EURACADEMY OBSERVATORY

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1 EURACADEMY OBSERVATORY A EUROPEAN OBSERVATORY OF THE USE OF ICT-SUPPORTED LIFELONG LEARNING BY SMEs, MICRO-ENTERPRISES AND THE SELF-EMPLOYED IN RURAL AREAS The Demand for ICT-supported Training - Surveys on the Training Recipients and the Control Group (WP3.2) Country report, Finland Anne Matilainen, Pia Kattelus University of Helsinki, Ruralia Institute 2007

2 Content 1. Introduction Methodology The profile of the respondents Problems in the conducting the surveys Results Training Recipients Information about Training Methods of Training Delivery Motivation for Participating in the Training Control Group The sub group that have received continuing training in the past The sub group that have not received continuing training in the past Views on IT-supported continuing vocational training Comparison of recipients of ICT-supported training and the control group Information on the training Motivation for Participating in the Training Respondents View Conclusions References List of Tables List of Appendices...27 Appendix 1. The national questionnaire for the training recipients...28 Appendix 2. The national questionnaire for the control group...34 Appendix 3. The questionnaire of the Training needs of SMEs in Southern Ostrobotnia region survey

3 1. Introduction Current European policies for establishing a highly competitive knowledge-based economy by 2010 (Lisbon treaty) have set a target for 2010 of at least 12,5% average level of participation in lifelong learning among the citizens of the EU-25. To reach the 2010 targets, according to the EU Joint Employment Report 2003/2004, significant policy reforms may be required to ensure access to lifelong learning opportunities for all. ICT can play a significant role in this reform, given the advent of the Information Society, thus redressing through e-learning the skills divide between different EU countries and between rural and urban areas that reflects to a certain extent the digital divide. The aim of this report is to present the results of two surveys that will map out the demand and constraints of ICT supported training in rural areas. The objective of the surveys was to collect information on experiences, attitudes and training needs from rural people participated to ICT-supported training and as well from people that have not participated to this kind of training. The aim of the first survey was to collect information from a sample of recipients of ICTsupported continuing VET, in the context of lifelong learning. The special focus is on employees of SMEs and micro-enterprises or self-employed persons in rural areas, as well as the unemployed who aspire in getting a job in the private sector. The information collected was used to build the profile of trainees using ICT regarding their socioeconomic characteristics, their aspirations and the contribution of this form of learning in their employment career and personal development. These recipients of ICT-supported training can be seen to represent the expressed demand for this type of learning. The second survey was targeted to the control group of people with similar socioeconomic characteristics, working in rural SMEs or seeking work in rural areas, who have not received ICT-supported continuing VET. The aim of this survey was to establish the characteristics of the latent demand for learning and investigate constraints of ICTsupported training, such as accessibility to ICT, access to lifelong learning, attitudes and culture. The surveys of the use of ICT-supported lifelong learning by SMEs, micro-enterprisers and the self-employdes in rural areas are part of the Euracademy Observatory project. The project aims to build systematic documentation, Observatory, on the use of ICTsupported learning, including blended learning, by employees of SMEs and microenterprises in rural Europe, in the context of life-long learning, leading to formal qualifications or even to non-validated skills acquisition or personal development. Such documentation will be collected within the project in the seven participating countries (Finland, Greece, Hungary, United Kingdom, Germany, Spain and Poland) and will be repeated at regular intervals to update and enrich information. The information collected from these two surveys will build the demand section of the Observatory, and will supply the basic material for the user statistics and the related databank in the Internet (www.euracademy-observatory.org). In addition to the demand section the Observatory also maps out the provision section i.e. collect information from training providers in the participating countries and beyond, regarding the provision of ICT-supported lifelong learning. The results of this survey are presented in the WP3.1 report: Survey for training providers. 3

