. The main purpose was to build our own theory of innovative leadership and to test it in real life working environment provided by e.g. Lyhyt ry and FysioSporttis Oy without forgetting to reflect on one s personal learning. The idea of shadowing was especially interesting and challenging. Shadowing means here being in the working place like a shadow of the leader e.g. follow the top management representative during his or her work day and observe his or her leadership skills at work. Shadowing was chosen to be the methodological approach of our study. However, we were also prepared to conduct interviews. The group of students was divided into five subgroups: three groups went to study leadership in Lyhty and two groups in FysioSporttis. We were very warmly welcomed in both organisations. The management in both places was well-prepared for our visit as well as open and transparent in sharing the leadership practices of their organisations. The shadowing conducted by the students resulted in a very positive outcome. The openness of the participating organisations supported the students learning. The overall motivation of the students was clearly readable from their final reports. As far as I am concerned, this process of teaching a class applying Learning by Development method was a great learning experience to me, too. Now I know that leadership is more human than cultural phenomenon, I met lots of interesting people, and believe even more deeply in the wisdom embedded in LbD. I strongly recommend everybody who gets to teach for Laurea, to grasp the chance and to make most of it. Who knows, you might also learn something new about yourself in a process. The writer of this article is an entrepreneurs and professional leadership consultant, who was teaching Innovative Leadership course for Laurea as part of Master s Degree Programme in Health Promotion during academic year of Contact Information: Jorma Sonninen Senior Advisor, Partner WISE/LEAD OY Skype: jorma.sonninen 10 Kehittäjä

11 Multiculturalism at work place Text: Hilla-Maria Häkkinen Photo: Minna Mattila Multicultural work community is a work community where two or more different nationalities work together. These communities can be found everywhere and one just in front of us Laurea University of Applied Sciences. In 2007, 4.8 per cent of Laurea s instructors represented different nationalities than Finnish. Multicultural work community teaches us openness and tolerance. Employees from different nationalities bring in to the working day a flavour from their cultural background. Diversity in working life refers to different people with different backgrounds working together for the same goal. Multicultural staff may be an advantage for companies going global. The most commonly reported challenges as part of a multicultural work community have to do with language barriers and differences in working methods. With patience and open mind topped with a positive attitude these little hurdles of life can be overcome. In a work community where people are speaking several languages, everyone gets a chance to practice one s language skills. At its best, a multicultural work community can be a very rich and stimulating environment as well as a source of innovation. Psychologist Anita Rintala-Rasmus from the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health presented some of her research findings related to multiculturalism at work place in a seminar arranged by Laurea together with the Uusimaa Regional Council as part of a project called Roadmap to Contacts with Asia. She gave a presentation also in the 54th Työterveyspäivät (Annual Meeting of Occupational Health Experts) about the cultural encounter in recruitment. Her presentation slides are available online at fi/nr/rdonlyres/d246c e55-ba9f- 8A7D1E10415C/0/4RintalaRasmus.pdf. According to Rintala-Rasmus, over 60 per cent of the immigrants have experienced positive treatment as part of applying for a job. However, significantly more immigrants have negative experiences in job-hunting than their Finnish peers. The Estonian together with the Finnish job applicants felt to have become most often positively treated whereas the job seekers from the Horn of Africa and South from Sahara perceived most often negative treatment. Based on the experiences of the immigrants, the Finnish language skills were found to be the most effective factor in getting employed in Finland (source Programme) It was a real pleasure to meet Julia Nevmerzhitskaya and Paresh Rathod and to get to know them a little bit better. Julia s colleague Annica Isacsson and Paresh s colleague Anssi Mattila also kindly agreed to share their thoughts about a multicultural work community with us. Now, let s take a closer look at what these four professionals responded to my thought provoking questions related to perceptions on multiculturalism at work place. Kehittäjä 11

