USNKKIIGSVATUS. Finnish Journal of Music Education. Vol. r, No r. H;rrus-Arurnun YU0PTST0

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2 USNKKIIGSVATUS Finnish Journal of Music Education Vol. r, No r YU0PTST0 H;rrus-Arurnun

3 Musiikkikasvatus, vuosikerta 1, numero 1 Finnish Journal of Music Education, volume 1, number Julkaisijat / Publishers: Sibelius-Akatemian musiikkikasvatuksen osasto Sibelius Academy, Department ot Music Education Oulun yliopiston kasvatustieteiden tiedekunta, musiikkikasvatuksen koulutus- ja tutkimusyksikkd University of Oulu, Faculty of Education, Center for Music Education and Research PdAtoimittaja/ Managing Editor apulaisprofessori Marjut Laitinen, Sibelius-Akatemia Toimituskunta / Editorial Board professori Kai Karma, Sibelius-Akatemia professori Jukka Louhivuori, JyvAskyl6n yliopisto lehtori Terhi Oksanen, Koulujen musiikinopettajat ry professori Heikki Ruismdki, Oulun yliopisto assistentti Heidi Westerlund, Sibelius-Akatemia Toimitussihteeri / Editorial assistant Markku Kaikkonen Ulkoasu ia taitto / Layout Mikael Kivelii Sari Mattila Piirrokset rehtori Lassi Rajamaa, Sibelius-Akatemia Toimituksen osoite / Editorial Address Sibelius-Akatemia Musiikkikasvatuksen osasto I P -346 PL 86, FIN Helsinki Lukijalle Marjut Laitinen Artikkelit ja katsa David J. Elliott Thomas A. Regelsk Keith Swanwick Pentti Miiattinen Eija Kauppinen Heikki Ruismiiki, Lauri VAkevit, Juha Ojala puh (tel) +358-(9) fax +358-(9) Tilaukset Toimituksen osoite, Pirjo Nadasi puh Tilaushinnat kotimaahan koko vuosi 150 mk (sis.postikulut) irtonumero 80 mk (sissltda alv.n 22o/o, mutta ei postikuluja) Subscriptions At the editorial address Subscription rate 180 FIM Musiikkikasvatus ilmestyy vuonna 1996 kaksi kertaa. The Journal is published twice in tssn \\ fttt.'t> t' w///,ru 411 't'lot"taf' 011 Kierratykseen sopiva tuote Alhaiset peestdt valmistuksessa Hakapaino Oy, Helsinki 1996 Lectioita ja opinni Leena Hyvonen Jukka Louhivuori Musiikki ja tekno Heikki Ruismiiki Ajankohtaista Mariut Laitinen Musiikkikasvatus Vsk. I Nro I t996

4 Lukijalle Sisiillysluettelo Marjut Laitinen Ieemana filosofia.. Artikkelit ja katsaukset David J. Elliott Thomas A. Regelski Keith Swanwick Pentti Mddttanen Eija Kauppinen Heikki Ruismdki, Lauri Vdkevd, Juha Ojala Music Education in Finland: A New philosophical View....6 Tiivistelmd s.21 Prolegomenon To a Praxial philosophy of Music ano Music Education Tiivistelmd s.39 Music Education: ls there Life beyond School?...41 A response to David Elliott Tiivistelmd s.46 Pragmaattista musiikin filosofiaa David J. Elliott musiikista ja musiikkikasvatuksesra Summary s.50 Musiikinopettajan l6ytoretki musiikkikasvatuksen filosofiaan Summary s.55 Kontekstuaalinen pluralismi Oulun yliopiston musiikkikasvatuksen opiskelijoiden musiikkikdsityksissd...56 Summary s.65 Lectioita ja opinniiytteitd Leena Hyvdnen Yksilonkehityksen varhaisvaiheet musiikin kokemisen perustana...66 Summary s.70 Jukka Louhivuori Musiikki ja teknologia Heikki Ruismiiki Ajankohtaista Ala-asteen oppilas musiikin kuunteliiana - Arvio KK Leena Hyvdsen vditoskirjaita....'.,.,,' '...71 Marjut Laitinen Lehden teemoja toistuvia palstoja Ohjeita kirjoittajille Lehden toimituskunta ja kirjoittajat Editors & Contributors of FJME Volj, No 1...g0 FJME Vol. r No r 1996

5 mysta arvoista ja paam kulloisenkin opetussuun ja valittu profiili mririreiei Teemana filosofia Miksi David Elliott on ajankohtainen ja haluttu myos korostaa, ettd taiteissa on kysymys paljosta muustakin kuin kauneuseldmyk- kiistanalainen? Siksi, ettd hdn on muita kiirkevimmin vaatinut uutta filosofista nzikemystd musiikin sistii, ja tehdei selveiksi se, ettd esteettinen kasvatus on aivan eri asia kuin estetisoiva opetus. ja musiikkikasvatuksen perustaksi. Ndkemystii, joka pystyisi kattamaan kaikki musiikin ilmenemismuodot. Hdnen ja toisen p6:ikirjoittajamme kaisevasti laajentu nut ja monimuotoistunut. Ero Samanaikaisesti musiikin maailmankuva on rat- Regelskin kohdalla se on merkinnyt irtautumista yli 25 vuotta sitten vallinneeseen tilanteeseen esteettisestd musiikkikasityksestd ja siihen nojaavasta taidekasvatuksen ideologiasta. Esteettisen hiten, kdsitys ihmisestti ja hiinen voimavarojen- on dramaattinen. Ja viimeiseksi, mutta ei vd- konseption sijaan he esittavat ajatuksiaan pragmaattisen filosofisen koulukunnan hengessd, psykologian johdosta tyystin erilainen kuin nelsa sytyttamisesta oppijana on kognitiivisen erityisesti Deweyn kasvatusndkemyksen perillisin i. Tiimii kytkeytyy heiddn teksteissdiin konjdnnesvuosisata sitten. struktiivis-kognitiiviseen oppimiskdsitykseen. Suhteessa ooetussuunnitelma-kdsitteeseen on opettajat iiskettriin pantu uuden Keskeisimmdksi kdsitteeksi nousee toiminta, mielen toiminta. Musiikin ja muiden "taitamisalojen" tilanteen eteen. Keskusjohtoisesta suunnittelusta on jiiljelld vain raamit. ltse pitii:i tietaiei ja tiedon, osaamisen ja oppimisen ymmdrtdmiseen on toiminnan kasitteistolla suuri merkitys, samoin ptizittad, mikd on tdrkeaa tai valttam:itdntd. myos nonverbaalisten prosessien tutkimukselle ja Ylhaalta ei sanella ihanteita, tavoitteita, opetustapoja eikii oppisisdlt6j:i materiaaleineen. Sen sovelluksiin. sijaan on pystyttava itselleen, rehtoreille, oppilaiden vanhemmille ja rahoittajille perustele- Suomen peruskoulun opetussuunnitelmassa, vuodesta 1970 ldhtien, musiikki on sijoittunut esteettisen kasvatuksen osa-alueeseen. taan. Puhumattakaan siita, mita opetetaan, mimaan jo sekin, miksi ja kenelle musiikkia opete- Korostettiin esteettisten arvojen kokemisen ja eldmyksen merkitystd. Kauneuden kokemusten kat- osaaminen, pitktijanteinen motivaatio, ja miten ten opetetaan, tai siitii, mihin perustuu kestiiv6 sottiin kuuluvan jokaisen lapsen, tulevan kansalaisen, perusoikeuksiin. llmaisussa ja eldmyksisasettelua voi tukea. Opettajat niin kouluissa, oppilaan itsearviointia tai omaa tavoitteensa ndhtiin koululaisen oppimishalun eli motivaation perusta. Kaikki tdmd juurtui syvdlle sekii kou- sdidddsmuutosten sekd teknokraattisen tulos- opistoissa kuin korkeakouluissakin ovat lujen etta opettajankoulutuksen opetukseen. ajattelun paineissa joutuneet uudella tavalla Muuntumista ja muuttumista on kuitenkin tapahtunut paljon 25 vuoden aikana. Nykyisin puhutaan pohtimaan tyonsii perimmdisid perusteita. taidekasvatuksesta. Entistii sel keiim mi n pu h utaan Minkdrin alan musiikkikasvatta.ja ei voi eri taiteenaloille ominaisten prosessien ja materiaalien opiskelusta, taitojen oppimisesta, har- perimiitiedon, auktoriteettien, oppimateriaalien endii tehdir tyotddn pel kdstiiiin kokemuksen, joittelusta, harjaantumisesta sekd muusta tyypillisesti toiminnallisen tiedon omaksumisesta. On Ooetusta ei voi suunnitella ilman omaa tai normatiivisten opettajankirjojen varassa. niike- Niinpd Musiikk simmdisestii teemasta pi ettd liikkeelleldhto tapahtu Aiheen valinnasta sittenj siikkikasvatus onkin suor tdmdn ensimmdisenenglanniksi. Keskustelu filosofiasta ei suomeksi ole kdyty. Mutta epdilemdttds Lienee harvinais yhdessd numerossa kirjo tunnetuimoiin lukeutuv PaiAartikkelim me kirjoitta kalainen orofessori David E luentovierailun Suomee artikkelinsa niiden kysy luentoyleison joukosta ko professori Thomas Rege ton professori Keith Swa ouheenvuoronsa Elliotti kirjaan "Music Matters". Se lehdessd suomeksi arvic Mairitt:inen. Musiikinope puolestaan pohdiskelee menten luetuimmilla mus feilla olisi kdytdnndn mus vaa. Oulun uudessa koulu selvitelld, millaisia taust musiikkikasvatuksen opi kerrotaan orof. Heikki Ruis artikkelissa. Oulussa toim Leena Hyvdnen, jonka v tdssd lehdessd. Musiikkikasvatu sen ensimmainen tiete Suomessa. Aloite lehdenp belius-akatemian musiikk Oulun yliopiston musiikki tutkimusyksikon kanssa c vuoden 1996 aikana ilm Tulevien numeroiden ai tiimiin lehden Ajankoht tyon keiytainnolle ja empi varattu ai hepiireja tuonne roissa. Lehden toinen nu aikana. Musiikkikasvatus Vsk. r Nro r 1996