4 All the national reports will be summarised to the transnational reports including transnational comparisons. The results of the Observatory will be published electronically and will be available to training organisations, social partners and policy makers, to inform policy and practice. The Euracademy Observatory-project is funded by the Leonardo da Vince programme. 2. Methodology The survey design was planned to utilise two separate samples, one consisting of recipients (past or present) of ICT-supported lifelong learning (with emphasis on continuing VET) and one of non-users of this type of learning, as a control group. The aim of using these two separate types of survey samples is to get an insight both into the expressed and latent demand for ICT-supported learning, amongst the targeted groups of respondents. In Finland the sample for the training recipient survey was collected by using the previous WP3.1. survey. Number of training organisations, that took part to the training provider survey, were asked to distribute the training recipient survey among their students, that fitted in to the target groups of the survey. Within the partnership a jointly designed e-questionnaire was translated and used for the survey. Together approx. 40 training organisations were asked to distribute the questionnaire in spring responses were got back electronically, of which 51 were eligible for the training recipient sample. The control group was approached in several different ways to guarantee the adequate and relevant sample. As one main method was used phone interviews that were conducted as part of regional Training needs of SMEs in Southern Ostrobotnia region survey. The most important parts of Observatory survey were added to this survey and the responses were collected by using structured phone interview questionnaire. The phone survey was conducted by Seinäjoki Polytechnic, Market Research unit in Spring The sample was selected randomly from the SMEs in Southern Ostrobothnia region. Together 500 companies were interviewed in the survey. However to guarantee the relevancy of the interviewed companies as the target group of Observatory survey (micro enterprises and self employed), only the companies employing less than 10 persons were selected for the control group survey. According to European Union s division all Southern Ostrobothnian companies are located in rural area. Total 435 interviews and companies were accepted for the control group survey. In addition to the co-operation with the Training needs of SMEs in Southern Ostrobotnia region survey, the control group survey was sent out electronically to approx 250 rural tourism companies and nature-based entrepreneurs. Also couple of training providers not offering ICT-supported training was approached and they were asked to distribute the questionnaire to their students. By 31 th of May responses were got back, from which 31 were eligible for this part of the control group. 4

5 2.1. The profile of the respondents Training recipients Total 66 responses were got back for the training recipient survey. Of these 83,3% had took part earlier to continuous education or training and 77,3,0% had took part to the ICT-supported training. In this report only those respondents, who had took part to ICT supported training were accepted as part of the training recipient group. Roughly two thirds (68%) of the respondents were women and one third (32%) were men. More than two third (70,0%) of the respondents had higher technical education or university education and typically they lived in cities ( inhabitants) or small cities ( inhabitants). A half (50,0%) of the training recipients were employees of different size of companies. 27,3% were entrepreneurs. (Table 1.). Control group 46,7 % of the 435 companies interviewed in context of Training needs of SMEs in Southern Ostrobotnia region survey were one-man companies, 43,0 % employed from 2 to 5 people (including the entrepreneur) and 10,3 % employed from 6 to 9 persons (including the entrepreneur). The personnel of 57,0 % of the interviewed companies (total 435) had not received any continuing education within the last year. 85,5% of those that had took part to continuing education took part to the training that had lasted one month or less. 87,6 % of the interviewed companies mentioned that their personnel had not took part to ICT-supported training. In this report from now on only the responses of those 381 companies are presented as part of the control group. The personnel of 60,6 % of these companies had not received any continuing education or training within the last year, 38,8 % of the respondents mentioned that their personnel has took part to the continuing education or training within the last year and 0,5 % mentioned that they do not have the knowledge, whether their personnel have took part to training or not. 54,4 % of the respondents from the e-survey for the control group had not took part to the ICT-supported training earlier. In this report those only those responses are presented as part of the control group. The respondents of the control group from the phone interviews were mainly the entrepreneurs or the owners of the company (95,8%). The rest 4,2% were other personnel like the second owner i.e. the family member of the entrepreneur or office staff. 71,7% of the respondents were men and 28,3 % were women. The most of them were years old and had professional secondary level of higher education. (Table 1). The e-survey control group was also formed mostly from entrepreneurs. However, in this group the most of the respondents were women, when in the control group from phone interviews, the respondents mostly were men (table 1). 5

6 Training recipients (n=51) Control Group from the Training needs of SMEs in Southern Ostrobotnia region survey (n=381) Age class up to 35 years 20,0% 15,3% 19,4% years 78,0 82,3% 71,0% over 65 years 2% 2,4% 9,7% Education background No school degree 0% 0 % 0 % Completed compulsory education 16,0% 20,6 % 3,4% Received secondary (post-compulsory) school 16,0% 50,1 % 34,5 % or technical college Received higher technical education 40,0% 16,5 % 34,5 % Received university education 30,0% 12,7 % 27,6 % Place of residence Village up to residents 10,4% -- 53,3 % Town from to residents 25,0% -- 33,3 % Small City from to residents 39,6% -- 10,0 % City more than residents 25,0% -- 3,3 % Internet connection at home Dial-up (PSDN, slow) 4,1% 6,5 % ISDN (a little faster than dial up) 2,0% 0 % Broadband (ADSL, fast) 83,7% 93,5 % No Internet connection at all 10,2% 0 % Internet connection at work Dial-up (PSDN, slow) 2,5% 5,8 % 4,0 % ISDN (a little faster than dial up) 2,5% 0,3 % 0 % Broadband (ADSL, fast) 92,5% 74,8 % 96,0 % No Internet connection at all 2,5% 15,2 % 0% I do not know -- 3,9 % -- Work Status (a) Employee of a micro-enterprise (up to 10 staff) 11,4% 52,2% 3,3 % (b) Employee of a small enterprise (11-50 staff) 4,5% 0 % (c) Employee of a medium enterprise ( staff) 34,1% 13,3 % (d) Self-employed, entrepreneur 27,3% 47,8% 60 % (e) Unemployed 4,5% 6,7 % (f) other 18,2% (students, employees in the big companies (more than 250 staff) Control group from e-survey (n=31) 16,7 % Table 1. The respondents profile in training recipient group, phone interviewed control group and the control group of e-survey. 6