12 Julia is teaching in the Degree Programme in Business Management at Laurea Hyvinkää and in the Degree Programme in Tourism at Laurea Kerava. She teaches Marketing and Service Management among other subjects, participates in research and development projects, and supervises final theses. I got a feeling that she is really motivated to educate her students. It seemed to be a matter of honour to her to have a warm relationship with her students. She did talk a lot about them. Before she came to Finland four years ago, she was working in business over three years in her home country Russia. In her spare time, she concentrates on her doctoral studies and spends quality time with her little son. Annica is a Principal Lecturer at Laurea and responsible for the Degree Programme in Tourism. In past, she has worked with a multicultural group in Canada for five months and at Laurea her daily working environment became multicultural when the new itourism programme was launched in Annica s mother tongue is Swedish but at Laurea she works in Finnish and English. Julia: It is a tricky question how I find the Finnish working community because I ve been living in Finland for a long time but I think that it s quite different from Russian one. I think Finnish people are hard-working, committed, motivated and very professional. I started at Laurea as a Project Assistant. The whole idea of a project work was new to me. Also, the cooperative spirit was somehow new to me. I was quite young, so different work methods did not cause any shock for me as the whole environment change was one. Annica: The Degree Programme is my first experience of multiculturalism at Laurea. I have come across it in other campuses of Laurea but not before in Kerava or Järvenpää. Paresh: I find the Finnish work community to be very professional, disciplined, and appreciative. Obviously, as the Finnish culture is very quiet, you can imagine that also the professionals around me are little bit quiet in comparison to other countries. Anssi: I think that multiculturalism in Laurea is richness. Most of our students will face that as they enter the work life after the school. It can t be emphasized enough how important it is to offer to our students the possibility to communicate with people coming from all over the world. Those people will be their colleagues one day. Julia: I haven t experienced any negative things in Laurea because of my foreign background and neither have my friends from other nationalities. I m not sure how true or big of a problem this is in Finland for real. Annica: I think students have been very open and understanding towards teachers with foreign backgrounds. Everybody has shown genuine interest towards one another without any signs of hostility, belittlement or negative judgement. Paresh: No, not really, I haven t experienced negative things at work because of my foreign background but sometimes I find that the students are very quiet. That might be also partially due to the language barrier. Anssi: Sometimes I find it harder to interpret the facial expressions and body language combined to the spoken words coming from an International colleague of mine than the ones of a Finnish colleague. You can t always tell whether the nod of a head actually means yes or is it in fact a polite no. Julia: In Finland we are working together. We can ask help from the colleagues and get support and we are coordinating work together. Being cooperative is something that I have learnt here in Finland. The concept of being co-operative was difficult for me to follow at first because in Russia we work really independently and we are having staff meetings only once a week. They are mostly a formality rather than a mean to discuss problems and find solutions. Annica: I think Laurea s pedagogical model, Learning by Developing, is a challenge for everybody, especially to non- Finnish speakers. Paresh: Depending on the field and local culture, like in the UK, everything is strictly followed by written rules but here in Finland rules are more flexible. Managers and Directors allow employee to perform better with flexible rules. If I talk about IT field, there is no big difference between various countries. Everybody speaks the global language of business and work under the same global business culture. Anssi: I think the differences in working methods are more individual-related than nationality dependent.just like we have passengers for each car in a train, it s the same in this one. We all have our characteristics and different ways of working regardless of our nationality. J ulia: I would like to think that I have at least some special skills that appear in my work at Laurea. I do not think my skills are connected to my culture or nationality, though, but more related to my professional 12 Kehittäjä

13 experience. I did my pedagogical studies in teaching multicultural groups. We have really heterogeneous multicultural groups of students in Hyvinkää and Kerava campuses. In these groups the students are from different nationalities, cultures, age groups, and backgrounds. I think that I can learn a lot from them because they are really brilliant. Annica: I think the cultural richness as such is one of the best resources of a multicultural work community. Paresh: I have studied in the UK and India. In fact, I have professional qualifications also from the U.S. During my professional career, I have got an opportunity to work with some International research scientists and big names from my area of expertise. My father was working as a research scientist in the U.S. I have learned so many good things from all these International people. I have learned for example professional attitude, discipline, and dedication towards work. Those skills are really helpful to me also at my work in Laurea. Anssi: I think that a multicultural work community can be a very fertile ground for co-operation. Julia: I think I can certainly change the working atmosphere. People are polite and they start speaking in English when I arrive, so I m giving them a chance to speak English. I believe that in many cases I can understand the International students very well because I know how stressful the first year in Finland can be coming from outside and hopefully I can help them to manage here in