6 mysta arvoista ja paamaaristd. Niistd kohoaa Musiikkikasvatus tulee jatkossa olemaan selvdsti enemmdn suomenkielinen, kuin se kulloisenkin opetussuu nnitel man ydin. Tavoitteet ja valittu profiili mddriidvat muun. on tdssd ensimmaisessdl numerossaan. Kuhunkin tulevaan numeroon on ajateltu sijoittaa keskimddrin yksi muunkielinen artikkeli seka tar- Niinpd Musiikkikasvatus-lehden ensimmiiisestii teemasta paatettaessa oli selviiii, keimpien tekstien englanninkieliset tiivistelmat. ettd liikkeelleldhto tapahtuisi f ilosof ian merkeissd. Tiivistelmat toimitetaan myos Internetiin, Sibelius- Aiheen valinnasta sitten johtui, eta vaikka Musiikkikasvatus onkin suomenkielinen lehti, ovat Akatemian ja Oulun yliopiston sivuille. timdn ensimmdise numeron pairiartikkelit Eldvdn pedagogisen tyon kannalta on englanniksi. Keskustelua musiikkikasvatuksentarkeaa, ettd ammattikuntamme omanarvontunto, filosofiasta ei suomeksi ole vield vakavasti ottaen osaamisen tunne ja kehitystarpeet kohoavat. Ndin kdyty. Mutta epeiilemdtti se on alkamassa. on kdymdssd. Murroksesta ja kaaoksesta selviytymiseen tarvitaan yhteyksid, tiivistd tuntumaa Lienee harvinaista, etta aikakausilehden tietoon, tutkimukseen ja kriittiseen ajatustenvaihtoon. Musiikkikasvatus-lehti aikoo pitdir yhdessd numerossa kirjoittaa kolme maailman tunnetui mpin lukeutuvaa su u n nan niiyttajaa. lukijansa tassa suhteessa ajan tasalla. Toimituskunta tahtoo kehittad lehted sellaiseksi, ettd Pidartikkelimme kirjoittaja, kanadalais-amerikkalainen professori David Elliotteki syksylki 1995 se koetaan yhteiseksi tiedon ;a ajatusten kanavaksi maamme musiikkikasvatuksen moninaisilla luentovierailun Suomeen. Hdn on jtisentdnyt artikkelinsa niiden kysymysten nojaan, joita sektoreilla. Lukijoidemme tuki, kritiikki ja ehdotukset ovat tassa mielessii hvvin tervetulleita. luentoyleison joukosta kohosi. Yhdysvaltalainen professori Thomas Regelski ja Lontoon yliopiston professori Keith Swanwick esittdvdt vastapuheenvuoronsa Elliottin iiskeniiin julkaistuun Marjut Laitinen kirjaan "Music Matters". Samaista kirjaa on tdssd lehdessi suomeksi arvioinut professori Pentti Miiiittiinen. Musiikinopettaja Eija Lappalainen puolestaan pohdiskelee, mita viime vuosikymmenten luetuimmilla musiikkikasvatuksen filosofeilla olisi kiiytii non musiiki nopettajalle annettavaa. Oulun uudessa koulutusyksikossd on alettu selvitellii, millaisia taustafilosofioita sikdl6isilld musiikkikasvatuksen opiskelijoilla on. Asiasta kenotaan prof. Heikki Ruismden tutkimusryhmdn artikkelissa. Oulussa toimii myos musiikin tohtori Leena Hyvdnen, jonka vditdslectio julkaistaan tdssd lehdessd. Musiikkikasvatus on musiikkikasvatuksen ensimmiiinen tieteellinen aikakausilehti Suomessa. Aloite lehden perustamisesta lirhti Sibelius-Akatem ian musiikkikasvatuksen osastolta. Oulun yliopiston musiikkikasvatuksen koulutus- ja tutkimusyksikon kanssa osasto kantaa vastuun vuoden 1996 aikana ilmestyvistd numeroista. Tulevie numeroiden aihepiireistd kerrotaan taman lehden Ajankohtaista-palstalla. Opetustyon kdryttinnolle ja empiiriselle tutkimukselle on varattu aihepi irejii tuonnempana tulevissa numeroissa. Lehden toinen numero ilmestyy syksyn arkana. FjME Vol. r No r 1996