7 2.2. Problems in the conducting the surveys The response rate of the e-surveys was relatively low, even though the training providers agreed on the co-operation in distributing the surveys. The questionnaires were maybe a bit too complex and difficult to comprehend. Also some of the questions or alternatives were not relevant in the national context. In addition the topic, ICT-supported training, seemed to be a bit difficult for the respondents, especially in the control group, even though it was explained in the cover letter of the survey. Almost a half of the respondents of e-survey for the control group stated that they have taken part to the ICTsupported training. This indicates that the right respondent group was not quite succeeded to reach by the used training providers. Also maybe e-survey is not the best method to reach the control group of this survey. The co-operation with the regional training needs survey proved to be very efficient way to collect the data. However, the fact that the control group questions of the joint transnational questionnaire were modified, after the phone interviews were started, caused some problems in interpreting the results and joining the two control group datas together, which was originally the intention. When comparing the training recipients and control group profiles, it can be said that the entrepreneurs are over presented in the control group when compared to the training recipients group, due to the approach methods of the control group. Also when the most of the control group is residents in villages, the training recipients live in small cities. However, when estimating the place of the residence it must be kept in mind that the e- survey for the control group was mainly sent out to rural tourism companies, which by nature are located in the rural areas in Finland. 3. Results 3.1. Training Recipients The training recipient group was not very large in numbers (n=51). This must be kept in mind when studying the results and making conclusions. All the respondents in the training recipient group had taken part into the ICT-supported training Information about Training The respondents were asked to give some details on their last ICT-supported training course. The most of the ICT-supported training the respondents have took part was related to business skills or ICT skills (table 2). The other topics mentioned were mostly related to some special substance of the respondents professional sector e.g. pedagogy and Russian language. Typically the training lasted longer than three months (table 3) Which of the following better % n describes the content of the latest training course you participated in Business Skills 40,0 % 20 IT Skills 18,0% 9 7

8 Technical Skills 10,0% 5 Other 32,0% 16 Total 100% 50 Table 2. The topics of the training courses the respondents have last participated. Please state the duration of the % n latest training you participated in Up to a month 8,0% 4 More than a month and up to two 2,0% 1 months More that two months and up to 4,0% 2 three months More than three months 86,0% 43 total 100,0% 50 Table 3. The duration of the last training course the respondents took part. The costs of ICT-supported trainings were covered by the respondents themselves, by their employers or they were fully subsidized. Lot of the courses were also compensated partly by the participants or their employers and partly by state or EU-funding sources. (Table 4) Who covered the cost of the % n training My employer all of it 25,5 % 13 Myself all of it 45,1% 23 Fully subsidized by Public funds 23,5% 12 Other 5,9% 3 Total 100% 51 Table 4. The funding sources of the training courses. Most of the respondents registered by themselves to the training course (table 5). In some cases also employment officers took care of the registration. Typically the respondents received nationally recognised certificate or the certificate from the training organisation, which was a part of a larger qualification (table 6) When studying these results it must be kept in mind that the most of the respondents took part to relatively long training courses. How were you registered in this % n training course I registered myself 84,3% 43 I was approached and registered 5,9% 3 by the training organisation I was registered by my employer 7,8% 4 Other 2,0% 1 Total 100% 51 Table 5. the registration methods to the training course. 8