Finland. Annica: I think that International employees and students can bring joy and cultural richness to Laurea. Paresh: There are many things that I have learned from different countries and people.i m trained, certified, and experienced IT professional. I have skills to train people and to practice my own skills in real life projects. These things I can offer to Finnish work community and this is just a beginning. If proper time and opportunity is given to me, I have potential to contribute many things to Finland. I feel that right now I m able to practice 30 per cent of my skills and still 70 per cent is unused in me. Now, you can imagine what I can contribute to Finnish work community. Anssi: The International people at Laurea can be a gateway or a connecting point to another network of professionally interesting people. The most obvious effect is that they bring something different and interesting to our normal working day. Their background regarding for example education, culture, experience in general can be so different from ours that it can create a very fertile ground for co-operation. Come and meet Julia, and all the rest of Laurea s multicultural bunch at Laurea Kerava, Keuda-building, in an International Event of You, Me and Us: Fancy a Boost? on the 17th of December starting at 2 pm. Paresh is a Lecturer in Computing, IT, Business Information Technology, and Service Innovation at Laurea Leppävaara. Paresh is also working on the R&D projects. He came to Finland in February Prior to his moving to Finland, he worked in many different countries and with different kind of people. In his home country, India, he worked as a Software Developer and Lecturer at a University. He got an opportunity to work in the UK, the U.S., and with some European clients. Over five year period of time, he visited Germany, Singapore and Thailand in work-related matters. He settled down in the UK with his wife and child some three years ago, when he got to work for one of the world s largest IT companies Hewlett-Packard (HP). In his leisure time, he has learned how to swim. He also likes to spend time with his friends and colleagues outside the office hours. Anssi is a Principal Lecturer at Laurea where he teaches in Information Security and also works on the research and development projects. He has had research and teaching related shortterm adjunct faculty positions e.g. in the U.S. His response to the question related to the length of having been exposed to a multicultural work environment, was: Actually my whole working life. At one time, working in a multicultural work community meant interacting with one person from Far East. Ever since I ve been surrounded by several people from different countries all the time - from the days I was a student. Kehittäjä 13

14 Building knowledge transfer gateways How can HEI s international networking benefit local stakeholders? Text: Sari Sarlio-Siintola, Minna Mattila, Raisa Saviaho, Katri Ojasalo, Maria Elomaa Global knowledge sharing facilitates the emergence of research-driven clusters which promotes regional development. Cities and regions can become globally competitive through super-clustering with both developed and developing innovation clusters around the world. The European Commission has defined regional research-driven clusters as concentrations of research entities, enterprises, regional/local authorities, and local entities operating in a particular scientific and technological domain or economic sector. The Regions of Knowledge activity responds to a need to increase the overall capacity of regional players to enhance science and technology NATIONAL ENTERPRISE OR OTHER PARTNER LOCAL/ REGIONAL PRIVATE SECTOR INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE PARTNER KTG KTG INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH ENTITY PARTNER KTG RESEARCH ENTITY S INTERNATIONAL NETWORK CLUSTERS SUPER TOWARDS RESEARCH ENTITY S NATIONAL NETWORK PLATFORM INNOVATION VIA Students RESEARCH ENTITY INCL. HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION CLUSTERS FROM for economic development of all European Regions. It is becoming widely acknowledged that all regions do not need to possess all different dimensions of knowledge and expertise but can benefit from knowledge sharing and super-clustering. Trans-national knowledge transfer gateways sustained by higher education institutions such as Laurea University of Applied OTHER INTERNATIONAL ACTOR AS PARTNER KTG KTG NATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL PARTNER LOCAL/ REGIONAL PUBLIC SECTOR BOTTOM-UP CONE OF KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER (KTG = KNOWLEDGE TRANSGER GATEWAY) Sciences provide local and regional stakeholders an access to the international networks of knowledge and expertise. A peer evaluation of regional dynamics helps to identify which dimensions (i.e. social capital versus technological inventions) are more transferable from region to region than others. Different regions have used different methods to improve links between stakeholders, foster trans-national knowledge co-creation, enhance mutual learning of regional actors and exchange experience and best practices. Laurea is extensively networked not only on a local and national level but also on an international level with higher education institutions, companies, and other organisations. Networking is a feasible way for a higher education institution to distribute and further cultivate the internationally available information for the benefit of the regional actors. Laurea has a network of around 180 international cooperation partners around the world, of which approximately 130 are Erasmus partners (see for example Virtual Mobility Before and After Student Exchanges, Laurea network of collaborators include for example the Centre for Entrepreneurial Learning from the University of Cambridge, Tohoku Fukushi University from Japan, Sophia Antipolis Fondation from France, IC2 Institute at the University of Texas, and actors from Leuven Region such as EuroPACE non-profit association fostering networked e-learning (http:// 14 Kehittäjä