7 David J. Elliott Music Education in Finland: A new philosophical view During October, 1995, I had the privilege music educators before, during, and after these of visiting Finland to present a series of lectures presentations, and visiting several different sites at the Sibelius Academy and at the University of of music teaching and learning (which advanced Jyvdskyld. My audiences on these occasions my understanding of Finnish music education well included music professors from various beyond the knowledge I had gained on my two departments within these institutions, undergraduate and graduate music education students I noted several topics of concern that my Finnish previous visits to this beautifully musical country), and in-service music teachers at all levels of colleagues raised with regularity: namely, What instruction from many areas of Finland. kinds of music should be taught and learned in Finnish school music programs? What degree of The overall intention of my presentations emphasishould be placed on the achievement was to explain the theoretical and practical of musical"standards of excellence" in school and dimensions of a new "praxial" (or action-centered) community-based music programs? Should music philosophy of music education that I detail in Music teachers participate in "integrating" music with Matters: A New Philosophy of Music Education other subjects "across the school curriculum"? (Elliott, 1995). I believe it is reasonable to call this What qualifications should music teacherstrive effort a "new" philosophy because its foundations for and possess? and recommendations for music teaching and learning differ fundamentally from the Taken together, these questions and conventional philosophy of "music education as issues constilute a fascinating yet difficult web of aesthetic education"that my esteemed colleagues challenges for anyone who takes a serious interest Bennett Reimer (1970/1989) and Keith in music education. In an attemot to meet these Swanwick (1976) have advocated for many years challenges and, hopefully, resolve successfully at and that has influenced music education in many least some of the above issues and questions, I parts of the world, including Finland. will combine several themes and arguments from recent research efforts (i.e., Elliott, 1993a, 1993b, More specifically, my presentations were 1994, 1995, 1996a, 1996b) with notes and designed to offer a perspective on the nature and reflections I generateduring and after my recent value of music and music education that might experiences in Finland. assist Finnish music teachers. music curriculum developers, and university-level music teacher Please understand, however, that this educators concerned with the myriad theoretical effort in philosophical (i.e., critical) thinking intends and practical details that swirl around three basic to deliver nothing more or less (in this limited questions: Music Education in Finland -- Whv? space) than a reasonable position on some What? and How? aspects of the very complex human endeavor we call "music education" from the viewpoint of In the course of addressing questions someone who know something (but by no means during my presentations, talking with Finnish everything) of the special circumstances of and Musiikkikasvatus Vsk. r Nro r 1996

8

9 social-cultural forces that act for and against music of musicing. Music listening is, therefore, an education in Finland. essential thread that binds musicers, musicing and musical products together. Taking the above With these preliminaries out of the way, thoughts together we see that "music" is a where shall we begin to build reasonable answers multidimensional human phenomenon involving to the broad and specific questions listed above? two interlocking forms of intentional human action: To me, the logical starting point is the nature of music making and music listening. These actions musrc. are not merely linked;they are mutually defining and reinforcing. Let us call the human reality formed by this interlocking relationship a musical The Nature of Music oractice. As I proffer elsewhere (Elliott, 1994, Music makers are Dractitioners of a 1995, 1996a), there is a self-evident fact lying human practice called MUSIC that has various behind, beneath and around our musical sub-practices, sub-specialties, or arts of music involvements that provides us with an indisputable that go by such names as jazz, Baroque music, starting point for saying what music is: namely, rock music, Finnish traditional music, and so on. human action. Without some form of intentionalthe subdivisions, of course, continue. For human action, there can be neither musical example, what we commonly call"jazz" is really a sounds, nor "works" of musical sound. In short, cluster of related musical sub-practices that go what music is, at root, is a human activity. Here is by such names as dixieland, swing, bebop, cool a certain starting point that leads to a multi-part and hard bop. (We could follow a similar process way of saying what music is and why it matters. of subdivision for choral practices, opera, Finnish Let me explain. traditional music, and so on). In the case of (say) Beethoven's Eroica, The fundamental theme I wish to draw or the kete drumming of the Asante people, or a from this discussion, and emphasize strongly, is Zuni lullaby, or Duke Ellington's Cotton Tail, and the following:music is a diverse human practice. in every example of a musical product that comes Worldwide, there are thousands of musical to mind, what we are presented with is more than practices, or "Musics." Each musical practice a piece of music, a composition, an improvisation, a performance, a "work of artl'what we who are practitioners (amateur or professional) pivots on the shared understandings of musicers are presented with is the outcome of a particular of that practice. As a result, each musical practice kind of intentional human action. Music is not simply a collection of products, pieces, or objects. musical products or musical works. These produces music in the sense of specific kinds of Fundamentally, music is something that people products are identifiable as the outcomes of oo. particular musical practices because they evince (manifest, or demonstrate) the shared principles Several points follow from the above. and standards of the musical practitioners who First, if music is essentially a form of intentional make them.this how we know Barooue choral human action, then music must necessarily singing, bebop jazz improvisation (and so on) involve at leasthree dimensions:a doer or maker, when we hear them: by the stylistic features the product he or she makes, and the activity manifested in the musical sound patterns whereby he or she makes her product. But this is themselves. Specific musical practices eventuate obviously incomplete;for any instance of human in specific musical styles. activity doers do whathey do in a specificontext. A useful way to tie these thoughts Moreover, musical doing always includes together is to alter the visual form of the word another kind of doing called music listening. Music "music" in three different ways ---- MUSIC, Music, makers listen to what they do and make and to and music. MUSIC (uppercase) is a diverse what other musicers do and make. Also, for each human practice consisting in many different kind of music making there is a group of people musical practices or Musics (uppercase M). Each who act specifically as listeners (auditors, or and every musical practice (or Music) involves the audiences) for the musical products of that kind two corresponding and mutually reinforcing activities of music maki word music (lowerca works that eventuate fr( of the practitioners v compose, arrange, or practice. Mention of "l brings us to the next key is the nature of "musica or "musical understa can answer this adequately, then we c one of the most fundam in music education:w worth teaching and lea Music Education: What ShallWeTeach tn essen worldwide depend on t listeners knowing how construct successive a sound patterns artist Competent, proficient: are people who have I and chain musical patte how to vary and tran creatively; how to judge con-structions in rel traditions of musical prz emotional expressive ano so on. ln short, music a matter of procedura say "essentially" becau argue that four other I contribute to the proc making in a variety of tr moment. But what ab listening? All acts of n involve music listening a matter of know-how in the sense of intern is so, I suggest, b experience of a music static object waiting "c an apple on a tree. Listr What we experiencei Musiikkikasvaffs Vsk. r Nro r 1996

10 activities of music making and music listening.the word music (lowercase) refers to the musical works that eventuate from the musical knowledge of the practitioners who perform, improvise, compose, arrange, or conduct in a particular oractice. (live or recorded) involves various kinds of "information" that arise in consciousness through interactions between (i) our powers of attention, cognition, emotion, intention and memory and (ii) the artistically created aural patterns we call a musical work. What we can say, then, is that Mention of "knowledge" brings us to the next key issue. What music listening is fundamentally a matter of knowing how to coverlly is the nature of "musical knowledge" construct successive and or "musical understanding"? lf we simultaneous musical sound patterns can answer this ouestion in relation to the traditions and adequately, then we can address one of the most fundamental issues in music education: what is most worth teaching and learning? standards of specific musical practices. Competent, proficient and expert music listeners are people who have developed the procedural knowledge required to identify, interpret, "piece together" and Music Education: What Shall We Teach? otherwise cognize (or make sense of) particular kinds of musical patterns. Again, however, four other kinds of musical knowledge ln essence, all musical practices worldwide depend on music makers and music contribute to the procedural essence of music listening in a variety of ways (see below). listeners knowing how to interpret and overtly construct successive and simultaneous musical sound patterns artistically (cf. Elliott, 1993). Competent, proficient and expert music makers are people who have learned how to construct This brings us to an essential relationship: the procedural dimension of music making and the procedural dimension of music listening are two sides of the same cognitive coin. and chain musical patterns together expressively, While music making involves the overt how to vary and transform musical patterns creatively;how to judge the quality of their musical con-structions in relation to standards and traditions of musical practice; how to interpret the emotional expressiveness of musical patterns; and so on. construction of musical patterns, music listening involves the covert construction of musical patterns. (Whereas all forms of music making involve the constructiv ex-pression of musical relationships, all forms of music listening involve the constructive im-oression of musical relationships). What this means, in turn, is that In short, musical knowledge is essentially a matter of procedural (or action) knowledge. I say "essentially" because it seems reasonable to people who know how to listen intelligently for a particular style of music (e.9., Bebop, Balinese Gamelan music, or Finnish traditional singing) argue that four other kinds of musical knowing possess the same kinds of knowing that artistic contribute to the procedural essence of music music makers depend on to interpret and perform making in a variety of ways, as I shall explain in a moment. But what about the nature of music listening? that style of music. In this view, there is a direct and intimate relationship between music making and music listening. All acts of music performing always involve music listening. And music listening also a matter of know-how, or procedural knowledge, in the sense of internal (mental) know-how. This is so, I suggest, because our conscious experience of a musical work is not a copy of a static object waiting "out there" to be picked like an apple on a tree. Listening a matter of minding. What we experience as a musical performance Let me restate what I have just written. Whenever a person (child or adult) is performing and/or listening for music effectively, he or she is exhibiting a multidimensional form of knowledge called musicianship (which always includes listenership). Musicianship demonstrates itself in actions, not words. lt is a form of procedural knowledge, or what Schon (1983, 1990) also calls "thinking-in-action" and "knowing-in-actionl' lfme Vol. r No r 1996