9 What kind of Chosen Not chosen /Missing certificate/qualification did you receive at the end of the training Nationally recognised 35,3 % (n=18) 64,7% (n=33) certificate/qualification Internationally recognised 2,0% (n=1) 98,0% (n=50) certificate/qualification A certificate from the training 47,1% (n=24) 52,9% (n=27) organisation for successfully completing a course, which is a part of a larger qualification Just a certificate from the training 3,9 % (n=2) 96,1 % (n=49) organisation for completing the course No certificate at all 9,8 % (n=5) 90,2% (n=46) Table 6. The types of received certifications from the courses Methods of Training Delivery The training recipient group was also asked about the delivery methods of their last ICTsupported course. Typically the training took place either in the facilities of the training organisation responsible for the ICT-supported course or at home or both. Only very few respondents mentioned that the training took place in their workplace.(table 7). Where did most of the Chosen Not chosen/missing activities of this training take place At my workplace 7,8 % (n=4) 92,2% (n=47) In other facilities provided by 2,0% (n=1) 98,0% (n=50) my employer In the facilities provided by the 70,6% (n=36) 29,4% (n=15) training organisation At home 19,6% (n=10) 80,4% (n=41) At a communal space 11,8% (n=6) 88,2% (n=45) Other 6% (n=3) 9540% (n=48) Table 7. The location of ICT-supported training The most of the ICT-supported courses were conducted by using blended learning methods (table 8). Typical tools for the courses were especially Internet-based tools. Some learning environments like First Class, Oppinetti, Verkkosalkku were also mentioned by name. In some courses teleconferences implemented by Internet were used, but no one of the respondents mentioned teleconferences implemented by phone anymore. (Table 9) Can you describe your training % n course as Distance learning without a tutor 3,9% 2 Distance learning, tutor-assisted 2,0% 1 Blended learning 86,3% 44 Face to face learning aided by 7,8% 4 9

10 electronic material Total 100% 51 Table 8. the methods used in conducting the ICT-supported training courses. What means were used to provide IT-support to your training Internet-based E-learning platforms Web-sites Teleconferences Chat-rooms or discussion groups Electronic materials CD-ROMs, DVDs, Videos, audio tapes Telephone Telephone conferences (more than 2 participants) Telephone tutorials TV Special educational broadcasts Other % of the respondents chose this alternative 90,2% (n=46) 60,8% (n=31) 80,4% (n=41) 5,9% (n=3) 15,7% (n=8) 17,6% (n=9) 0,0 % (n=0) 11,8 % (n=6) 15,7% (n=8) 10,0% (n=5) Table 9. The tools used in ICT-supported training courses Motivation for Participating in the Training The most of the respondents stated that they expected the ICT-supported training course to give them a possibility to take forward their personal interests and development. one third of the respondents (19 out of 51) also mentioned that they expected the course to be useful in finding job and help them to continue in their present job. How did you expect to benefit from this training course, when you started It would allow me to get a job/continue with my present job Chosen as benefit by the respondents, n 19 I expected a promotion at 2 present job I expected a salary increase 2 It would enable me to apply for 10 a new/better job It would take forward my 37 personal interests/ development I did not expect the training to 2 be beneficial at all Table 10. The expected benefits from the ICT-supported training course. 10

11 The actual benefits were a bit different from the expected ones. However, most of the respondents felt that they had a change to take forward their own personal interests during the course. Also the training helped the respondents to get a job or apply a better one (table 11). Have you actually had any benefit from this training course It allowed me to get a job/continue with my present job I got promoted at present job I got a salary increase I applied for a new/better job I took forward my personal interests/development The training was not beneficial at all Other Chosen %, n 23,5% (n=12) 0% (n=0) 0% (n=0) 19,6% (n=10) 60,8% (n=31) 9,8% (n=5) 12,0% (n=6) Table 11. The gained benefits from the ICT-supported training course. Almost all (95,9%) of the respondents were willing to participate again to the vocational, ICT-supported training. Only 4,1 % stated that they are not likely to participate to ICTsupported training again. As the reasons there were mentioned that the training was not useful at all and there is a need to work for a while, before next training. However, these comments were not related directly to the training method, but to the continuous training in general. Most of the training recipients saw the ICT-supported training not too expensive. They also felt that they had enough knowledge on the ICT and good access to the needed technical equipment during the training. In general the respondents also felt that ICTsupported training is more motivating to them than traditional training and highlighted the flexibility of it. However, almost a half of the respondents (48,8%) felt that studying with IT support is more time-consuming than they expected (table 12). Regarding your experience of IT-supported Agree Disagree training, please state whether you agree or disagree with the following statements. The cost was too high 19,5 % (n=8) 80,5 % (n=33) I had good access to the technical equipment 95,7% (n=44) 4,3 % (n=2) needed for the course I had not enough computer knowledge and skills 7,0% (n=3) 93,0 % (n=40) for the course IT-tools made learning easier 88,1% (n=37) 11,9% (n=5) Studying with IT support is more time-consuming 48,8% (n=21) 51,2% (n=22) than I expected The training organisation had a good support 77,5% (n=31) 22,5% (n=9) system for the participants Using IT-tools in the training course saved time 77,5% (n=31) 22,5% (n=9) IT-supported training was more motivating for me 79,5% (n=35) 20,5% (n=9) than taking a traditional training course The most notable advantage of IT-supported training is the flexibility of training times 92,9% (n=39) 7,1% (n=3) Table 12. The opinion of the training recipients to the statements related to ICT-supported learning. 11

