1 Country Visit to Finland, May 1997 by Steinar Larssen 1. Introduction Place and time The meeting was held at the Finnish Environment Institute in Helsinki, 7 May, Participants From Finnish Environment Institute: Mr. Tapani Säynätkari Mr. Gay Söderman (data base responsible) From Finnish Meteorological Institute: Mr. Jaakko Kukkonen Mr. Timo Salmi (data base responsible) From Ministry of Environment: Mrs. Tarja Lahtinen From Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council: Mr. Kari Hämekoski From ETC-AQ: Mr. Steinar Larssen Background The visit was carried out in the context of Task 3 of the work Programme for ETC-AQ of 1996: Development and Maintenance of a European Air Quality Monitoring Network. This network has been given the acronym EUROAIRNET. A first description of EUROAIRNET, its background, objectives and probable contents was given in the Position Paper prepared for the EIONET European Workshop on Air Quality Monitoring and Assessment, in Copenhagen April The points to be covered under the country visits in the context of EUROAIRNET are described in the Guiding Paper for visits to NRCs (of 31 October, 1996), sent to the NRC before the meeting.
2 2. Presentation of the background for EUROAIRNET S. Larssen presented briefly the Work Programme of the Topic Centre on Air Quality, and the background for and the activities so far regarding the establishment of EUROAIRNET. From the following discussion: Finnish environmental law requires municipalities to assess air quality. That requirement has led many municipalities to monitor their pollution levels. About 40 municipalities have (mostly small) monitoring programmes, with a total of 119 mostly urban stations in Finland (more details later). Finland joined the EU two years ago, and has reported to the Commission under the Directive s requirements. No exceedances of present Limit/Guide Values have been measured. Due to the Framework and coming new Daughter Directives, Finland has to go through its monitoring network, and this may lead to changes. Finland has also reported data under the EoI Decision, first time in autumn 1996, when 5-10 stations for each compound was reported (see Annex 1). AIRBADM has been used to enter station data for these stations (by Mr. Salmi, FMI). Based upon this background, a selection of Finnish EUROAIRNET stations can be made in a 2-step process: 1st step : By 1 October, 1997: A first, incomplete selection, including stations which with no doubt should be part of EUROAIRNET. 2nd step : By 31 December, 1997: A (nearly) complete selection, also based upon an evaluation in Finland of the monitoring network as it is now, and the necessary modifications based upon the new Directives. 3. The present monitoring network in Finland The description in the MA 1-2 report (EEA Topic Report 26/1996 Air Quality: Air Pollution Monitoring in Europe - Problems and trends) is nearly correct, based upon a very detailed information in the questionnaire which was returned from Finland for the MA 1-2 report. In Annex 2, an up-to-date overview is presented: - A map with the local networks listed, including compounds measured, - A summary table on station type/zone type (according to EoI nomenclature), no. of sites in each combination, - A list of all stations, with station/zone class.
3 The classification of Finnish stations in the MA 1-2 report is not correct. Except for HIVOLs used for TSP and some of the PM 10 measurements, only monitors are used. 4. City/site/component selection See discussion under point 1. For Finland, it is obvious that we need to include cities with population much less than 250,000 (only Helsinki has more than 250,000). Regarding station classification, an improved and complete station classification scheme has been developed by the Topic Centre, and proposed as a background for classifying and selecting sites for EUROAIRNET. (Note: By 1998 this has been changed, so that the site classification for EUROAIRNET will be the same as for EoI, but with some more specific information to be requested for some station types.) The question of comparing cities/countries based upon data from EUROAIRNET stations was discussed. Such comparisons are often sensitive. For instance, some cities may have several urban background sites, while some cities, like Helsinki, has only one. Regarding traffic sites, they are all special cases, comparisons may be difficult. It was agreed that comparisons must always be followed by comments regarding the representativity of sites, etc. The new station classification scheme will improve this situation. 5. QA/QC procedures There is no legal/legislative framework in Finland at present for requiring certain QA/QC standards or procedures from the municipalities. The EU Directives will now provide that framework. It was believed that the data quality situation in Finland is probably good. Many of the municipalities use one certain consulting company to provide monitoring/data quality services. However, QA/QC procedures need to be established. The Topic Centre/JCR must define the 4 QA/QC levels such that countries can determine at which level they are, and so that they may improve their system to rise to a higher level. 6. Data availability Up until now, the FMI has had the responsibility for collecting and summarizing air quality data in Finland. This responsibility will now be transferred to the Finnish Environmental Institute (FEI) (which is under the Ministry of Environment, while FMI is under the Ministry of Transportation/communication).