11 Thus it is entirely appropriate to describe Critical ref lecting-in-action is f undamental competent, proficient and expert performers to musicianship because music making and music (children or adults) as thinking very hard and very listening are not simple matters of "habits, deeply (butacitly) as they perform (or improvise) behaviors, routines, or skillsl'why not? Because music. Music makers exhibitheir musical musicing and listening cannot be reduced to knowledge -- their musicianship --- in the quality verifiable methods that always work and that can of whathey get done in and through their actions always be expressed in words. Principles of of singing or playing. Thus, the proof of my musicing and listening, like chess strategies, do musicianship lies in the quality of my music not guarantee success. They are always making as a performer (improviser, composer, provisional. The effectiveness, flexibility and arranger, or conductor). And to understand and portability of musicianship hinges on the critical assess the quality of my musicianship as exhibited selection and deployment of all forms of musical in my music performing, my evaluators (and other knowing. listeners) must possess a reasonable level of procedural competency in music performing Another basic component of musicianship is impressionistic musical knowledge. This themselves. kind of knowing is often called musical "intuitionl' But while musicianship is procedural in In practice, impressionistic musical knowledge is essence, four other kinds of musical knowing a strongly felt sense that one line of musical action contribute to this essence in surrounding and is better than another, or not quite right, and so supporting ways. The names I give to these four on. Music makers and listeners acquire nonverbal kinds of knowing are: formal musical knowledge, impressions, or a "sense of thingsj'while doing, informal musical knowledge, impressionisticmaking, and reflecting-in-action. To develop musical knowledge, and supervisory musical musicianship is, in part, to develop a student's knowledge. "feel" for what "counts" in musical situations. Put another way, musicianship includes "cognitive Any sort of verbal information about emotions" for the musicing, listening and musical music is a matter of formal musical knowledge. works of specific musical practices. Most musical practices are sufficiently complex that music makers and listeners utilize historical Supervisory knowledge is sometimes facts, verbal descriptions of techniques, theoretical called metaknowledge or metacognition.this form ideas about musical structure (and so on) to of musical knowing includes the disposition and advance their nonverbal thinking-in-action as ability to monitor, adjust, balance, manage, oerformers and audience members. With the oversee, and otherwise regulate one's musical guidance of competent teachers, students learn thinking both in action ("in-the-moment")and over to reflect on the causes of their the long-term development of one's musical successes and failures in the musicianship. course of thinking-in-action as productive musical apprentices. Based on the proposals Students learn how to target their made thus far it seems fair to suggest attention to different aspects of their that a oerson who knows how to musical thinking-in-action relation make music and how to listen for to verbal concepts. music competently (proficiently, or expertly) possesses musical Informal musical knowledge knowledge or musical understanding involves the ability to reflect critically in the robust sense of a "working in action. Reflecting critically understanding" of music. And clearly, depends, in turn, on knowing when and how to a "working understanding" of music includes make musical judgments. And knowing how to practical principles and the ability to make effective make musical judgments depends on a situational judgments about one's actions in relation to the understanding of the standards and traditions of applicable standards, traditions, obligations and musical practice that ground and surround specific ethics of a given musical practice. kinds of music making. Let me summ implications of this discu Recall. first. thatfouroth that constitute music i nformal, impressioni knowledge --- are ess situated. Accordingly, asi also suggests, to devel reouires that music edu music making "at the teaching-learning expe ln terms o development, then, mu design and implemenp immerse music stude students) in musical pra authentic music mak development ought to ta verbal concepts, not fr qualities j'and not from re musical thinking-in-a improvising primaril arranging and conduc Second, learn intelligently for the mus reouires that studen "inside" of musical or practitioners" (Schon require students to liste they make themselv ensemble), students lea of musicing and listeni terms of cause-effecw co m pariso n-contra prod uctio n-i nterpretatio Another way of is to say that music list to be taught and learn room situations tha deliberately organizet mate the producti authentic musical pra name I give to this kind c learning situation is cur practicum (cf. Elliott,1 curriculum based on : serves to contextual and its component kno curriculum based on sy proficient music makin center of the belief sys Musiikkikasvatus Vsk. r Nro r 1996 IO

12 Let me summarize the educational musical practices. In this view, artistic listening -- implications of this discussion to the present point. - listening for what one is attempting to do Recall, first, that four of the five kinds of knowledge musically through performing, improvising and so that constitute musicianship --- procedural, on --- is the primary form of listening in music informal, impressionistic and supervisory musical education. Artistic listening is directed toward knowledge --- are essentially nonverbal and authentic musical problem-finding and problemsolving. situated. Accordingly, as Howard Gardner (1991) also suggests, to develop musical understanding requires that music educators place productive music making "at the center" of the music teaching-learning experience (pp ). In all these ways, a general music curriculum centered on productive and authentic music making provides the opportunities and challengestudents need to develop critical and intuitive musical dispositions for the music of ditferent musical practices. ln terms of music curriculum development, then, music educators need to design and implement programs that induct and immerse music students (indeed, all music students) in musical practices through active and authentic music making. Music curriculum What oractices? Should music students in Finland learn to make and listen to Finnish traditional musics, Western "classical" musics, and other musical practices whenever possible? Yes, yes, and yes. Let me explain. development ought to take its direction not from verbal concepts, not from so-called "aesthetic qualities j'and not from recordings, but rather from What Musics Shall We Teach? musical thinking-in-action: from performing and improvising primarily, and from composing, arranging and conducting whenever possible. As I have argued above, and in different details elsewhere (Elliott, 1995, 1996a), MUSIC is a diverse human practice and, therefore, "music Second, learning to listen deeply and intelligently for the music of a particular practice requires that students learn music from the "inside" of musical oractices: as "reflective education" is (or should be) concerned with MUSIC in this broad sense (as opposed to teaching just, say, one or two Western "art-music" practices, or just jazz practices, and so on). practitioners" (Schon, 1990). When teachers require students to listen artistically for the music they make themselves (and with others in an ensemble), students learn how different aspects of musicing and listening relate to one another in But if this is so, then music teachers have good reasons to ask: How shall we go aboul selecting musical practices for music teaching and learning? Are some musical practices"better"than terms of cause-effect, whole-part, form-function, others? Does it make sense to select musical co mpariso n-co ntrast ano oractices on the basis of students' production-interpretation relations. cultural traditions? Another way of putting this Let me approach these is to say that music listening ought questions by observing that it is not to be taught and learned in classroom situations that teachers strongly that all Western European uncommon to find people who believe deliberately organize to approximate the productive goals of superior to (say) rock, pop, or avant- "classical" practices are inherently authentic musical practices. The garde practices. Others want to claim name I give to this kind of teachinglearning situation is curriculum-as- and "honest" while jazz is inherently that "folk music" is inherently "natural" practicum (cf. Elliott, 1995, p. 253ff). A music "bad musicl'and so on. curriculum based on authentic music making serves to contextualize and situate listenership What can we make of such talk? To and its component knowings. A music education answer, suppose we attempt to decide which is curriculum based on systematic efforts to teach "best" among three different Musics: (say) proficient music making places students at the Baroque instrumental music, a piece of Finnish center of the belief systems that groundifferent traditional instrumental music. and a work of FjME Vol. r No r 1996