12 3.2. Control Group The control group was divided into two groups based on the respondent s previous experiences on the continuing training in general. This was done since the reasons for not participating to continuing training in general are often very complex and for this survey it was necessary to distinguish the role, potential and attitudes towards the ICT supported training more clearly. Neither sub control group had participated earlier to ICT-supported training. In the control group data collected with the Training needs of SMEs in Southern Ostrobotnia region survey, there were no statistical differences in the profiles of the two groups (table 13). Control group: Training needs of SMEs in Southern Ostrobotnia region survey People who have Received Training during the last year People who have not Received Training during the last year Sex Men 65,5 % (n=97) 76,2% (n=176) Women 34,5% (n=51) 23,8% (n=55) Age class up to 35 years 15,8 % (n=23) 15,2% (n=35) years 83,6% (n=122) 81,4% (n=188) over 65 years 0,7% (n=1) 3.5% (n=8) Education background No school degree 0 0 Completed compulsory education 13,9% (n=20) 25,1% (n=56) Received secondary (post-compulsory) school 50,0% (n=72) 50,2% (n=112) or technical college Received higher technical education 18,8% (n=27) 14,8% (n=33) Received university education 17,4% (n=25) 9,9% (n=22) Internet connection at work Dial-up (PSDN, slow) 5,4% (n=8) 6,1% (n=14) ISDN (a little faster than dial up 0,0% (n=0) 0,4% (n=1) Broadband (ADSL, fast) 78,0% (n=115) 72,7% (n=168) No Internet connection at all 14,2% (n=21) 16,0% (n=37) I do not know 2,7 % (n=4) 4,8% (n=11) Work Status (a) Employee of a micro-enterprise (up to 10 staff) 2,0% (n=2) 5,6% (n=13) (b) Employee of a small enterprise (11-50 staff) (c) Employee of a medium enterprise ( staff) (d) Self-employed, entrepreneur 98,0% (n=145) 94,4% (n=218) (e) Unemployed (f) other Table 13. The profiles of the sub control groups based on the respondents experience on the previous continuing training. Data from Training needs of SMEs in Southern Ostrobotnia region survey. In the Training needs of SMEs in Southern Ostrobotnia region survey the range of expressed potential training needs of the near future amongst the SMEs was wide and many expressed more than one topic. In this open question the method for delivering 12

13 training was not specified. In total 381 SMEs replied, and when roughly categorised, it seems that skills, that relate to business management are those most in need as there were 134 references to that type of topics; different types of IT skills needed 58 repliers; to the class of technical skills fell 24 replies and in addition there were 86 other needs expressed for potential training needs. 216 repliers stated that there were no training needs in their enterprises or they didn t know if there were any potential needs for training. In the category of Business skills, training relating to marketing and selling skills, customer services and managing customer relations and accounting were most sought after. Also needs for leadership and management training were expressed as well as training for team work, cooperation, interaction and development discussions. A few repliers thought the potential training needs to be about overall management of a business, taxation, change of ownership (e.g. to the next generation), legislation e.g. for the contracts, work time and salaries, human resources development in general, product development, international trade and such. Most references to the training needs of IT skills were for the basic use of IT. In more detailed replies the IT training needed was about learning to use certain programmes, actual programming, how to make web-pages, e-services and specific IT-solutions for industrial production. In connection to the Business skills IT training needs were expressed for accounting, sales and invoicing, storage and material management and cashier systems. To the category of Technical Skills were included training needs for e.g. economic driving, novelty functions in cars, special driving licenses, special skills for welding, permission for fire work, and like. As the replies were many times on very general level, it was not simple to say which training needs are actually technical and which could be categorised to Other. In the category Other are e.g. training needs for languages and all general references to different lines of business with normally just one reference. 61,3 % of the control group data collected by e-survey had taken part to the continuing education before. 38,7% did not have previous continuing training history. There were some differences in the profiles of these two groups, however, the sample size is too small to make too much generalisations. (Table 14). Nevertheless, there were significantly more women in the group that had taken part to the continuous training before. The difference was also statistically significant (p=0,027). This may indicate on women being more active in participating continuous training, but as mentioned, with small respondent groups like this it must be careful not to make too much generalisations. Control group from e-survey People who have Received Training earlier (n=19) People who have not Received Training earlier (n=12) Sex Men 26,3 % (n=5) 66,7 % (n=8) Women 73,7 % (n=14) 33,3 % (n=4) Age class up to 35 years 10,5 % (n=2) 33,3 % (n=4) years 78,9 % (n=15) 58,3 % (n=7) over 65 years 10,5 % (n=2) 8,3 % (n=1) Education background No school degree 0 % 0 % Completed compulsory education 5,9 % (n=1) 0 % 13