15 Service Innovation Design The rising demand for service innovation has significant implications for competences and knowledge needed. Understanding of service value and ability to rapidly create a repeatable, scalable, and unique market success, has become a necessity. By means of international networking, Laurea can provide more profound answers to questions like how can service innovation be stimulated, realised, and sustained. Laurea is for example a member in the international Service Design Network (http://www.service-design-network.org/), which was established by Köln International School of Design, Carnegie Mellon University USA, University of Linköping, Domus Academy Milan and the agency Spirit of Creation. Furthermore, Laurea is one of the founding members of the Nordic Service Design Network, which consists of five universities from four Nordic countries. At the end of January 2009, Laurea will host its second international Service Innovation & Design seminar at Laurea Leppävaara. What ENoLL has to offer? Laurea has been a member of the European Network of Living Labs (ENoLL) since Network is growing fast and has currently over 50 members from all over Europe. ENoLL defines Living Lab as a new concept for R&D and innovation to boost the Lisbon strategy for jobs and growth in Europe. Living Labs are categorized by human-centric involvement and their potential for development of new ICT-based services and products. Living Labs bring together different stakeholders in a co-creative way. (http:// Laurea s operating model Learning by Developing (LbD) enables an authentic, human-driven product and service development where students collaborate sideby-side with the end-users. Development Manager, Ms Sari Sarlio-Siintola, a participant in the Laurea Living Lab, talks in the CORDIS News about her expectations regarding ENoLL collaboration. First, this is a way of learning best practices concerning methods, tools and business models of living labs. she says. Secondly, it is an opportunity to find partners and perhaps even more importantly, to gain access to a variety of EU-level user communities., she continues. Thirdly, ENoLL is one optional gateway for Laurea s national partnering companies to make their presence felt in the European markets. Locate partners and project opportunities through BSN Baltic Sea Network (BSN) serves as a great help when planning new projects and finding the right partners for them. The network also offers information and support for obtaining project funding. So-called Partner Days are organised once a year in order to facilitate information exchange and networking. Together with other higher education institutions, regional development organisations and other members, Laurea is committed to develop the Baltic Sea Region in accordance with the EU policies as part of its activities in this network. (http:// BSN promotes international co-operation on projects between higher education institutions and other partners. Students may take an active part in these projects, which, in accordance with national regional development strategies, mainly focus on the following areas: Welfare, Business Skills and Management, Tourism as well as Information and Communication Technology, always taking sustainable development into account. One of the most successful forms of BSN cooperation is the intensive course Promoting Intercultural Management Competencies in the Baltic Sea Region (PIM). For further information, please contact Principal Lecturer, Dr Katri Ojasalo, (Service Innovation Design) Development Manager, Ms Sari Sarlio-Siintola, (ENoLL) Director, International Affairs, Ms Arja Majakulma, (BSN) Photo: Minna Mattila Kehittäjä 15

16 The effect of User s Informational-Based Readiness on innovation acceptance Edited by: Minna Mattila This study implements the UIBR components as a tool to evaluate the marketing strategy of a firm, and to evaluate customer s readiness to accept new services. The authors - Minna being a dyed-in-the-wool Finnish and Ali a Yemeni entrepreneur with an academic career in Malaysia share the common language of research regardless of the cultural differences and time zones separating them. Faculty of Business and Accountancy in January 2008, University of Malaya. Photo: Minna Mattila. Why study User s Informational-Based Readiness? User or customer informational-based readiness (UIBR) refers to person s propensity to embrace and use new technologies of banking over the Internet to accomplish their banking needs. The new UIBR construct developed in this study involves four dimensions of awareness, knowledge, experience, and exposure that are proposed to influence the potential adopters intention to adopt Internet Banking (IB). This study develops a new construct to understand the potential adopters informational readiness. Studying the UIBR attributes on the attitude and behavioural intention of potential adopters helps to develop better IB services to enhance the adoption of current non-users. Therefore, the user s readiness for IB is a proposed construct, developed