13 karnataka sangeeta (South Indian classical First, the musical practices we select for music). To decide which is "the best musical music teaching and learning at the outset of a practice" we would have to base our judgments child's musical education ought to make the most on (i) the values and standards of one of these of the tacit dimensions of musicianship ---- three practices, or on (ii) the standards of a procedural, informal, impressionistic and completely unrelated musical practice, or on (iii) supervisory musical knowings --- that children are the standards of no musical oractice whatever. most likely to develop themselves through early musicing and listening in their own cultural But of course, the first option is ethnocentric. And the second ootion is nonsensical. And children of Finland both Western classical contexts. (Here is one key reason for teaching the the third option is unmusical by definition. In sum, practices and Finnish musical traditions). As I no musical practice or music-culture is innately explain below, and in a parallel context (Elliott, better than any other. Musicing and its outcomes 1996a), to achieve the primary values of music are always practice-specific. Just as it is illogical education, students must learn to achieve a match to debate whether apples are better than oranges, between their level of musicianshio and the it is also illogical to debate whether a Bach cello musical challenges they meet in music education sonata is"bette/'than a Finnish instrumental tune, curricula. Put another way, in deciding which or a piece of karnataka san-geeta. There is no practices to teach first, teachers ought to take "best" musical practice or style compared across account of a student's "local" musical culture. For different musical practices. (But of course, there the musical knowings that infants and young are reasonable ways of deciding the merits ot children achieve on their own amount to a bridge different musical works within the same musical between young brains and young musical minds. practice). Second, achieving the primary values Ethnomusicologists Mark Slobin and Jeft and aims of music education (see below) depends Todd Titon (1984) agree. on the continuous deepening of musicianship in Each music-culture is a particular adaptation to particular circumstances. ldeas about musical works. The most important "life-values" balanced relation to increasingly demanding music, social organization, repertoires, and music's material culture vary from one music-culture engagements with progressively more challenging of music and music education arise through to the next, but it would be foolish to say that any musical works. Moreover, as the philosopher o n e m u sic-cu ltu re was "beft e r" th an anoth e r. Why? Francis Sparshott (1987) reminds us, people for Because such a judgment is based on criteriafrom whom the music of their own culture is all the inside a single music-culture. To call another music-culture's music "pilmitive" imposes ones own of broader culture cannot: their musical world is a music there is "can live into that music as people standards on a group that does not cultural entity that belongs to them recognize them. (p.9) and to which they belong" (p. 86). This sense of musical belonging (a But while no one Music is practice-specific way of musical life) innately superior to any other, some is something to be cherished. In musical practices may be short, musical breadth is not educationally more appropriate than necessarily a virtue. others. In other words, music education does not occur in a Accordingly, when time and vacuum, but rather in relation to a resources are limited, this praxial variety of constraints --- practical, philosophy supports an emphasis on social, cultural, ideological, political musical deoth over breadth. Our and so on. Chief among these is the practical central responsibility (to deepen students' problem of curricular time. There is simply not musicianship) indicates that music education enough time to teach all the world's Musics to all curricula ought to build on a foundation of several children. Thus, difficult choices must be made. Let closely related musical practices that spiral me propose several guidelines for making such upward in the demands they make on students' choices. growing musicianship. Once established, music curricula may then "move out" toward more unfamiliar oractices. Indeed (a cause MUSIC is a diver because induction int practices links the values the values of human teachers oughto make an curricula for music-cult related to the cultu musicianshio that childr context of their culture. T the obvious criteria of s availability of authentic re knowledge and/or disp practices over time, it als the musical diversity of on as a launching pad to "distant" Musics. For example, se gates to a recent confe music educatorsugge musicurriculum for their include five broadly base Australia's musical plural practices, Asian music pra historic and contempo oractices and Australia practices. May I sugge thinking may also applyi Finland, or lreland? Inde narily long, varied, and ric ditional music making, I e when I hear a Finnish m abouthe central (and righ of Finnish traditional musi in Finnish music educat lmplicit in the a key tenet ol multicultu another imoortant criter lecting among musica; recognition. Personal an recognition are essen growth and education of tl the philosopher Charl (1992) points out, reco self-identity. A studen personal self -awarenes f u ndamental defining chi being" (p.25). Taylor argu of personal identity rer deliberate and accu Musiikkikasvatus Vsk. r Nro r 1996 t2

14 unfamiliar practices. Indeed (and paradoxically), because MUSIC is a diverse human practice, and because induction into unfamiliar musical oractices links the values of music education with the values of humanistic education, music teachers oughto make an important place in their curricula for music-cultures that are moredistantly related to the culture-soecific forms of musicianship that children develop early in the context of their culture. Thus, and in addition to the obvious criteria of students' interests, the availability of authentic repertoire, and a teachers knowledge and/or disposition to learn new practices over time, it also makes sense to use the musical diversity of one's own region or nation as a launching pad to the teaching of more "distant" Musics. affirmation) of people's cultural beliefs and values. When recognition is withheld, or dishonest, the consequences can De grave: a person or a group of people can suffer real damage, real distortion, if the people or society around them mirror back to them a confining or demeaning or contemptible picture of themselves. Nonrecognition or misrecognition can inflict harm, can be a form of oppression, imprisoning someone in a false, distorted, and reduced mode of being. (Taylor, 1992, p.25). Indeed, there is no doubthat people tend to identify themselves with particular Music(s), and a people's Music is, very often, something they are. lf so, then recognizing the traditional musiccultures of one's students and one's community may contribute significantly to self-identity. As Taylor (1992) emphasizes: "Due recognition is not just a courtesy we owe to people. lt is a vital For example, several Australian delegates to a recent conference of Asian Pacific human need" (p.26). music educators suggested that a reasonable musicurriculum for their national situation might Music Education:Why? include five broadly based practices reflective of Australia's musical pluralism : Australian Aboriginal To this point in my discussion I have practices, Asian music practices, Pacific practices, suggested several important social-cultural values historic and contemporary Western European that students can achieve through active practices and Australian "folk"(or "crossover") involvements with MUSIC as a diverse human practices. May I suggest that this pattern of practice. But there are additional and equally thinking may also apply in the contexts of, say, important benefits that students can achieve Finland, or lreland? Indeed, given the extraordinarily long, varied, and rich history of Finnish tra- call "life-values": self-growth, self-knowledge, through the development of musicianship that I ditional music making, I am (frankly) astonished enjoyment (or optimal experience) and selfesteem (Elliott, 1995, pp ). How can when I hear a Finnish music educator hesitate about the central (and rightf ul) place music students achieve these of Finnish traditional music oractices essentialife-values through music in Finnish music education. making (by which I mean performing and improvising in particular, and lmplicit in the above is a composing, arranging, and conducting whenever possible) and music key tenet of multiculturalism and another imoortant criterion for selecting among musical practices: listening? recognition. Personal and cultural Most musical practices offer recognition are essential to the music makers the two necessary growth and education of the Self. As conditions for achieving the life-values the philosopher Charles Taylor of self-growth, self-knowledge, optimal (1992) points out, recognition is closely tied to experience, and sellesteem: (i) multidimensional self-identity. A student's identity includes a cognitive-affective challenges (i.e., musical works) personal self-awareness of who they are, "of their and (ii) the know-ledge (i.e., musicianship) fundamental defining characteristics as a human required to meet these challenges. Musicianship being" (p.25). Taylor argues thathe developmentis the key to achieving the life-values of music of personal identity rests im-portantly on the making. And musician-ship can be taught and deliberate and accurate recognition (or learned. FJME Vol. r No r 1996