14 Received secondary (post-compulsory) school 17,6 % (n=2) 58,3 % (n=5) or technical college Received higher technical education 35,3 % (n=6) 33,3 % (n=4) Received university education 41,2 % (n=7) 8,3 % (n=1) Place of residence Village up to residents 55,6 % (n=10) 50,0% (n=6) Town from to residents 22,2 % (n=4) 50,0% (n=6) Small City from to residents 16,7 % (n=3) 0% City more than residents 5,6 % (n=1) 0% Internet connection at home Dial-up (PSDN, slow) 5,3 % (n=1) 8,3 % (n=1) ISDN (a little faster than dial up) 0% 0% Broadband (ADSL, fast) 94,7% (n=18) 91,7% (n=11) No Internet connection at all 0% 0% Internet connection at work Dial-up (PSDN, slow) 6,7 % (n=1) 0% ISDN (a little faster than dial up) 0% 0% Broadband (ADSL, fast) 93,3 % (n=14) 100% (n=10) No Internet connection at all 0% 0% I do not know 0% 0% Work Status (a) Employee of a micro-enterprise (up to 10 staff) (b) Employee of a small enterprise (11-50 staff) (c) Employee of a medium enterprise ( staff) 0 % 8,3 % (n=1) 0 % 0 % 16,7 % (n=3) 8,3 % (n=1) (d) Self-employed, entrepreneur 50,0 % (n=9) 75,0% (n=9) (e) Unemployed 11,1 % (n=2) 0% (f) other 22,2 % (n=4) 8,3 % (n=1) Table 14. the profiles of the sub control groups based on the respondents experience on the previous continuing training. Data from the e-survey The sub group that have received continuing training in the past Of the entrepreneurs, who have took part to the continuing education or training within the year 2006 (interviewed in the Training needs of SMEs in Southern Ostrobotnia region survey), 90,4% took part to the short term training lasting one month (20 working days) or less. 5,8 % took part to the training that lasted from one month to two months (21-40 working days) and only 3,8 % took part to the training lasting more than three months (over 60 working days. None of the respondents reported that they had took part to training lasting from two to three months). In the table 15 there is presented the estimated amount of training days in these companies during the year working days, mean working days, median The training days/company in the 10,62 5,00 last year (2006) The training days/person in the 5,74 2,50 last year (2006) The training days/person in the 8,94 3,00 14

15 one-man companies in the last year (2006) (i.e. the entrepreneur s training days) Table 15. The amount of the received training during the last year (2006). 66,2 % of the respondents who have participated to the continuing training or education, state that they or their personnel will participate again to the continuing training during the next year. Only 14,2 % sees that they/their personnel will not participate to any kind of continuing training during the next year. The difference was also statistically significant (p<0,001) (table 21). The results of the e-survey for the control group indicated that the most of those persons that have participated training earlier, have participated more than 5 training courses. How many training % of the respondents courses have you participated in after you finished your initial education? one 26,3% (n=5) ,8% (n=3) ,3% (n=5) over 10 31,6% (n=6) total 100,0% (19) Table 16. The participation to the previous training courses, data from the e-survey. The earlier training courses were related to either business skills (22,2 %), IT Skills (27,8 %) or other subjects (50,0%) mainly focusing on the special knowledge needed in the company s business sector. Typically the trainings were either very short (47,4 %) or lasted longer than three months (47,4 %). The most of the costs of the trainings were compensated by the participant, however, it must be noticed that some the respondents were entrepreneurs and therefore in a way also in the role of employee. (Table 17). Who covered the cost of the training? % of the responses My employer all of it 16,7 % Myself all of it 44,4 % Fully subsidized by Public funds (e.g. 22,2 % National/Local Government, EU, etc) Other 16,7 % Total 100,0% Table 17. The responses to the question: Who covered the cost of the training?. Data from the e-survey. Most of the respondents (78,9%) registered to the courses by themselves. Typically they received after the course only the organisation s own certificate or the certificate of the organisation, which was part of some national qualification (table 18). What kind of certificate/qualification did you % of the responses receive at the end of the training? Nationally recognised certificate/qualification 22,2 % Internationally recognised certificate/qualification 11,1 % A certificate from the training organisation for 38,9 % successfully completing a course, 15