to undertake the informational aspects related to the user s behavioural intention that may affect the adopters decision to accept or reject the introduced innovation. Conclusions The results strengthen the study s argument that the four UIBR dimensions significantly affect person s intention and attitude towards IB use. The practical implications of this study related to the adoption of innovation in the context of developing countries are threefold. First, the four UIBR dimensions are a concrete set of factors that policy makers and bank managers must concern themselves with to facilitate customer IB adoption and increase the adoption rate for IB. Furthermore, it suggests that policy makers, bank managers and practitioners should pay particular attention to maximising those UIBR attributes, which are empirically proven to contribute to customer attitudes and enhancing people s intention using IB. Second, the four UIBR dimensions are a helpful segmentation tool that assists in categorising customers. Third, the study s implications for the managerial understanding could be addressed by extending the use of the four components of UIBR as a tool to evaluate to what extent the marketing strategy is effective. In other words, marketing can use the four informational readiness components to evaluate to what extent consumers are ready to accept the products or the services introduced. We would like to suggest the application of the proposed construct to different innovations as well as to examine to what extent the four UIBR dimensions can be used as a helpful segmentation tool to assist in categorising customers. Based on Zolait, A. & Mattila, M. & Sulaiman, A. (2009) The effect of user s informational-based readiness on innovation acceptance, Forthcoming in International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 27, Issue 1. Partially based on also on Lee, C-P. & Mattila, M. & Shim, J-P. An Exploratory Study of Mobile Banking Systems Resistance in Korea and Finland, Proceedings of Americas Conference on Information Systems AMCIS 2007, August 9-12, Keystone, the U.S.. Refereed. 16 Kehittäjä

17 InnoHub targets the generation of breakthrough innovations for products and services in the field of well-being, health care and life-style. Its activities will start in autumn 2008 at the Well Life Center in the city of Espoo, Finland. (Text adapted from vtt.fi/uutta/2008/ _philips-vtt-innohub. jsp?lang=en) Philips and VTT Technical Research Centre in co-operation with Well Life Center Text: Jaakko Puuronen, Hilla-Maria Häkkinen Philips Applied Technologies and VTT have signed a letter of intent on establishing an InnoHub in the city of Espoo. Both partners will have an equal role in the cooperation. A third party to the agreement is Well Life Center Ltd providing the premises for InnoHub operations. Well Life Center Ltd is a non-profit company set up to boost service innovation development in the well-being sector. The founding partners of Well Life Center Ltd from spring 2008 are Laurea University of Applied Sciences, City of Espoo, Helsinki University of Technology, and Bonavita Ltd. The company focus is threefold. First, it manages the properties to host well-being sector s services and technology companies, R&D units and municipality offices. The aim is to create an environment to enable cross-fertilisation of different expertise - the key element of innovation creation. Secondly, it runs R&D programs to develop new service innovations and to study the effectiveness of the services. Thirdly, it supports new businesses with management skills and financial arrangements. Well Live Center provides premises for InnoHub in the city of Espoo. There are already several companies working in the field of research, development and education in the Center. Center s Living Lab concept is a substantial asset to InnoHub. It offers an easy and fast way for piloting in a real environment and connecting the end-users already to the development phase, says Olli Nuuttila, CEO of Well Life Center Ltd. For companies, InnoHub will be a one-stopservice point: from creating a technology concept to elaborating design, and piloting and testing in an open innovation environment. Companies are welcome to benefit from InnoHub by becoming members and paying a yearly contribution to obtain services. Companies can also benefit by commissioning ad-hoc projects. When working with Philips and VTT both having enormous background in technology we can offer any state of technology you would want to include in your product says Rob Kommeren, Innovation Consultant in the Inno- Hub at Espoo. Kommeren continues that there are many professionals working behind the InnoHub. Co-operation between people with various backgrounds combined to short-cyclic fashion approach makes InnoHub an efficient and unique way to collaborate, Kommeren elaborates. The role of Well Life Center in the InnoHub collaboration is at least two-folded. Not only does it provide the physical environment of operation for the InnoHub but also its projects and contacts are available for Inno- Hub s purposes of use. The very first Inno- Hub was established in Singapore at In 2008 Philips decided to broaden the Inno- Hub concept to Espoo Finland, which Kommeren calls as one of the areas of recognised innovation hotspots in the world. The forthcoming InnoHub facilities in Well Life Center consist of two separate spaces one for home simulator and one for health simulator. These two partially simulated working environments provide grounds for workers global interactivity and knowledge co-creation. InnoHub s physical surroundings are expected to be finalised by the end of year Sources: Rob Kommeren Olli Nuuttila Innohub.jsp?lang=en For further information: Rob Kommeren Innovation Consultant, Industry Consulting, Philips Applied Technologies Process Improvement Manager - Digital Systems & Technology Tel: , Fax: Mobile: , Mobex index.htm jspx?cid=94875 Olli Nuuttila CEO, Well Life Center Ltd Mobile: Kehittäjä 17