4 The national environmental database (including air quality) is under development at FEI. In this connection, the specifications for the Data Input Module for AIRBASE are of interest to FEI. At present, data from the municipalities are collected as ASCII/Excel files at FMI. In general, data are electronically transferred from the monitors to the local databases at the municipalities. They are then transferred, on request, to FMI, who performs visual checks of the time series. With FEI now responsible, regular and systematic data transfer will start during It is not, in principle, a problem to provide data from Finland within the 6 months limit requested by the EEA. Resources will be needed to establish and maintain this regular data flow. 7. Products/assessments from the EEA/ETC-AQ Our present and planned products and assessment reports were presented. The following ideas/proposals/questions were raised: There is a need for low-level cooperation, i.e. cooperation between the local groups in each city, which actually perform the monitoring and primary reporting (raised by Mr. Hämekoski of Helsinki). Could this be established by means of an electronic forum on Internet, which would include: - contact addresses - may be data exchange (special studies, etc.) - abatement actions used in cities - questions. Each city could have a page in this forum, raising issues and presenting their activities. Countries/cities must always be able to comment on our assessments/maps etc., before being published. Will our country visits be regular? There is an interest in later visits from us, when the EUROAIRNET process has come further.
5 ANNEX 1 Stations and data reported under the EoI Decision, Autumn 1996, from Finland. SHORTNET Kunta Mittauspaikka PARAM VUOSI DINT COUNT MEAN MEDIAN P98 MAX VAASA VAASA Maasilta CO H VAASA VAASA Maasilta CO H VAASA VAAASA Maasilta CO H JYVÄSKYLÄ JYVÄSKYLÄ Lyseo CO H YTV HELSINKI Töölö CO H YTV HELSINKI Töölö NO H YTV ESPOO Luukki NO H VAASA VAASA Maasilta NO H VAASA VAASA Maasilta NO H VAASA VAASA Maasilta NO H IMATRA IMATRA Rautionkylä NO H YTV HELSINKI Töölö NO H YTV ESPOO Luukki NO H JYVÄSKYLÄ JYVÄSKYLÄ Lyseo NO H FMI VIROLAHTI Virolahti O H FMI ÄHTÄRI Ähtäri O H FMI LAMMI Evo O H FMI INARI Raja-Jooseppi O H YTV HELSINKI Töölö O H FMI KITTILÄ Pallas O H FMI KORPOO Utö O H FMI KUUSAMO Oulanka O H YTV ESPOO Luukki O H FMI HANKO Tvärminne O H VAASA VAASA Maasilta SO H OULO OULU Nokela SO H VAASA VAASA Maasilta SO H YTV ESPOO Luukki SO H NESTE PORVOON MLK Svartså SO H YTV HELSINKI Töölö SO H JYVÄSKYLÄ JYVÄSKYLÄ Lyseo SO H YTV ESPOO Luukki TSP H IMATRA IMATRA Rautionkylä, Siwa TSP H YTV HELSINKI Vallila TSP H