16 which is a part of a larger qualification Just a certificate from the training organisation for 38,9 % completing the course No certificate at all 27,8 % total 100,0% Table 18. The types of certifications received from training courses. Data from the e-survey. The most significant benefits the respondents mentioned having from the training was taking forward their own personal interests and development. A few respondents also mentioned a possibility to apply for a new, better job. In addition a few respondents felt that the training was not really useful at all (table 19). How did you benefit from the training course? % of the respondents chosen this alternative It allowed me to get a job/continue with my present 5,3 % job I got promoted at present job (higher position) 0% I got a salary increase 5,3 % I applied for a new/better job 10,5 % I took forward my personal interests/development 68,4 % The training was not beneficial at all 10,5 % Other 0% Table 19. The benefits gained from the training course by control group, with previous continuing training history. Data from the e-survey. However, the most of the respondents that answered this question (88,2 %) were willing to take part to the continuing training course again in the future. Would you be interested in participating again to this kind of vocational training? Yes 88,2 % No 11,8 % Total 100,0% % of the control group respondents with previous continuing training history Table 20. The willingness to participate again to the training. Data from the e-survey. The reason given by those who were not willing to participate to the continuing training in the future was lack of time due to the job obligations The sub group that have not received continuing training in the past Of the entrepreneurs interviewed as part of the control group in the Training needs of SMEs in Southern Ostrobotnia region survey, 60,6% had not took part of continuing education or training during the last year. 67,5 % of them did not anticipate taking part to the training during the following year either. Their future training scenarios were significantly lower than the scenarios of those entrepreneurs that have taken part to the training earlier. The difference was also statistically significant (p<0,001). 16

17 Will you or your personnel take part to continuing training or courses during the next year (2007) People, who have received training People, who have not received training Yes 66,2 % (n=98) 19,0% (n=44) No 19,6 % (n=29) 67,5% (n=156) I do not know 14,2 % (n=21) 13,4 % (n=31) total 100,0% (n=148) 100,0% (n=231) Table 21. The future training activity of the control group depending on the previous training activity. The data from Training needs of SMEs in Southern Ostrobotnia region survey The sub group from the e-survey, that had not taken part to the training earlier was very small (n=10). This must be kept in mind, when analysing the results and the results can be taken as indicative at best. The sub control group responses from the e-survey indicated that two thirds (63,6 %) of the respondents, who have not received continuing education in past, have generally considered taking up some form of training. The topics mentioned were business skills and IT skills. Approximately half (55,6 %) were interested at this point of their working career to take part to any kind of training. The topics mentioned were business and ICTskills. As the main obstacles for participating to the training course was mentioned I have no time because of job obligations (n=7) I have no time because of family obligations (n=4) It is too expensive (n=3) I don t have any information about training (n=2) I have to travel too far to attend a course (n=1) As the most significant benefits the respondents believe that people in their position would gain from further training were mentioned: They can take forward their personal interests/development (n=10) It allows them to get a job/continue with their present job (n=9) It allows them to get a raise in the salary (n=2) It helps them to apply new better job (n=2) It allows them to get a promotion in their current job (n=1) They don t benefit from training alone (n=1) The respondents did not believe very widely that further training might help to get a salary increase or promotion nor apply for the better job. On the other hand they, however, agreed on the statement that the further training will allow them to get a new job in general and helps to continue with the present one. 17