18 Renderfarm.fi Leveling the table for 3D artists Rendering is very computing intensive, and maintaining powerful computer clusters is expensive. Now a Danish innovation, which is based on open source technologies originating from the U.S. and the Netherlands, could offer a unique and very cost-effective solution to this problem for Finnish universities and companies. This technology is being imported to Finland by a international technology transfer project lead by Laurea University of Applied Sciences. Text: Julius Tuomisto Digitalisation has revolutionised the entertainment industry over the last 30 years. Technology has made the creation of high quality movies, animations, and special effects possible with lower budgets than ever before. In fact, one could argue that for the very first time in history, almost anybody with sufficient artistic vision, skill, and time could create a movie fit for theater screening. In short, rendering is the process of generating 3D images and movies on computers. Anybody can participate! Just go to Renderfarm.fi and follow a set of simple instructions. Through a project called Open Rendering Environment (ORE), Laurea University of Applied Sciences as a lead partner together with its main co-operating and partially funding partners Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation Tekes, Otaverkko Ltd, Star Wreck Studios Ltd and the Finnish Centre for Open Source Solutions COSS, is helping the technology to reach the next level in a form of Renderfarm.fi. The fundamental goal of Big and Ugly Rendering Project (BURP, is to give artists and enthusiasts equal access to the computing power to create scenes and animations that might otherwise take an obscene long time to render on a single computer. By dividing the work among hundreds of computers, an animation that might take months to render in CPU time, can be completed in just a few days. Right from the start, Star Wreck Studios Ltd located in the city of Tampere, has been very supportive towards ORE project. The company s own product Wreckamovie.com an online community for the communal advancement of film projects recently won the highly sought-after Mindtrek 2008 Grand Prix prize. While ORE was still in its infancies, LaureaSID Labs was already developing in collaboration with the Star Wreck Studios their innovation the Wreckamovies.com as part of Laurea s curricular activities. Company CTO Lare Lekman says: We are thrilled about the cooperation with Laurea, and excited about the unused potential and new possibilities ORE enables for collaborative filmmaking. The philosophy and technology of ORE/BURP offers a perfect match and support to Wreckamovie.com s role as the world s leading collaborative filmmaking environment. The wide spread use of Computer-Generated Imagery (CGI) has meant that audience expectations together with the production costs are continually rising. As a conclusion it is safe to say that although the advancement of digital technology has bridged many gaps, it has also introduced new ones. Computer clusters, also commonly called render farms by computer graphics specialists, are often used in creating advanced computer-generated imagery. As the name suggests, a computer cluster is made up of any number of individual computers running in parallel. In the nineties, clusters became a viable alternative to running dedicated supercomputers for a host of tasks requiring loads of computing power. This happened partly because of developments in grid computing and plummeting costs of individual PC s. Although the trend described earlier in this article has made it possible to create hugely advanced graphics, access to large render 18 Kehittäjä

19 farms remains a luxury for most productions. The costs of running a render farm, although often lower than running a dedicated super computer, remain relatively high. This has meant that productions running on a lower budget have been far stretched to compete with the visuals that Hollywood movies boast, often forcing artistic compromise. Times are changing, though. The introduction of openly licensed programs and technologies such as Blender and Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC), has made projects like Big and Ugly Rendering Project (BURP) possible. BURP, created by Danish national Janus Kristensen, could be described as the most widely distributed technology in the world if not even only for doing something that Kristensen himself dubs as publicly distributed rendering. The idea of using spare processing cycles of computers around the world to do distributed rendering, had been previously presented by such distributed computing lead figures as BOINC manager David Anderson. Kristensen s consistent efforts over the past four years crystallised this idea into what is BURP today. Renderfarm. fi makes it possible for companies, educational institutions, and individual volunteers to pool their excess computing power together for enabling aspiring 3D artists to create better visuals. By using BOINC s built-in crediting system, Renderfarm.fi requires that users give before they can take. Users that have participated in rendering other people s pictures