6 ANNEX 2 Overview of the present (1993) monitoring network in Finland.
7 NRO Network CO NO 2 O 3 SO 2 PM 10 TSP 1 Haapavesi x 2 Hamina x x 3 Hanko x x 4 Harjavalta x x x 5 Hämeenlinna x x x x 6 Imatra, Joutseno, Lappeenranta x x x x x 7 Jyväskylä, Jyväskylän MLK x x x x x 8 Jämsä, Jämsänkoski x x 9 Kajaani x x x x 10 Kemi, Keminmaa x x 11 Kokkola x x x x 12 Kotka x x x x 13 Kouvola, Kuusankoski, Anjalankoski, Valkeala x x x x 14 Kuopio x x x x x 15 Lahti x x x x x 16 Lohja, Lohjan MLK x x x x 17 Neste OY, Porvoon Tuotantolaitokset x x x 18 Oulu x x x x 19 Pori x x x x x 20 Raahe x x x 21 Rauma x x 22 Seinäjoki x x x x 23 Tampere x x x x x x 24 Torno x 25 Turku, Raisio, Naantali x x x x x 26 Vaasa x x x x x 27 Valkeakoski x x x x x 28 Varkaus x x 29 YTV (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa, Kaunianen) x x x x x x
8 ANNEX 2 (contd.) Preliminary site class distribution of the local stations in Finland 1993 for EoI/AIRBASE Type of zone Station type Urban Suburban Rural Sum Traffic Industrial Background Sum
9 keskiviikko ANSWER ANNEX 2 (contd.) SHORTNET Station name Station type Zone type HAAPAVESI Eskolanniemi Industrial Urban HAAPAVESI Teknolagiakylä Industrial Urban HAMINA Haminan satama Traffic Urban HANKO Koverhar OTR Industrial Rural HANKO Metsäkaivot Industrial Rural HANKO Syndalen Industrial Rural HARJAVALTA Kaleva Industrial Urban HARJAVALTA Pirkkalan työkeskus Industrial Suburban HARJAVALTA Torttilan koulu/hiukkaset Industrial Suburban HARJAVALTA Torttilan koulu/so 2 Industrial Suburban HÄMEENLINNA Viipurintie Traffic Urban IMATRA Energialaitos Industrial Urban IMATRA Ihalainen Industrial Suburban IMATRA Mäntylän sairaala Industrial Suburban IMATRA Palolaitos Industrial Urban IMATRA Pelkola Industrial Rural IMATRA Pelkolan tulliasema Industrial Rural IMATRA Pulpin K-lähikauppa Industrial Urban IMATRA Pulpin kirjasto Industrial Urban IMATRA Rautionkylä Industrial Urban IMATRA Rautionkylä, Siwa Industrial Urban IMATRA Sairaala Industrial Urban IMATRA Svetogorsk Industrial Urban IMATRA Tirilä/Pekkasenkatu Industrial Urban JYVÄSKYLÄ Halssilan urheilupuisto Industrial Suburban JYVÄSKYLÄ Keskussairaalantie Traffic Suburban JYVÄSKYLÄ Kortepohja Traffic Suburban JYVÄSKYLÄ Kuokkala Traffic Suburban JYVÄSKYLÄ Lyseo Traffic Urban JYVÄSKYLÄ Palokka Traffic Suburban JÄMSÄ Lääkäritalo Traffic Urban JÄMSÄ Taidetalo Industrial Urban KAAJAANI Keskusta Traffic Urban KAJAANI Pöllyvaara Background Rural KEMI-KEMINMAA Keminmaa Background Suburban KEMI-KEMINMAA Paattio Industrial Suburban KEMI-KEMINMAA Paloasema Industrial Suburban KEMI-KEMINMAA Takajärvi Industrial Suburban KOKKOLA Mesilä Industrial Suburban KOKKOLA Pihlaja Industrial Urban KOKKOLA Sairaala Traffic Suburban KOKKOLA Tehtaankatu, Rosso Traffic Urban KOTKA Hakalanmäki Industrial Suburban KOTKA Karhulan Keskusta Traffic