15 Also, like many "optimal experience constructive knowledge), and flow. Even for pursuits," most (but not all) musical practices are students who are just beginning to internalize the "dynamic" practices. Why? Because the musical standards of a musical practice, and who are just works that make up the body of most musical beginning to deploy their musical thinking-inaction, performing a practice-specific musical practicespiral upward in complexity. Dynamic musical practices invite and demand the context (e.9., performing specific types of choral progressive matching of increasingly music, Finnish traditional instrumental music, jazz, and so on) provides complex musical challenges with increasing levels of musicianship. The second-by-second feedback about traditions and standards of each how well they are musicing. Of musical oractice determine what course, performing also provides counts as the proper artistic goals of proficient, competent, and expert music making in that practice. music makers with feedback about how well they are making music in For example, music relation to the goals and standards educators who teach in the context of the musical practices they know of children's choirs know the traditions so well. and standards of children's choral music. They know what counts as When a person's level of good (very good and excellent) choral singing in musicianship matches a given musical challenge, a particular practice and, therefore, what the his or her powers of consciousness are completely appropriate goals and standards of student engaged. Consciousness and action merge to singers should be at beginning to expert levels of "take us up" into the actions of performing; development. By increasing students' strategic accordingly, performing done well (according to musical judgment abilities, music teachers enable the artistic traditions and standards of a given their students to set short-term and long-term musical practice) engages the whole self. musical goals for themselves.this, in turn, makes Performing is valuable and significant because it students independently able to recognize what propels the individual Self to higher levels of counts as musical feedback and musical complexity. That is, as a student's level of excellence. musicianship progresses upward in complexity to meet the demands of increasingly challenging From the perspective of this "praxial" works, all aspects of consciousness are propelled philosophy of music education, learning to perform upward. and/or improvise music well (which always involves a comprehensive understanding of the There is a great deal more to say about musical work one is interpreting and performing) the nature of musical works as multidimensional is inherently valuable. Performing music is challenges and the artistic "problems" involved something worth doing for the doing itself, the performance, interpretation, and improvisation meaning "for the sake of the self." (So too for all of musical works. I address these issues at many other forms of music making: improvising, points in Music Matters (Elliott, 1995, e.9., pp composing, arranging, and conducting). When a 201). Suffice it to say now that musical works are person's level of musicianship (beginner to expert) never a matter of "sound patterns" alone; instead, is matched with an appropriate level of musical musical works always presentseveral dimensions challenge, this matching of musical knowledge of musical-cultural meaning to the knowledgeable and musical challenge brings order to performer and listener. consciousness. The affective payoff of this matching relationship is experienced as musical In summary, each form of musicing offers enjoyment or "flow," a term coined by Mihalyi a unique and major opportunity to develop the Csikszentmihalyi (1990) and explained in regard musicianship (and listenership) that students to music in my Music Matters (Elliott, 1995, pp. require to achieve the life-values of self-growth, ). self-knowledge, and optimal experience, both now and in the future. And to the extenthat these Music making is a unique and major values are achieved in and through the source of self-growth, self-knowledge (or development of musicianship, musicing is also a unrque?no m?jor w3! i For these reasons, m worth learning to do \, students. Mention of ma issue of musical exoectations of ac Suffice it to say here the responsibility of the mu to exoect his or her stud for and achieve reason musical excellenceo basis. Why? Becaus self-knowledge, flov esteem do not result and meeting trivia primary values of m listening result from th investment of musici solving that spirals "t relation to recognizes musical practice. In pra of music education wi teachers merely ente students merely da producing activitie enjoyment arise from oowers of consciou knowledgeable effortṿ teaching and learning ir result from learning to n works well --- from the oursuit of musical con expertise. To pursuer pursue self-growth, co enjoyment. In summaryt education is to deve musicianshio of all stu musical problem solv appropriate musical ch way. lt is the bala musicianship with ca challenges (i.e., exce results in the achiev another way: self-gr musical enjoymen education overall and music teaching-lea Howard Garc oosition when he st, Musiikkikasvatus Vsk. r Nro r 1996

16 unique and major way of developing self-esteem. (especially older students) can benefit from purely For these reasons, music making is something historical, analytical, and appreciation{ype music worth learning to do well (i.e., artistically) by all studies: these topics are less crucial for most students. students than the possibility of continuing active involvement in the arts as reflective practitioners.there will be time enough in university, and Mention of makino music\ryell" raises the issue of musical-educational beyond, for these more 'distanced' exoectations of achievement. forms of artistic appreciation to Suffice it to say here that it is a basic become dominant. (p. 42) responsibility of the music educator to exoect his or her students to strive Csikszentmihalyi (1990) for and achieve reasonable levels of also supports this view when he states musical excellence on a regular that compared to music listening basis. Why? Because self-growth, alone, "even greater rewards are open self-knowledge, flow and selfesteem do not result from setting 111). This is plausible because the to those who learn to make music" (p. and meeting trivial goals. The challenges involved in learning to primary values of musicing and interpret and perform music well are listening result from the continuous more comolex than those involved in investment of musicianship in musical problemsolving that spirals "upward" in complexity in involves clearer goals and feedback than listening listening alone, because performing usually relation to recognized standards and traditions of alone, and because making music for and with musical practice. In practical terms, then, the aims others generates the musical works that listeners of music education will not be accomolished if need to achieve self-growth and enjoyment for teachers merely entertain their students, or if themselves. students merely dabble in ersatz "soundproducing activities." Self-knowledge and And there is more. Learning to perform enjoyment arise from the extension of one's music artistically and creatively extends the range powers of consciousness: from significant and of students' expressive and impressive powers knowledgeable effort. What this means for music by providing opportunities for students to teaching and learning is that the values of MUSIC participate in interpreting and formulating musical result from learning to make and listen for musical expressions of emotions, musical representations works well --- from the deliberate and sustained of people, places and things, and musical pursuit of musical competency, proficiency and expressions of cultural-ideological meanings (cf. expertise. To pursue musical excellence is to Elliott, 1995, pp ). When this range of pursue self-growth, constructive knowledge and opportunities for musical expression and creativity enjoyment. is combined with the opportunities presented by texts in vocal and choral works, student In summary, the primary task of music performers gain numerous ways of giving artisticcultural form to their powers of thinking, knowing, education is to develop the comprehensive muslcianship of all students through progressive valuing, evaluating, believing, and feeling. And it musical problem solving in balanced relation to is for these reasons, in turn, that music is so appropriate musical challenges every step of the significant in establishing, defining, delineating, way. lt is the balancing or matching of and preserving a sense of community and selfidentity within social groups. musicianship with carefully selected musical challenges (i.e., excellent works of music) that results in the achievement of "life-valuesl' Put Finally, teaching and learning a another way: self-growth, self-knowledge, and diverse range of music comprehensively (through musical enjoyment are the aims of music an active, critical, music making approach) education overall and the primary goals of every amounts to an important form of multicultural music teaching-learning episode. education (cf. Elliott, 1995, pp ). For learning to interpret and perform (and, therefore, Howard Gardner (1990) supports this investigate and enter into unfamiliar music position when he states that while students practices) activates self-examination and the FJME Vol. r No r 1996