and animations will benefit from hugely decreased render times when they want or need to. The service also protects the rights of all parties by applying the Creative Commons and a simple matchmaking system, which allows users to choose what kind of projects they want to participate in. Renderfarm.fi will provide its volunteer users a screen saver programme that automatically displays recent graphics created with the help of the service. In fact, the service is expected to attract individual volunteers even if they are not themselves Blender users. Blender was a natural choice for BURP when choosing a 3D modeling programme to support. It is not only popular but also available as an open source solution. The ORE project also aims to support the adoption of the modeling programme by Finnish companies and educational institutions. This work will be mostly conducted by hosting free seminars and distributing free online video tutorials for Blender in Finnish. Whereas traditional choices for 3D modeling software can cost thousands of Euros per license, Blender is being offered free of charge. Harnessing the power of volunteers computers from Finland and all around the world, BURP together with Renderfarm.fi is a rare exception among BOINC projects as no lengthy analysis or scientific knowhow is needed in order to produce the images and movie clips with their assistance. While the project carries on, we are always looking for new partners from Finland and abroad. Whether your company uses or has been thinking of using 3D modeling, or you represent an educational or research institution, do not hesitate to contact us. Renderfarm.fi could be thought of a possible model for the future of public and commercial use of publicly distributed rendering. Through it, anybody can participate in the making of 3D pictures and animations by simply running a screen saver on their computer. The writer is a volunteer computing enthusiast and Project Manager for ORE For more information, contact: Julius Tuomisto, Project manager (ORE) LaureaSID Labs, Vanha maantie 9, Espoo tel , . ORE logo by Lassi Haaranen Ortho by Antti Varila Kehittäjä 19

20 Universities: spaces and places for interaction HEIs play a vital role in the development of towns, cities and regional economies. They are places for knowledge exchange both within the student and research communities, but also between these groups and the wider community and business. Laurea University of Applied Sciences is a member of IMHE, the OECD Forum on Higher Education. Text: Alastair Blyth, Policy Analyst, OECD Recent studies by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education (IMHE) into the role of higher education in local and regional economies shows the importance of higher education institutions (HEIs) in terms of knowledge creation and exchange, underpinning innovation through research and contributing to the development of skills in the local economies. Universities can also play an important role in regenerating urban areas by creating a focus for activity. The physical environment has an important role to play by creating the places where all this activity can occur. Articulation of spaces within universities Whilst one may have a conceptual idea of what a university is, physically it is not always so easy to define one. In some cases they are neatly arranged in a campus with very clearly defined boundaries, in others they are not. In many large cities their buildings can be spread across the city and so the city becomes the university s campus. There are a variety of settings in which the exchange of knowledge occurs within the university as well as outside with industry in terms of research and innovation, and the wider community in terms of training or facilitating public discourse. These range from teaching and learning settings, research and work settings to the social settings where informal interactions lead to knowledge exchange. However, creating places where this exchange can happen is made difficult since the university only has control over some of these places. So it has to find ways enabling the interactions between its own physical spaces and the community owned, public spaces. This raises questions about how far to let the public into what is essentially private space, that is the university s own buildings, and how to integrate the space at its boundary with the public space. It has to find ways of influencing how the public spaces are used. Indeed universities are often looking for ways in which they can invite the public in to see what they do. For example, the University of Newcastle, a leading research centre for genetic research has developed buildings into which the public are invited to learn about the research but also use the facilities. Education and research is continuously changing, whether it is because of growing or diminishing student numbers, student expectations and lifestyle, new technologies, approaches to teaching and research or government policies on reform. Such change impacts on pedagogy, organisational structure, relationships with external organisation and the community. However, the buildings tend to be fixed, it is difficult to move them, yet somehow they need to be supportive of such dynamic organisations. It is possible to identify three broad types of spatial response each with inherent constraints on its use. The issue then is to identify how much of the different types of spaces are needed to meet the varying needs of the institution. Generic teaching and gener- 20 Kehittäjä

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