18 Views on IT-supported continuing vocational training The sub group that has received continuing training in the past Based on the control group data from Training needs of SMEs in Southern Ostrobotnia region survey, 35,1% of the respondents estimated that their personnel will participate to ICT-supported training within the next three years. There was also a statistically significant difference between the two sub control groups (p=0,006). The people, who had participated to some kind of continuing training before saw it more likely to participate also to ICT-supported training in the future. (Table 23) When asked to specify, what kind of ICT supported training this could be, the respondents found it a bit difficult to estimate. The following topics came up: Can not say yet (n=14) Blended learning, theory in Internet, practical part in the working place, personal contact to the other participants (n=13) Business and administration (including marketing) (n=7) Other specific topic (e.g. ICT, restaurant legislation, pharmacy) (n=7) If there is a suitable course or training available (generally) (n=6) Related to own profession (generally) (n=5) It was also difficult for the respondents to estimate the biggest problems of the ICT supported training targeted to entrepreneurs and SMEs. The following topics were mentioned in the answers: Can not say (n=57) Lack of time (n=23) Not suitable to the business sector, lack of practical training essential in the sector (n=13) Lack of infrastructure (n=10) ICT supported training is too impersonal, lack of face-to-face interaction (n=9) Lack of ICT skills (n=9) No interest/motivation (n=8) Not enough knowledge on the possibilities and finding the suitable courses (n=8) Age of the entrepreneurs (n=2) No significant problems (n=1) According to the e-survey, 76,5 % of the respondents, who have taken part to continuing education or training courses before, had heard about ICT-supported training. 75,0 % stated that they would be interested to take part to the ICT-supported training. As a reasons the respondents gave the possibility to update easily their professional information without travelling so much and with flexible learning system. Also the possibility to gain new social contacts trough participation in education was mentioned. Generally this sub group sees that there are not problems related to their ICT skills or infrastructure in order to participate ICT -supported courses. However, only approx. one third sees ICT-supported training more motivating than traditional training methods 18

19 (table 22). They also see that ICT -supported learning is more time consuming than people expect (73,3%). Statement agree, % disagree, % n (a) The cost is too high for 63,6 % 36,4 % 11 such a course (b) I have good access to the technical equipment needed for such a course 87,5 % 12,5 % 16 (c) I have not enough computer knowledge and skills for a course of this type (d) Information Technology makes learning easier (e) Studying with IT support (e learning) is more time consuming that most people think (f) Training organisations must have a good support system for the students g) Using Information Technology in a training course saves time (h) e-learning is more motivating for me than taking a traditional training course (n) The most notable advantage of e-learning is the flexibility of training times 22,2 % 77,8 % 18 78,6 % 21,4 % 14 73,3 % 26,7 % ,0% 0% 18 80,0 % 20,0 % 15 35,7 % 64,3 % 14 93,3 % 6,7 % 15 Table 22. The opinion of the e-survey control group respondents having a further training history to the statements related to ICT-supported learning. A bit contradictonarily to the previous statements, the respondents of e-survey see as the most significant problems associated with ICT-supported learning especially in rural areas ICT illiteracy and lack of expert staff to provide support to the learner. The problems mentioned were: The IT illiteracy is widespread (n=10) There is no expert staff to provide support to the learner (n=10) There is a belief amongst people in rural areas that there is no need to get IT skills (n=4) Buying computer and Internet access is too expensive (n=2 ) There is no suitable infrastructure (n=2) The sub group that has not received continuing training in the past Based on the control group data from Training needs of SMEs in Southern Ostrobotnia region survey, 20,8% of the respondents in this sub group estimated that their personnel 19

20 will participate to ICT-supported training within the next three years. 44,2% saw it unlikely (table 23). Please estimate, will you or your personnel take part to the ICT supported training within the next three years? People, who have received training People, who have not received training Yes 35,1% (n=52) 20,8% (n=48) No 33,1% (n=49) 44,2% (n=102) I do not know 31,8% (n=47) 35,1% (n=81) Total 100,0% (n=148) 100,0% (n=231) Table 23. The estimations on the future participation to the ICT supported training (p=0,006). Also the respondents, who have not received the previous continuing training, found it difficult to describe, what kind of ICT -supported courses they might be interested in. The following topics were mentioned: Can not say yet (n=15) Business and administration (including marketing) (n=11) If there is a suitable course or training available (generally) (n=6) Related to own profession (generally) (n=6) Blended learning, theory in Internet, practical part in the working place, personal contact to the other participants (n=4) Other specific topic (e.g. ICT, motor vehicles, construction work) (n=4) Training conducted solely in the Internet (n=2) For them it was accordingly difficult to estimate the biggest problems in the ICT - supported training targeted to SMEs. The following topics came out in the responses: Can not say (n=91) Lack of time (n=37) Lack of ICT skills (n=19) Not suitable to the business sector, lack of practical training essential in the sector (n=9) Not enough knowledge on the possibilities and finding the suitable courses (n=9) No interest/motivation (n=8) ICT supported training is too impersonal, lack of face-to-face interaction (n=4) Age of the entrepreneurs (n=4) No significant problems (n=3) Lack of infrastructure (n=2) Of the respondents in this sub group in the e-survey, 50,0 % mentioned that they have heard ICT supported training before. 40 % mentioned that they could be interested in participating ICT-supported training in future. There figures are significantly smaller than those of respondents, that had taken part to some kind of continuous training before. 20

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