17 personal reconstruction of one's relationships, accessible, achievable, and applicable to all. assumptions, and preferences. Students are MUSIC is one of these basic coonitive domains. obliged to confront their prejudices (musical and personal) and face the possibility that what they What needs attentio nj*,.,n. popular may believe to be universal is not. In the process claim that music education is a valuable means of inducting students into unfamiliar musical of improving students' academic achievement practices, music educators link the scores. Indeed, teachers' anecdotal life-values of music and music reports often imply strong links education to the broader values of between school retention rates, humanistic education. student morale, and scholastic achievement scores on the one hand, and the oresence of To "lntegrate," or Not? challenging school music programs on the other. As I argue elsewhere (Elliott, 1995, pp ), music As I view the evidence, the education is essential to the full findings of music education researchers, developmental psycho- development of every child because the primary values of music education logists, and cognitive scientists overlap the essential life-goals that most support several conclusions. First, studies of the individuals and societies pursue for the good of relationshios between music instruction and each and all: namely, self-growth (or selfdifferentiation, complexity, and integration), self- number and fraught with procedural weaknesses. academic achievement are relatively few in knowledge, enjoyment, self-esteem, and This is still a fledgling area of research. Not happiness. The welfare of a society depends on surprisingly, the results are contradictory. Some the ability of its citizens to pursue and achieve studies suggesthat students who do well in music these goals regularly.the quality of individual and tend to have higher academic achievement scores community life depends on providing people with that nonmusic students; others deny it. In any the knowings and the opportunities they require event, positive correlations are not explanations to make a life as well as a living. of causation. From this perspective, the means and results of educating students to make and listen for music well are simultaneously personal, social, and cultural.they are also political.to the Greeks, the word oolitics meant whatever involved people in human concerns beyond their own individual needs. The development of musicianship allows people to participate constructively in the generation, expression, and impression of challenging and moving works of music that can imbue their everyday lives, and the lives of others, with meaning and purpose. The development of musicianship benefits self and other. Accordingly, a school that denies children a sustained and systematic music education curriculum is not simply incomplete;it imperils the quality of students' present and future lives by denying them the cognitive keys to a unique and major source of fundamental human life-values. lf a society wishes to invest in a basic education for every child, then public schooling must center on the domains of thinking and knowing that are Second, it seems clear that consciousness consists of a number of discrete intelligences or cognitive modules that follow their own developmental paths (Gardner, 1983, pp ;282-85). The cognitive operations involved in each domain (such as language, mathematics, and music) are essentially domain specific. Thus, says Gardner (1983),"music deserves to be considered as an autonomous intellectual realm" (p.126). lf so, then it would be surprising to find intimate cognitive relationships between musical thinking and the distinctly nonmusical thought processes that ground propositional subjects such as mathematics, spelling, history, and reading. While there is no doubt that competent music making and listening involve several categories of thinking that occur in other subject domains (including critical reflection, formal thinking, and creative generation), the contents, contexts, standards, goals, and outcomes of these categories differ fundamentally from subject to subject. Thus attempts tl components of musical th domains are essentiallyr However, becau modules and process sciousness as a whole, th among these modules ar general level of cogniti suggests, there are "h capacities such as "the i analogic thinking, pe supervisory knowing (or g that seem to exist both wit intelligence modules (pp a systematic music educ develooment of these br in turn, interact with or tre Indeed, if there ship between the develo and academic achievem likely lies in the primary va As I noted earlier, self-e optimal experience, and tl simply improve human ex They make an essentialc differentiation, and com therefore, to one's overa who are often in flow have those who experit (Csikszentmihalyi, 1993 says Csikszentmihaly (1 report more flow tend k d eve I o p academ ic talents are in flow less often" (p. It follows that effective way to achieve a benefits of music educ concentrate on de musicianship, which is I achieving the values teaching and learning. A divert music educatio development of musicia hope of advancing o academic skills is comp efforts to "inte-grate" mr "across the curriculu develooment of music negate the possibility of e may transfer across don Musiikkikasvatus Vsk. r Nro r 1996

18 sublect. Thus attempts to link specific cognitive components of musical thinking with those of other domains are essentially spurious. Put another way, securing the place of music in education depends on affirming to ourselves and others that MUSIC matters. The future depends on making music education more However, because our various cognitive modules and processes are parts of consciousness as a whole, there may be inter-actions among these modules and processes at a more general level of cognition. As Gardner (1983) suggests, there are "higher level" cognitive capacities such as "the intelligence of the self," analogic thinking, personal wisdom, and supervisory knowing (or general common sense) that seem to exist both within and beyond discrete intelligence modules (pp. 286ff ;316-20). Perhaps musical, more artistic and more creative by continuing to improve our philosophical understandings of MUSIC and by continuing to improve the musicianship of pre-service and inservice teachers. The life-values of music education will only be achieved through deepening and broadening students' musicianship. And the achievement of these values will be demonstrated most effectively to parents, teachers, and school administrators by the quality of our students' musical thinking-in-action. a systematic music education contributes to the development of these broader capacities which, in turn, interact with or transfer to other domains. Our future does not lie in schemes designed to make music education less musical. This may seem too obvious to mention until we Indeed, if there is a significant relationship between the development of musicianship and academic achievement, I conclude that it most likely lies in the primary values of music education. remind ourselves that some teachers and theorists are serious when they urge music educators to "save" school music programs by teaching music as a scholastic subject, or by As I noted earlier, self-growth, self-knowledge, integrating music with subjects "across the optimal experience, and their concomitants do not simply improve human experience in the moment. They make an essential contribution to the order, differentiation, and complexity of the self and, therefore, to one's overall quality o'f lite:- "people who are often in flow have higher self-esteem that curriculum," or by submerging music in multi-arts courses. These notions are based on false assumptions about the nature and values of MUSIC. By implementing approaches that deny students the opportunity to develop musicianship (and therefore prevent students from achieving those who experience f low rarely" the values of music education), these shortsighted (Csikszentmihalyi, 1993, p. 20a). Accordingly, says Csikszentmihalyi (1993),"[t]eenagers who and unfounded notions jeopardize the very efforts they purport to save. report more flow tend to be happier, and they develop academic talents further than teens who are in f low less often" (p. 204). Summary To conclude, let me offer a It follows that the most brief summary of this praxial philosophy of music education in re-lation effective way to achieve any adjunct benefits of music education is to to each of the fundamental ouestions concentrate on developing raised at the beginning of this musicianship, which is the key to discussion: Music Education --- Whv? achieving the values of music What? and How? teaching and learning. Attempts to divert music education from the Why? Self-growth, selfknowledge, musical enjoyment, and development of musicianship in the hope of advancing or integrating specific self-esteem are the central values of MUSIC and, academic skills is completely counterproductive: therefore, the central aims of music education. efforts to "inte-grate" music with other subjects These values and aims are also the primary and "across the curriculum" will only block the practical goals of each and every teaching development of musicianship and, therefore, episode. They are accessible, achievable, and negate the possibility of achieving any results that applicable to all students, providing that may transfer across domains. musicianship is developed pro-gressively and in FjME Vol. r No r 1996