Urban KOTKA Kirjastotalo Traffic Urban KOTKA Sunila Traffic Suburban KOUVOLA Inkeroinen Industrial Urban KOUVOLA Kouvolan keskusta Traffic Urban KOUVOLA Kuusankosken keskusta Industrial Urban KOUVOLA Lappakosken koulo Industrial Rural KOUVOLA Myllykoski Industrial Urban KOUVOLA Ummeljoki Industrial Urban KOUVOLA Valtakatu Traffic Urban KOUVOLA Voikkaan päiväkoti Industrial Urban KUOPIO Itkonniemi Industrial Suburban KUOPIO Kelloniemi Traffic Suburban KUOPIO Keskusta Traffic Urban
10 keskiviikko ANSWER ANNEX 2 (cont). SHORTNET Station name Station type Zone type KUOPIO Petonen Traffic Suburban KUOPIO Särkiniemi Traffic Suburban LAHTI Kisapuisto Industrial Urban LAHTI Metsäkangas Industrial Suburban LAHTI Möysä Traffic Urban LAHTI Tori Traffic Uran LAHTI Vesku 11 Traffic Urban LAHTI Vesku 11 Traffic Urban LOHJA Laurinkatu Traffic Urban LOHJA Virkkalan terveysasema Industrial Urban NESTE Löparö Background Rural NESTE Riemari Industrial Rural NESTE Svartså Industrial Rural OULU Keskusta Traffic Urban OULU Mustasuo Background Rural OULU Nokela Industrial Suburban OULU Pyykösjärvi Industrial Suburban PORI Ahlainen Background Rural PORI Itätulli Traffic Urban PORI Lampaluoto Background Rural PORI Väinölä Industrial Suburban RAAHE Linja-autoasema Traffic Urban RAAHE Varikko Industrial Urban RAAHESTEEL Ollinsaari Industrial Suburban RAAHESTEEL Saloinen Industrial Suburban RAUMA Sinisaari Industrial Urban RAUMA Wännin päiväkoti Traffic Urban ROVANIEMI Korkalonkatu 1 (III-mp) Traffic Urban ROVANIEMI Korkalonkatu 4 (I-mpaik) Traffic Urban ROVANIEMI Tele-asema (V-mpaikka) Background Rural SEINÄJOKI Alakylä Traffic Suburban SEINÄJOKI Vapaudentie Traffic Urban TAMPERE Keskustori, kioski Traffic Urban TAMPERE Keskustori, SO 2 Industrial Urban TAMPERE Lielahti, Isoniemenkatu Industrial Suburban TAMPERE Messukylä Traffic Suburban TAMPERE Raatihuone Traffic Urban TORNIO Pudas Industrial Suburban TURKU Aninkaistenkatu Traffic Urban TURKU Aninkaistenmäki Traffic Urban TURKU Kaanaa Industrial Rural TURKU Karvetti Industrial Urban TURKU Kauppatori Traffic Urban TURKU Raision kaupungintalo Traffic Urban TURKU Ruissalo Industrial Rural TURKU Terveyskeskus Industrial Urban TURKU Varppeenseutu Industrial Urban VAASA Kirkkopuistikko Traffic Urban VAASA Maasilta Traffic Urban VALKEAKOSKI Terveyskeskus, linja 1 Traffic Urban VALKEAKOSKI Terveyskeskus, linja 2 Traffic Urban VALKEAKOSKI Tietolanharju Traffic Urban VALKEAKOSKI Yhteistalo Traffic Urban VARKAUS Kaupungintalo Traffic Urban VARKAUS Pääterveysasema Traffic Urban
11 SHORTNET Station name Station type Zone type YTV Kaisaniemi Traffic Urban YTV Leppävaara Background Suburban YTV Luukki Background Rural YTV Tikkurila Traffic Suburban YTV Tikkurila, Asematie Traffic Urban YTV Töölö Traffic Urban YTV Vallila 1 Traffic Urban YTV Vallila 2 Traffic Urban ANNEX 2 (contd.)