19 balanced relation to authentic musical challenges. Musicianship is not somethin given To the extent that these aims and goals are "naturally" to some children and not to others. achieved, music education will most likely Musicianship is a form of thinking and knowing contribute to the develooment of students'selt that is educable and applicable to all. Accordingly, esteem and self-identity. all music students ought to be taught in the same essential way: as reflective musical practitioners, What? What knowledge is most worth or musical apprentices. Put another way, the best learning by all students? My answer is: music curriculum for the best music students is musicianship. For musicianship (as explained the best curriculum for all music students: namely, above) is the engine that drives every musical a music curriculum based on artistic musicing and practice and, in turn, provides the key to achieving listening through performing and improvising in the life-values, aims, and goals of music particular, and composing, arranging and education. conducting whenever these are relevant. Gardner (1991) concurs with the thrust of this position;.. How? Musicianship, which includes. in the arts, production ought to lie at the center listenership, a rich form of action-knowledge of any artistic experience. Understanding that draws upon four other kinds of musical involves a mastery of the productive practices knowing in surrounding and supporting ways. in a domain or discipline, coupled with the Musicianship is context-sensitive, or situated: that capacity to adopt different stances toward the is, (i) the precise nature and content of work, among them the slances of audience musicianship differs from musical practice to member, critic, performer, and maker. (p. 239) practice, and (ii) musicianship develops through progressive musical problem-solving teachinglearning environments designed as close Because all music education programshare the Let me restate these points for emphasis. approximations of real music-cultures. same aims, all music education programs ought to provide the same basic conditions for achieving Although verbal information these aims: (i) authentic musical challenges and contributes to the development of musicianship, (ii) the musicianship to meet these challenges formal musical knowledge is secondary to through competent, proficient and artistic music procedural knowledge in music education. making.whatwill differ between and among music Howard Gardner ('l 990) supports this view when education programs across grade levels, school he argues that in a domain like music, formal regions (and so on) is not the essential content of knowledge (or"talk" about music) is "an ancillary the music curriculum (musicianship), but rather, form of knowledge, not to be taken as a substitute the kinds and levels of musical challenges inherent for'thinking' and'problem solving'in the medium in the curriculum materials chosen for (and, itself " (p.42). Although most children are capable perhaps, with the cooperation of) one's own of grasping considerable amounts of formal students. In addition, music programs will differ in knowledge about musicing and listening, formal the kinds of music making media (e.9., voices, knowledge should not be acquired without integral string instruments, electronic instruments) chosen relationshio to students' active and authentic for (or with) one's students. music making. The special kind of nonverbal knowing-in-action required for artistic music This praxial view of music students holds making is easily overwhelmed by the emphasis across early, middle and secondary school schooling tends to place on verbal knowledge. In programs. Also in concert with Gardner (1990), short, music education programs must not this philosophy holds that the early school years become just one more situation for the are a time when "youngsters are capable of development of verbal knowing-that. Gardner (1990) agrees: '7f mastering techniques and styles;of learning more ls my belief that artistic forms difficult approaches...;and of becoming involved of knowledge and expression are less sequential. in apprentice-type relations, where they can more holistic and organic, than other forms ot acquire various kinds of skill and lore in a more knowing,... and that to attempt to fragment them natural kind of setting" (p. 40). This window of and to break them into separate cancepts or music teaching and learning opportunities must subdisciplines is especially risky." (p.42) not be lost or sacrificed for the sake of listening to recorded music or acquiring formal knowledge. To the extent that histo or recordings come curriculum, the devel the young music make The same ao middle school and sec because older studen with verbal concepts d programs at the secon focus from music maki or listening-based "ap continuing emphasis on through active music me at these ages than a : listening-centered appr lmplicit in th reouirement that all mu in rich and challengi classroom situatio organized as close app oractices. In this kind o learning environmena of musicianshio deve performing, improvis time allows) compos the many cases where of musicing or listen receive an appropria Gardner (19 principles from a dev students learn effectiv by rich and meaningf artistic learning is anch when there is an eas various forms of know have ample opportu progress. (p.49) In regard to e qualifications, there ar knowledge: musician kind of knowledge with To teach music effe possess, embody and This is how childre themselves; not throu actions, transactio musically proficient a imperative to have a themselves'embod expected to teach" (Ga Musiikkikasvatus Vsk. r Nro r 1996 r8

20 To the extenthat historical data, ersatz "activities;' or recordings come to dominate the music curriculum, the development of musicianship in the young music maker will be nipped in the bud. words, musical standards in music teachers beget musical standards in students. Teachers need to embody a concern with high standards; even as they support the efforts of their students, they must help these students The same applies to students at the middle school and secondary school levels. Just because older students may have more facility with verbal concepts does not mean that music bear in mind the importance of care, revision, reflection, discipline, regular self-examination, and sharing reactions with others.... Taken together, such practices can help to bring about a community programs at the secondary level should shift their in which every member cares about qual- focus from music making to historical, theoretical, ity and standards -- the most important catalyst or listening-based "appreciation" programs. A in bringing about such standards. (Gardner, 1991, continuing emphasis on reflective musical practice p. 242) through active music making is still more desirable at these ages than a scholastic approach or a listening-centered approach based on recordings. The second major knowledge component of a music teacher's expertise is what I have already referred to as educatorship. Excellent lmplicit in the above is the basic requirement that all music students be engaged in rich and challenging music-making projects in classroom situations that are deliberately organized as close approximations of real musical practices. In this kind of authentic, action-based teaching is evidence of a distinct form of actionknowledge which, in turn, draws upon several other kinds of educational knowings including formal, informal, impressionistic and supervisory educational knowledge (cf. Elliott, 1995, pp ). learning environment, all the component knowings of musicianship develop naturally in support of performing, improvising and conducting, and (if time allows) composing and arranging. (And in the many cases where moving is an integral part of musicing or listening, movement ought to receive an appropriatemphasis). Clearly, educatorship will not be learned from lectures and textbooks alone. Becoming an excellent music teacher depends heavily on learning to reflect in one's efforts to bring the musicianship of one's students into matching relationship with appropriate musical challenges. And for this to occur, novice music teachers Gardner (1990) reinforces these principles from a developmental perspective: students learn effectively when they are engaged require music education professors who can model musicianship and educatorship through their own vivid examoles. Teacher education by rich and meaningful projects; when their programs ought to be deliberately organized to artistic learning is anchored in artistic production; when there is an easy commerce among the prepare future artist-teachers through excellent models of teaching and artistic musical materials. various forms of knowing...; and when students have ample opportunity to reflect on their progress. (p.49) In conclusion, the music curriculum ought to center on achieving musicalife-values in and through the thoughtful actions of artistic music In regard to each music teacher's own qualifications, there are two required forms of knowledge: musicianship and educatorship. One kind of knowledge withouthe other is insufficient. To teach music effectively, a teacher must possess, embody and exemplify musicianship. This is how children develop musicianship themselves; not through telling, but through their making. In this "praxial" setting, music teachers and students work together to meet the musical challenges involved in authentic musical projects through reflective musical performing with frequent opportunities for related forms of music making. Music listening is directed, first, to the music being made by students themselves. Each musical work that students are learning to interpret actions, transactions and interactions with and perform (improvise, arrange and so on) is musically proficient and expert teachers: "ll ls approached as a "full course meal" --- as a imperative to have a cadre of teachers who multidimensional challenge to be made artistically th emse lve s' e m body' the know I edg e th at th ey are and listened-for intelligently all its relevant expected to teach" (Gardner, '1990, p. 49). In other dimensions (interpretive, structural, expressional FJME Vol. r No r 1996

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